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Historical Background
Office of the Historian
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THE UNITED STATES AND THE GLOBAL COALITION AGAINST TERRORISM, SEPTEMBER 2001-DECEMBER 2003

2001     2002      2003

September 11, 2001: Two hijacked airliners crashed into the World Trade Center Towers in New York City. Thousands were feared dead when the towers collapsed more than an hour after the impacts. A third hijacked airliner crashed into the Pentagon. A fourth, possibly bound for another target in Washington, D.C., crashed in Somerset County, Pennsylvania, apparently after passengers attempted to overpower the hijackers.

The Federal Aviation Administration suspended all air traffic in the United States and diverted international flights to Canada. Federal offices and public buildings in Washington, New York, and other major cities were closed.

President George W. Bush was in Florida at the time of the attacks. He flew first to Barksdale Air Force Base in Louisiana and then to Offutt Air Force Base in Nebraska before returning to the White House. During his first stop, he said: "The resolve of our great nation is being tested. But make no mistake: We will show the world that we will pass this test." That evening, he said that "the full resources of our intelligence and law enforcement communities" would be used to find the terrorists and bring them to justice. "We will make no distinction between the terrorists who committed these acts and those who harbor them.

Secretary of State Colin L. Powell canceled a visit to Colombia and returned from a meeting of the OAS General Assembly in Lima, Peru. Before returning, he said that terrorists "will never be allowed to kill the spirit of democracy. They cannot destroy our society. They cannot destroy our belief in the democratic way."

The North Atlantic Council held a special meeting in which in declared its solidarity with the United States and pledged its support and assistance. The Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council made a similar pledge.

September 12, 2001: President Bush met with his national security advisers and with leading members of Congress. He also telephoned the leaders of Great Britain, Canada, France, Germany, China, and Russia as the first steps toward building an international coalition against terrorism. He called the attacks "acts of war" and announced that he would ask Congress for additional funds to protect the nationís security.

Secretary of State Powell announced that he had authorized U.S. ambassadors to close their missions or suspend operations if they believed the threat level justified it. Twenty-five percent had done so. He had also telephoned the Secretaries-General of the United Nations and NATO and the President of the European Union. He also expected to have active support from "friendly Muslim states" in the fight against terrorism and had spoken to officials in Saudi Arabia and to the Chairman of the Arab League.

The North Atlantic Council invoked Article 5 of the North Atlantic Treaty, thereby considering the terrorist attacks on the United States to be an attack on all member states, and pledged any necessary assistance.

Department of State Spokesman Richard Boucher said during a briefing that the United States would make careful preparations before responding to terrorist attacks. He said that Secretary of State Powell had also called the Foreign Ministers of Israel and the United Kingdom.

The U.S. Congress met to approve a joint resolution pledging support to President Bush in his efforts to find and punish the terrorists.

Both the UN General Assembly and Security Council approved by acclamation resolutions condemning the terrorist attacks on New York and Washington and calling on member states to cooperate to bring the "perpetrators, organizers, and sponsors of the outrages" to justice.

Finance Ministers of the G-7 countries pledged their financial resources to ensure that the terrorist attacks on the United States did not destabilize the world economic community.

President Pervez Musharraf of Pakistan pledged his countryís "unstinted cooperation in the fight against terrorism."

September 13, 2001: President Bush proclaimed September 14 to be a National Day of Prayer and Remembrance and announced plans to visit New York that day. He called on Congress to approve a $20 billion supplemental appropriations bill to provide assistance to victims and their families, relief and recovery efforts, investigations, and precautions against further attacks. During a White House daily briefing, Press Secretary Ari Fleischer said that President Bush would seek a resolution from Congress authorizing the use of military force in retaliation for the attacks on New York and Washington. Fleischer said that Bush had called various foreign leaders, including the Prime Ministers of Japan and Italy, the Secretary-General of NATO, and Crown Prince Abdullah of Saudi Arabia. President Bush later said that he had also talked with the Presidents of Russia and China, and Secretary of State Powell added that the President had spoken to Egyptian President Mubarak and King Abdallah II of Jordan.

President Bush and Attorney-General John Ashcroft urged the American people not to hold Arab-Americans and Muslims responsible for the terrorist attacks and pledged a swift response to violence against them.

Secretary of State Powell told the Public Broadcasting System that the United States was creating an anti-terrorism coalition that sought to include the UN, NATO, the European Union, the OAS, and the Organization of Islamic States. He said that Osama bin Laden was a prime suspect in the terrorist attacks, and noted that Saudi Arabian Ambassador Prince Bandar had said that his government had revoked bin Ladenís citizenship. His contacts with Islamic states included the President of Pakistan and officials in Saudi Arabia and Qatar. Powell said that the U.S. Consul General in Jerusalem had been swamped with calls from Palestinians who were expressing their sympathy and condolences, and disavowing any association with those who had rejoiced at the terrorist attacks.

During a special briefing at the State Department, Powell expressed his sympathy to other nations who had lost citizens in the destruction of the World Trade Center and declared that "terrorism is a crime against all civilization." He said that the United States had provided Pakistan with a list of areas for cooperation, and he intended to discuss that list with President Musharraf. Deputy Secretary of State Richard L. Armitage had already spoken with Pakistani representatives. Powell had also spoken with the Prime Minister and Foreign Minister of Israel, and with Chairman Yasir Arafat in an effort to promote a cease-fire between Israel and the Palestinians.

Deputy Secretary of Defense Paul Wolfowitz said that a response to the terrorist attacks would be a sustained military campaign, "with the full resources of the U.S. Government."

The State Department announced that Deputy Secretary of State Armitage, Assistant Secretary for European and Eurasian Affairs Elizabeth Jones, Assistant Secretary of State for South Asian Affairs Christina Rocca, and Counterterrorism Coordinator Francis Taylor would visit Moscow and Brussels on September 19-20 to discuss cooperation against terrorism. The meeting in Moscow would include a meeting of a bilateral Afghan Working Group.

Secretary of the Treasury Paul OíNeill said that disruptions to the U.S. economy resulting from terrorist attacks would be short-term, and prospects for a recovery remained good. The New York Stock Exchange was to re-open on September 17.

Secretary of Transportation Norman Mineta announced that U.S. airspace would be reopened to commercial air traffic. Airports would re-open on a case-by-case basis under more intense security. The only major airport that remained closed was Reagan National, in view of its proximity to downtown Washington.

The NATO-Russia Permanent Joint Council announced intensified cooperation to defeat terrorism.

September 14, 2001: After attending a memorial service at the Washington National Cathedral, President Bush visited the ruins of the World Trade Center in New York.

President Bush ordered the mobilization of up to 50,000 National Guard and Reserve personnel for port operations, medical and engineer support, and home defense. The Defense Department planned to mobilize 35,000 from all services.

Congress authorized President Bush to use all necessary military force against the perpetrators of the September 11 attacks, their sponsors, and those who protected them. The Senate approved the resolution by a vote of 98-0; the House of Representativesí vote was 420 to 1. The House and Senate also unanimously approved a supplemental spending bill authorizing up to $40 billion for disaster relief, Counterterrorism, and military operations.

Secretary of State Powell enumerated his conversations with his counterparts in North Africa, the Middle East, and South Asia during a press briefing. These included the Foreign Ministers of India, Portugal, Saudi Arabia, Morocco, Tunisia, and Japan. He expected to hear from Israelís Defense Minister and Syriaís Foreign Minister shortly. He also instructed U.S. ambassadors to talk to their foreign colleagues to convey the seriousness with which their government viewed the crisis. The Assistant Secretaries of State for Near Eastern Affairs, European and Eurasian Affairs, and Western Hemisphere Affairs invited foreign ambassadors to the State Department for further discussions. President Assad of Syria had sent President Bush a letter of support. He warned Afghanistanís Taliban government that continued support for bin Laden would have consequences, and also warned that lack of support for the struggle against terrorism could effect U.S. relations with certain countries.

During a visit to Washington to commemorate the 50th anniversary of the ANZUS Treaty, Australian Prime Minister John Howard said that the collective security provision of Article IV applied to the terrorist attacks on the United States.

Parliamentary leaders of the 19 NATO countries endorsed a statement supporting the North Atlantic Councilís pledge of solidarity with the United States.

U.S. Trade Representative Robert Zoellick announced that the World Trade Organization meeting in Qatar would be held in November as scheduled.

September 15, 2001: President Bush met with his national security advisors at Camp David, Maryland. He told reporters: "This act will not stand; we will find those who did it; we will smoke them out of their holes; we will get them running and weíll bring them to justice." He also confirmed that Osama bin Laden was a "prime suspect." Secretary of State Powell praised Pakistanís willingness to cooperate and expressed gratification at worldwide expressions of support. "Dozens of countries lost lives [at the World Trade Center] and they realize that this was an attack against them, as well."

The House of Representatives approved a Concurent Resolution urging that, in the struggle against terrorism, the rights of Arab-Americans and American Muslins, and Americans from South Asia be protected and that acts of violence or discrimination against them would be condemned.

September 16, 2001: After returning to the White House from Camp David, President Bush expressed satisfaction at positive responses from the leaders of Pakistan, India, and Saudi Arabia He warned the American public that "this war on terrorism is going to take a while," and that they must be patient.

Vice President Richard B. Cheney told "Meet the Press" that nations that harbored terrorist groups would "face the full wrath of the United States." He said that no evidence had been found linking Iraq to Osama bin Laden and his al-Qaida organization, and it was not known whether bin Laden was still in Afghanistan. Terrorist attacks would not change U.S. relations with Israel or force a withdrawal from the Middle East.

Secretary of State Powell told "Face the Nation" that Pakistanís President Musharraf had agreed to support the U.S. anti-terrorist campaign. Syria and even Iran had made fairly positive statements. Nothing had been heard from Iraq, but no links had been found between Iraq and bin Laden. Existing sanctions against Iraq would remain in place. Powell later told CNNís Late Edition that the United States would insist that Afghanistanís Taliban government must cooperate with the United States against bin Laden or face the consequences. Saudi Arabia and the Gulf states had been "supportive" and "ready to cooperate."

Secretary of Defense Donald H. Rumsfeld told reporters that the campaign against terrorism would be a years-long international effort. He hinted that countries that harbored terrorism could face a U.S. military response.

September 17, 2001: President Bush addressed Pentagon employees and discussed the employment of mobilized Reserves and National Guards. When he pledged to find "those evil-doers," he reminded his audience of the posters in the Old West that said: "Wanted, dead or alive." In the afternoon, he addressed Muslim community leaders at the Washington Islamic Center and told them: "The face of terror is not the true faith of Islam. . . . Islam is peace. These terrorists donít represent peace. They represent evil and war." He urged Americans to treat their Muslim neighbors with respect.

Secretary of State Powell expressed satisfaction with U.S. progress toward assembling an anti-terrorist coalition. His most recent conversations had been with President Salih of Yemen and Foreign Minister George Papandreou of Greece. Powell urged the people of Afghanistan not to "put their society at risk" by harboring bin Laden and the al-Qaida organization.

The State Department issued a travel warning for Pakistan and authorized the departure of non-essential diplomatic and consular personnel and their families.

The World Bank and the International Monetary Fund announced the cancellation of their annual meetings scheduled for September 29-30 in Washington.

The White House announced that French President Jacques Chirac would make a working visit on September 18, and that British Prime Minister Tony Blair would do so on September 20. The Amir of Qatar would make a working visit on October 4. Both visits were part of the U.S. effort to build an international coalition against terrorism. President Bushís most recent conversation had been with the President of the United Arab Emirates.

The Treasury Department announced that it would form an interagency Foreign Terrorist Asset Tracking Center to identify foreign terrorist groups and their sources of finance.

September 18, 2001: The White House announced that President Bush had conversed with the Secretary-General of the United Nations, the President of Brazil, and the Prime Minister of Canada. Later in the day, Bush met with French President Jacques Chirac, who expressed "total solidarity" with the United States although expressing doubt as to the appropriateness of the term "war." Bush also signed into law the Congressional resolution authorizing the use of force to respond to terrorist attacks and the $40 billion emergency appropriation bill.

Secretary of State Powell met with South Korean Foreign Minister Han Seung-Soo and expressed thanks for his countryís support. Powell said that the death toll at the World Trade Center included citizens of 62 nations. He later attended the swearing-in of John D. Negroponte as U.S. Permanent Representative to the United Nations. Negroponte presented his credentials to Secretary-General Kofi Annan the next day.

Deputy Secretary of State Armitage, Assistant Secretary of State Jones, and Coordinator for Counterterrorism Francis Taylor met with Russian officials in Moscow to discuss measures to be taken against terrorists based in Afghanistan.

Secretary of Defense Rumsfeld said that the United States was "moving in a measured manner" in "a very new type of conflict." The al-Qaida network might have connections in 50 to 60 countries, which made a "very broadly based campaign" necessary.

At the United Nations, Ambassador A. G. Ravan Farhadi said that the Islamic State of Afghanistan, which opposed the Talibanís government, was willing to cooperate against the United States in the hunt for Osama bin Laden. The Security Council, meanwhile, issued a statement demanding that the Taliban comply with an existing Security Council Resolution (UNSCR 1333 of December 19, 2000) and surrender bin Laden to appropriate authorities and close terrorist training camps. The UN also announced that it was indefinitely postponing the ceremonial opening of the General Assembly.

In Afghanistan, Taliban leader Mohammad Omar refused a Pakistani demand to surrender Osama bin Laden, and called a meeting of Muslim clerics to decide his fate. As Taliban leaders urged their countrymen to prepare for a holy war with the United States, thousands fled Afghan cities and Pakistan attempted to close its border to stem the flood of refugees.

September 19, 2001: President Bush and Secretary of State Powell met with Indonesian President Megawati Sukarnoputri, Russian Foreign Minister Igor Ivanov, and German Foreign Minister Joschka Fischer. Ivanov said that Russia would not object to U.S. efforts to enlist former Soviet republics in Central Asia for the campaign against bin Laden. President Bush planned to address a joint meeting of Congress on September 20 to outline his plans for diplomatic and military action.

U.S. military preparations for "Operation Infinite Justice" (the Defense Department quietly shelved this name as potentially offensive to Muslims) began as the Air Force began deploying fighters and bombers to Saudi Arabia, Oman, Kuwait, and Diego Garcia Island. Some would operate from the former Soviet Republics of Tajikistan and Uzbekistan. A fourteen-ship Navy task force led by the aircraft carrier U.S.S. Theodore Roosevelt left Norfolk, Virginia for the Persian Gulf. A Marine Amphibious Ready Group was to leave Camp Lejeune, North Carolina, for the Mediterranean on September 20.

In Pakistan, President Musharraf told his people that his country faced "very grave consequences" if it did not cooperate with the United States in the campaign against terrorism.

Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi said that Japanís Self-Defense Forces would assist U.S. armed forces by collecting intelligence and providing logistical support.

The Organization of American States agreed to activate the 1947 Inter-American Treaty of Reciprocal Assistance (Rio Treaty). It also scheduled a meeting of foreign ministers of member states for September 21 to discuss possible measurers against terrorism.

September 20, 2001: President Bush addressed a joint session of Congress, proclaimed that "freedom and fear are at war," and warned the Taliban to hand over bin Laden and all other al-Qaida leaders, free its prisoners, and close its terrorist training camps or face the consequences. He talked of a long campaign against terrorism and warned all countries that they would be regarded as hostile regimes if they continued to support terrorism. Bush announced the establishment of a Cabinet-level Office of Homeland Security, and nominated Governor Tom Ridge of Pennsylvania as Director.

British Prime Minister Tony Blair met with President Bush and pledged to stand "shoulder to shoulder" in the conflict against terrorism. Saudi Foreign Minister Prince Saud promised support, while hoping that the Taliban would hand over bin Laden and that military actions would not create "an unbridgeable gap" between Islam and the West. Chinese Foreign Minister Tang Jiaxuan met with Vice President Cheney. Secretary of State Powell met with EU President Louis Michel.

Secretary of State Powell told Fox News that citizens of 80 nations were among the victims at the World Trade Center, and that "the world is coming together." He did not rule out the possibility of cooperation with Syria or Iran, pointing out that there were many ways to participate in the coalition.

The United Nations announced that the General Assembly would hold a special session on terrorism October 1. Secretary-General Annan hoped that the session would lead to a convention against terrorism.

The United States and the European Union issued a joint ministerial statement on combating terrorism.

After a two-day meeting, a council of Islamic religious leaders in Kabul urged bin Laden to leave Afghanistan. They set no deadline for his departure, and promised a jihad in reply to any U.S. military action. Secretary of State Powell said that the United States wanted action, not statements, concerning bin Laden.

September 21, 2001: In Pakistan, at least two persons died amid large-scale demonstrations against the governmentís support for the U.S. anti-terrorism campaign. Abdul Salaam Zaeef, the Talibanís ambassador to Pakistan, said that bin Laden would not be given up without evidence linking him to the attacks. White House Spokesman Fleischer was unimpressed, stating that: "there will be no negotiations and no discussions. The war preparations continue."

President Bush telephoned the Presidents of Turkey and Nigeria and the Sultan of Oman before traveling to Camp David for the weekend.

Secretary of State Powell met with Chinese Foreign Minister Tang Jiaxuan, who promised non-military cooperation and the sharing of intelligence with the United States. Powell also met with Canadian Foreign Minister John Manley, who promised support, but warned of the adverse economic effects of tightening border controls. Manley said that his government had found no evidence that any of the hijackers had entered the United States by way of Canada.

September 22, 2001: While spending the weekend at Camp David, President Bush assured the public that the U.S. economy was "fundamentally strong." He also mentioned discussions that he had had with Russian President Vladimir Putin and announced that he was waiving sanctions that Congress had imposed on India and Pakistan after their 1998 nuclear tests.

The Defense Department announced the mobilization of over 5,000 additional Air National Guard and Air Force Reserve personnel, for a total of 10, 303. It declined to comment on Taliban reports that a remotely-piloted vehicle had been shot down over Afghanistan (it admitted that one had failed to return the next day).

In Afghanistan, fighting began between the Northern Alliance and the Taliban.

September 23, 2001: After the Taliban claimed that bin Laden had disappeared, Secretary of State Powell urged it to "come to its senses" and give him up. Powell said that the Bush Administration planned to publish evidence linking bin Laden to the terrorist attacks on Washington and New York, as well as to earlier attacks on the U.S. Embassies in Kenya and Tanzania and on the U.S.S. Cole. There would also be a secret report.

In Jiddah, the Foreign Ministers of the Gulf Cooperation Council states condemned the terrorist attacks on the United States and promised "total support and cooperation."

Russian President Putin contacted the leaders of five former Soviet Central Asian republics. Meanwhile there were unconfirmed reports of U.S. military transport planes landing at Tashkent, Uzbekistan.

National Security Adviser Condoleezza Rice said that the United States, not the UN, would be in charge of military actions against terrorists. The United States did not rule out the possibility of cooperating with Iran and Syria, both of which had been designated as states sponsoring terrorism.

Secretary of Defense Rumsfeld hinted that the United States was seeking the cooperation of opposition groups within Afghanistan, and even that of dissident factions among the Taliban.

The Federal Aviation Administration grounded all crop-dusting flights in the United States for a day in view of a report that one suspected hijacker had asked questions about the performance of crop-dusting planes.

September 24, 2001: President Bush signed an Executive Order freezing tha assets of 27 organizations and persons known to be linked to al-Qaida and suspected of funding terrorism. He called on foreign banks to follow his example or have their U.S. assets frozen.

Bush also met with Canadian Prime Minister Jean Chretien and thanked him for sheltering diverted international flights.

Secretary of State Powell said that the United States had "an abundance of evidence" linking bin Laden to the terrorist attacks, but set no date for releasing unclassified information.

The House of Representatives approved U.S. payment of $852 million in back UN dues by a voice vote. An amendment intended to protect U.S. military personnel from the International Criminal Court was deleted.

The Senate approved a trade agreement with Jordan by a voice vote.

President Putin announced the opening of Russian air space to humanitarian flights and more aid to Afghan groups opposing the Taliban. He did not rule out U.S. use of air bases in the former Soviet Central Asian republics, but also called for a broader role for the UN and other international organizations in the fight against terrorism.

Vatican spokesman Joaquin Navarro-Valls said that although non-violent solutions were preferred, and that military actions should be directed against terrorists rather than against Islam, Pope John Paul II recognized the right of the United States to use force in self-defense.

September 25, 2001: President Bush met with Japanese Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi, who offered non-military support. Bush said that although one way to "rout terrorists" might be "to ask for the cooperation of citizens within Afghanistan who may be tired of having the Taliban in place." However, he denied any interest in "nation-building" and Press Secretary Fleischer denied that military actions were "designed to replace one regime with another."

The White House announced that President Bush would limit his first trip to Asia as President to attending the APEC summit meeting in Shanghai on October 20-21. Visits to Beijing, Tokyo, and Seoul would be postponed.

Secretary of Defense Rumsfeld described the U.S. war on terrorism as an "unusual conflict that cannot be dealt with by some sort of massive attack or invasion." The campaign would be called "Operation Enduring Freedom," to suggest that it would take a long time to achieve its goals. It might involve "revolving coalitions" since international support for specific U.S. military actions against terrorists might be selective. He and Secretary of State Powell later gave a two-hour, top-secret briefing to members of Congress, including 90 Senators.

Secretary of State Powell met with Italian Foreign Minister Renato Ruggiero.

The Saudi Arabian Government broke diplomatic relations with the Taliban.

Russian Defense Minister Sergei Ivanov said that the United States could use bases in Tajikistan to attack targets in Afghanistan "if the need arises."

Pakistani Foreign Minister Abdus Sattar warned against supporting opponents of the Taliban in order to impose a government on Afghanistan.

During an interview on the French television network France 3, Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak said that bin Laden had threatened to assassinate President Bush during the G-8 Summit Meeting in Genoa.

September 26, 2001: During a meeting of NATO Defense Ministers in Brussels, Deputy Secretary of Defense Paul D. Wolfowitz said that no military actions against terrorists were likely until more information had been collected. At present, NATO allies could be most helpful by sharing intelligence information and helping to trace the financial assets of terrorist groups. NATO Secretary-General George Robertson said that evidence had been collected linking bin Laden and al-Qaida to the attacks on Washington and New York. Russian Defense Minister Ivanov also attended the meeting.

Egyptian Foreign Minister Ahmed Maher met with President Bush and Secretary of State Powell, and said that Egypt would require more proof of bin Ladenís role in terrorist attacks before endorsing U.S. military actions. Powell also met with Irish Foreign Minister Brian Cowen.

Iranís spiritual leader Ayatollah Ali Khameini said that his country would not join the U.S. coalition against terrorism, stating that the United States was "not sincere enough" to lead such a campaign in view of its continued support for Israel.

In Kabul, a mob sacked the former U.S. Embassy compound, which had been abandoned in 1989. In Pakistan, the U.S. consulate in Lahore was closed for security reasons.

September 27, 2001: Turkish Foreign Minister Ismail Cem met with Secretary of State Powell and pledged his countryís support to the war on terrorism.

U.S. and Pakistani military officers concluded a meeting about the situation in Afghanistan. A Pakistani spokesman said there had been a "complete unanimity of views," but without giving details.

Also in Pakistan, the Talibanís Ambassador said that a message had been delivered to bin Laden asking him to leave Afghanistan.

At the UN, Secretary-General Annan sought $584 million in emergency aid for Afghanistan. The United States sought support for a Security Council draft resolution calling for freezing the assets of terrorist groups, and for closer international cooperation against terrorism.

After anti-American demonstrations in Jakarta, the State Department authorized the voluntary departure of family members and non-essential personnel from the Embassy in Indonesia.

September 28, 2001: King Abdullah II of Jordan met with President Bush, who signed a U.S.-Jordan free trade agreement, assured the King "that our war is against evil, not against Islam," praised Jordanian and Saudi cooperation, and pledged $25 million in aid to Afghan refugees.

President Bush also spoke with the leaders of Australia and the Philippines. Spanish Foreign Minister Josep Pique met with Secretary of State Powell.

The UN Security Council unanimously adopted a U.S.-sponsored resolution calling on member states to end financial, political, and military connections with terrorist groups, and to freeze their assets. Member states would report every 90 days to a 15-member compliance council. The United States abstained as the rest of the Security Council voted to lift economic sanctions imposed on Sudan in 1996 following an assassination attempt against Egyptian President Mubarak. Deputy Representative James Cunningham cited Sudanís recent cooperation against terrorism.

In Afghanistan, the Talabin turned away a delegation of nine Pakistani religious leaders who sought bin Ladenís extradition.

September 29, 2001: President Bush spent the weekend at Camp David, where he videoconferenced with the NSC. In his weekly radio address, he spoke of "a different kind of war," adding that the United States condemned the Taliban and welcomed the support of others in isolating it. He announced that retired Army General Wayne Downing would be called on to join the NSC as a special assistant on terrorism. Gen. Downing had criticized U.S. security lapses following the June 1996 bombing of the Khobar Towers barracks in Saudi Arabia.

The NSC and the State Department prepared an "Afghanistan Declaratory Policy" that called for an international effort to stabilize the country and to assist those who sought to make it peaceful, developed, and terrorist-free should the Taliban be removed from power.

Approximately 4,500 protesters marched through downtown Washington to protest future U.S. military actions. They had originally planned to protest the World Bank and IMF meetings. Eleven were arrested.

Under Secretary of State for Arms Control and International Security Affairs John R. Bolton discussed anti-terrorism with Russian Deputy Foreign minister Georgii Mamedov in Moscow. Bolton had previously visited Uzbekistan.

September 30, 2001: Administration officials announced that $100 million had been authorized for the relief of Afghan refugees, and that a covert program of support for opposition groups in Afghanistan had been approved.

On various Sunday television news programs, Secretary of Defense Rumsfeld, Attorney General Ashcroft, and White House Chief of Staff Andrew H. Card, Jr. warned that terrorist groups eventually might attack the United States with chemical or biological weapons.

Mohammad Zahir Shah, former King of Afghanistan, met with leaders of the Northern Alliance and with an 11-member U.S. congressional delegation in Rome. The King had no interest in restoring the monarchy, but had proposed that he might convene a loya jirgah, or national assembly, to form a new government.

In London, Prime Minister Tony Blair said that he had seen "incontrovertible evidence" linking bin Laden to terrorist attacks on the United States. Chancellor of the Exchequer Gordon Brown announced that Great Britain had frozen $88 million worth of Taliban assets in a London-based bank.

October 1, 2001: In an address to FEMA employees, President Bush said that: 27 countries had granted overflight and landing rights to U.S. forces, 29,000 military personnel had been deployed overseas, 19 countries had agreed to freeze terrorist assets, $6 million in assets had been frozen in 50 bank accounts (including 20 foreign accounts), 241 threats had been analyzed by the Justice Department, and 150 persons in over 25 countries had been arrested or detained. He also announced the arrest of a Pakistani who had taken part in a 1986 hijacking in which two Americans had been killed.

New York Mayor Rudolph W. Giuliani addressed a special UN General Assembly meeting on terrorism and called on member states to decide whether they were "with civilization or with terrorism."

The Defense Department announced that the aircraft carrier U.S.S. Kitty Hawk would leave Yokosuka, Japan, for the Persian Gulf, where it might serve as a mobile base for ground troops. It also announced that 3,427 more National Guard and Reserve personnel had been activated, for a total of over 20,000.

In Pakistan, President Musharraf told the BBC that he expected that the United States would soon attack the Taliban, and predicted a quick end to the Talibanís rule.

In Rome, former King Mohammad Zahir Shah and Northern Alliance representatives agreed to convene a "Supreme Council" to which 120 Afghan political leaders would be invited. This would be a first step toward convening a "Grand Assembly" to form a new government for Afghanistan.

October 2, 2001: President Bush met with Congressional leaders, and warned that "there will be a consequence" if the Taliban did not surrender bin Laden and destroy his terrorism network. He also announced that Reagan National Airport would re-open the next day under stricter security procedures. Aircraft needed for resumption of service began arriving on the 3rd; flights began on the 4th.

Secretary of Defense Rumsfeld ordered the deployment of U.S. forces to Uzbekistan and Tajikistan. He then departed for the Middle East, where he planned to visit Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Oman, and Uzbekistan. Earlier in the day, he met with Indian Foreign and Defense Minister Jaswant Singh. The Defense Department later denied a report that 1,000 soldiers from the 10th Mountain Division had deployed to Tajikistan and Uzbekistan; the unit had only been placed on alert.

Greek Foreign Minister George Papandreou met with National Security Adviser Rice.

British Prime Minister Blair warned the Taliban to "surrender the terrorists or surrender power" when he addressed a Labor Party conference in Brighton. He warned that British forces were within striking distance of Afghanistan as part of routine military exercises with Oman.

After a briefing by Coordinator for Counterterrorism Francis X. Taylor, NATO Secretary-General Robertson said that the United States had provided "clear and compelling" evidence of bin Ladenís role in the terrorist attacks. As a result of the briefing, NATO concluded that the attacks were directed from abroad and will "therefore be regarded as an action covered by Article 5 of the Washington Treaty, which states that an armed attack on one or more of the allies in Europe or North America shall be considered an attack against them all." NATO was therefore prepared to provide unconditional support for U.S. military actions.

October 3, 2001: Secretary of Defense Rumsfeld visited Saudi Arabia, where he met with King Fahd, Crown Prince Abdullah, and Defense Minister Prince Sultan. He declined to comment on whether permission had been given for U.S. forces to use Saudi bases for anti-terrorist missions.

Secretary of State Powell lunched with members of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee and discussed humanitarian aid to Afghanistan (Senator Joseph R. Biden, Jr. called for a pledge of $1 billion) and removal of remaining sanctions against Pakistan (Senator Sam Brownback had introduced a bill to that effect). Powell also met with the Emir of Qatar and the Foreign Minister of Portugal.

Assistant Secretary of State William J. Burns met with British and Libyan officials in London in the hope of inducing Libya to sever its terrorist connections.

U.S. officials briefed Pakistani officials on bin Ladenís role in the terrorist attacks.

Russian President Putin visited Brussels, and said that his country would hold monthly meetings with EU officials about Counterterrorism. He claimed that bin Laden had been aiding Chechen rebels. He also said that Russia would reconsider its opposition to the expansion of NATO if it was consulted

Northern Alliance Foreign Minister Abdullah Abdullah said that Afghan opposition groups had met regularly with U.S. officials outside Afghanistan. He expressed willingness to meet with Rumsfeld in Uzbekistan.

October 4, 2001: In a speech at the State Department, President Bush announced an additional $320 million in humanitarian aid to Afghanistan. He said the coalition against terrorism was strong since it was not a religious war but "a war between good and evil." Bush later visited the Labor Department, where he announced an extended program of unemployment benefits for those who had lost their jobs as a result of the terrorist attacks.

President Bush also met with Emir Sheik Hamad Bin Khalifa Thani of Qatar, who said that Arab governments would need more proof of bin Ladenís role before supporting military actions against him. He also warned against attacks on targets that had no definite links to terrorism, or against groups engaged in resistance to Israel.

Bush also met with President Vicente Fox and discussed security concerns along the U.S.-Mexican border.

National Security Adviser Rice talked of an extensive U.S. contribution to "the reconstruction of Afghanistan" once the Taliban had been replaced by a more representative government.

Richard Haass, Director of Policy Planning, met with former King Mohammad Zahir Khan in Rome.

British Prime Minister Blair told Parliament about the U.S. case against bin Laden and his followers, stating that the evidence against them was "overwhelming." The British Government released an 18-page summary of the evidence.

In Pakistan, Foreign ministry spokesman Riaz Muhammad Khan said that the evidence shown to his government "provided sufficient basis for indictment" of bin Laden.

After Secretary of Defense Rumsfeld visited Oman, the Defense Department announced that the United States would sell 12 F-16s with precision-guided weapons to Oman. Rumsfeld then went to Cairo to discuss Egyptís role in the anti-terrorist coalition. He said that relief supplies might be air-dropped into Afghanistan.

NATO announced that it would grant to U.S. forces unlimited access to member statesí airspace, ports, air bases, and refueling facilities. Naval maneuvers were scheduled in the Eastern Mediterranean. Financial aid would be offered to states facing additional terrorist threats. NATO would also replace U.S. peacekeeping forces in the Balkans if necessary.

Japan announced that it would provide $160 million in aid to Afghan refugees, and would use Self-Defense Force aircraft to transport relief supplies. Prime Minister Koizumi planned to visit South Korea and Japan to reassure them about his countryís peaceful intentions.

October 5, 2001: After a visit by Secretary of Defense Rumsfeld, Uzbekistan offered to allow U.S. forces to conduct humanitarian and combat search-and-rescue missions from its bases. President Islam Karimov was not yet ready to allow attacks on Taliban forces to be launched from Uzbekistan. A reinforced battalion from the 10th Mountain Division arrived in Uzbekistan the next day.

While returning from Central Asia, Rumsfeld visited Ankara, where he met with Prime Minister Bulent Ecevit and senior Turkish officials, and thanked Turkey for its assitance to the anti-terrorist campaign.

The State Department issued its biennal list of groups designated by the Secretary of State as foreign terrorist organizations. Hamas, Hizbollah, al-Qaida, the Egyptian Islamic Jihad, and the Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan are among the 28 groups currently designated.

The Japanese Government introduced bills to allow its Self-Defense Forces to ferry ammunition and operate field hospitals overseas. Personnel could carry weapons for self-defense during operations outside the immediate area of Japan. These emergency measures would last for two years. Relief flights to Pakistan began the next day.

British Prime Minister Blair visited Pakistan. He and President Musharraf agreed that any post-Taliban government in Afghanistan must be "broad-based."

October 6, 2001: In his weekly radio address, President Bush warned the Taliban that "time was running out" unless they gave up terrorist suspects. White House spokesperson Claire Buchan dismissed a Taliban offer to free 8 jailed aid workers (two were Americans) in return for an agreement not to use force. Bush also urged Congress to make funds available for the postwar reconstruction of Afghanistan.

G-7 finance ministers and central bank presidents met in Washington to promote economic recovery and to devise means for tracking terrorist assets. They scheduled a meeting of the Financial Action Task Force for October 29-30.

In Geneva, the UN-sponsored Afghan Forum pledged $608 million in humanitarian aid.

A bomb explosion in Khobar, Saudi Arabia killed two persons and wounded four. One of the dead was an American. There was no clear connection to bin Laden.

October 7, 2001: U.S. and British forces attacked Taliban military targets throughout Afghanistan with bombers and cruise missiles. The thirty targets included airfields, air defense systems, terrorist training camps, and troop concentrations facing Northern Alliance forces. President Bush announced the strikes from the White House Treaty Room at 1 p.m. Eastern Time, and said that he had consulted with Congressional leaders the day before. He said that over 40 countries had provided air transit or landing rights and that even more had shared information. Canada, Britain, Australia, France, and Germany had pledged military support.

Secretary of Defense Rumsfeld and Gen. Richard B. Myers, Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, added that relief supplies would be air-dropped into Afghanistan, and that there would be radio broadcasts and leaflet drops to encourage defections from the Taliban. Rumsfeld spoke of cooperation with the Northern Alliance, and Gen. Myers hinted that covert operations were in progress in Afghanistan.

Bin Laden, meanwhile, issued a taped broadcast in which he urged Muslims to join in a jihad against the United States and vowed that "neither America nor the people who live in it will dream of security before we live it in Palestine, and not before all the infidel armies leave the land of Muhammad."

The State Department announced a "worldwide caution," warning Americans overseas of possible retaliatory attacks. The U.S. Embassy in Saudi Arabia was closed.

October 8, 2001: U.S. forces continued their attacks on Taliban targets in Afghanistan, with some being conducted by day. Secretary of Defense Rumsfeld said progress had been made, but warned against the "mistaken understanding that some sort of cruise missile" could defeat terrorism. Military operations would continue until "the terrorist networks are destroyed" and the Taliban had been overthrown. An additional 1,000 soldiers from the 10th Mountain Division were scheduled to deploy to Uzbekistan.

The Government of Tajikistan opened its air space to U.S. forces and offered to make its airfields available for operations against terrorism.

President Bush warned of a "long war" in which "America is not immune to attack." He then signed an Executive Order establishing the Office of Homeland Security. Governor Tom Ridge was then sworn in as its Director. The President also phoned the Prime Minister of New Zealand and the Presidents of China and South Korea.

At the UN, Ambassador Negroponte presented a letter to the Security Council stating that the attacks in Afghanistan were acts of self-defense under Article 51 of the UN Charter. The letter added: "We may find that our self-defense requires further action with respect to other organizations and other states." British Foreign Secretary Jack Straw, however, suggested that the United States and Great Britain had agreed to limit military operations to Afghanistan.

The United States did not contest the UN General Assemblyís election of Syria to a two-year term on the Security Council.

The UNís World Food Program announced that it would suspend food distributions in Afghanistan until the bombing campaign ended.

NATO announced that five of its AWACS aircraft would patrol the east coast of the United States. Canada announced that it would commit 2,000 military personnel, 6, warships, and 6 aircraft to the campaign. Australia offered 1,000 troops. France offered the use of its naval forces in the Indian Ocean, and said that French intelligence agents were in contact with the Northern Alliance.

In Pakistan, rioters burned UN and foreign relief offices, police stations, and movie theaters in Quetta to protest the attacks in Afghanistan. President Musharraf told reporters that he "was very positive the vast majority of Pakistanis are with me," but hoped that the campaign would be short and warned that his country had only limited ability to accept Afghan refugees.

The Palestinian Authority condemned the terrorist attacks on the United States. However, there was widespread rioting in the Gaza Strip, where at least two persons were killed as Palestinian security forces fired on demonstrators sympathetic to bin Laden. The Palestinian Authority then declared a state of emergency.

Japanese Prime Minister Koizumi met with Chinese President Jiang Zemin in Beijing. He found Zemin to be "understanding" of Japanís support for the U.S. anti-terrorism campaign and privately supportive of the campaign itself. Koizumi also visited a museum dedicated to Chinese resistance to Japan before and during World War II, where he delivered a "heartfelt apology" for his countryís past aggression.

October 9, 2001: As the air campaign continued in Afghanistan, Secretary of Defense Rumsfeld hinted that direct air support might be provided to the Northern Alliance and other opponents of the Taliban. Gen. Myers reported that U.S. forces had achieved "air supremacy over Afghanistan."

President Bush met with German Chancellor Gerhard Schroeder, and urged the public to "feel comfortable going about their lives." He announced the appointments of Richard A. Clarke to be a special adviser for cyber-security, and of retired Gen. Wayne A. Downing as deputy national security adviser for combating terrorism.

At the UN, Ambassador Negroponte presented a letter to his Iraqi counterpart, Mohammed Douri, warning him that if Iraq aided the Taliban, used weapons of mass destruction, or cracked down on its opposition groups, "There will be a military strike against you and you will be defeated."

The UN Coordinator for Humanitarian Affairs in Afghanistan reported that four civilian guards working for a land mine removal group called Afghan Technical Consultants had been killed by a bomb or missile near Kabul.

Egyptian President Mubarak expressed his support for the U.S. campaign against terrorism, but urged the United States to avoid causing civilian casualties and to promote a Palestinian state.

Foreign Ministers of 22 Arab countries met at Doha, Qatar, on the eve of a meeting of the Organization of the Islamic Conference. They reportedly sought to minimize the chance that Arab states might become targets in the war against terrorism, and to exclude groups fighting for "national liberation" from any definition of terrorism.

Qatarís Al-Jazeera network broadcast a videotape in which bin Laden aide Suleiman Abou-Gheith threatened further hijackings and attacks by "thousands of young people who look forward to death like the Americans look forward to living."

October 10, 2001: President Bush held a press conference at the FBIís headquarters and released a list of 22 "Most Wanted Terrorists" who were linked to events as far back as the 1985 hijacking of TWA Flight 847. The list included Osama bin Laden and 12 members of al-Qaida. The State Department offered rewards of up to $5 million for information leading to their capture.

President Bush also met with NATO Secretary General George Robertson and thanked him for NATOís cooperation in the campaign against terrorism. The deployment of five NATO AWACS aircraft was the first time that NATO had come to the defense of the United States.

The air campaign in Afghanistan concentrated on targets around Kabul and Kandahar. The Defense Department announced that Pakistan had allowed U.S. forces to operate from air bases at Pasni and Jacobabad. The first U.S. fatality occurred when member Air Force Master Sergeant Evander Earl Andrews was killed in a forklift accident in Qatar.

State Department Spokesman Richard A. Boucher said that terrorist suspects had been arrested or detained in 23 countries: 10 in Europe, 7 in the Middle East, 4 in Africa, and 1 each in Latin America and East Asia. Steps had been taken against terrorist financial assets in 112 countries. U.S. Embassies had been ordered to stockpile at least a three-day supply of ciprofloxacin in the event of an anthrax attack.

National Security Adviser Rice contacted the executives of 5 television networks and urged them not to broadcast taped messages by bin Laden and his colleagues. They agreed to review and edit such messages in advance. White House spokesman Fleischer said that the messages might contain coded messages to terrorists in the United States. Taliban leader Muhammad Omar, meanwhile, urged "every Muslim [to] resolutely act against the egotistic power."

The Northern Alliance agreed not to attack Taliban forces outside Kabul until an interim government had been established for Afghanistan.

In Doha, the Organization for the Islamic Conference expressed concern about "deaths of innocent civilians" in Afghanistan. It called the September 11 attacks "opposed to the tolerant and divine message of Islam," and opposed attacks on "Islamic or Arab state[s] under the pretext of fighting terrorism." It urged the United Nations to lead future anti-terrorist campaigns and that terrorism be defined so as to exclude Palestinian and Lebanese groups fighting Israel.

October 11, 2001: President Bush held his first prime-time news conference. He told the Taliban that they still had a second chance; if they gave up bin Laden and his followers, "weíll reconsider what weíre doing to your country." He also said that the United States was prepared to help the UN establish a stable and representative Afghan government that would be involved in neither terrorism nor the drug trade. The United States would support a Palestinian state if it recognized Israelís right to exist and was prepared to live in peace with Israel. Bush was prepared to meet with Yasir Arafat if he believed that it would promote peace. Bush urged Saddam Hussein to allow UN inspectors to return to Iraq, and was conciliatory toward Syria. He also urged each American child to contribute one dollar for the relief of Afghan children.

The FBI said that terrorist attacks on the United States and/or U.S. interests were likely "over the next several days."

Secretary of Defense Rumsfeld said that the U.S. air campaign was now targeting cave complexes with laser-guided "bunker buster" bombs. In response to Taliban claims of up to 300 civilian deaths, he regretted any "unintended loss of life." Major General Henry P. Osman said that U.S. forces had refrained from directly coordinating air strikes with the Northern Alliance.

Deputy Secretary of State Armitage said that the United States was campaigning against all groups that threatened its interests or those of its allies. Consequences to states that supported terrorists might range from isolation to military action.

October 12, 2001: Vice President Cheney told PBS that "The U.S. homeland now is open to attack in ways that weíve only speculated about before."

The Treasury Department ordered a freeze on the assets of 39 more people and organizations, most of them linked to bin Laden.

The air campaign over Afghanistan slackened in deference to the Friday Muslim Sabbath. In Pakistan, there was rioting in Karachi, but demonstrations elsewhere were smaller and more peaceful.

The United States and Uzbekistan issued a joint statement about consultation on security matters.

Canadian Transportation Secretary David Collenette announced that armed members of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police would travel aboard Air Canada flights to Reagan National Airport.

NATO AWACS aircraft began patrols off the East Coast of the United States.

Philippines Defense Secretary Angelo Reyes said that U.S. military advisers would assist his countryís campaign against the Abu Sayyaf Muslim rebels in the southern islands. Abu Sayyaf was linked to al-Qaida, had executed one American and was holding two more as hostages.

October 13, 2001: As the air campaign resumed, President Bush held a video conference with the NSC at Camp David. In his weekly radio address, he said that the Taliban was "paying a price" for harboring bin Laden.

Al-Qaida spokesman Suleiman Abou-Gheith broadcast another vow of vengeance over Al-Jazeera, in which he warned Muslims in countries attacking Afghanistan to stay away from airplanes and tall buildings.

The Defense Department admitted that a bomb aimed at the Kabul airport had hit a residential area by mistake. It could not confirm Taliban reports of civilian casualties.

The Gulf Cooperation Council states agreed to freeze the assets of persons and groups connected to bin Laden.

October 14, 2001: Afghan Deputy Prime Minister Haji Abdul Kabir offered to negotiate the transfer of bin Laden to a neutral third country if the United States stopped bombing Afghanistan. President Bush rejected the offer and insisted that bin Laden and his followers must be given up.

Demonstrations continued in Pakistan. One protester was killed by police in Jacobabad, where U.S. forces were using an airfield.

The Taliban brought foreign journalists to Karam, a village in eastern Afghanistan, where they claimed that a U.S. air strike had killed 200 civilians.

October 15, 2001: Secretary of State Powell visited Pakistan, where he praised the "bold and courageous" measures that President Musharraf had taken. He announced that Richard N. Haass, Director of Policy Planning, would serve as a special assistant for Afghanistan. Haass would meet soon with UN officials in New York. Powell also planned to urge both Pakistan and India to resolve the Kashmir dispute

The Defense Department announced that an Air Force AC-130 gunship had taken part in the air campaign when it attacked a Taliban stronghold near Kandahar. Secretary of Defense Rumsfeld announced that U.S. forces were dropping leaflets into Afghanistan along with food. Some urged the finders to tune into "Information Radio." Rumsfeld called Taliban charges of 300 civilian deaths "ridiculous," although he admitted that the United States had not made an effective presentation of its case in the Middle East and South Asia. Rumsfeld and Gen. Myers said that the attack on Karam had targeted a cave complex that apparently contained large amounts of ammunition.

Former King Mohammed Zahir Shah addressed a letter to members of the UN Security Council in which he urged them to establish a UN peacekeeping force for Afghanistan should the Taliban government collapse.

National Security Adviser Rice was interviewed on Al-Jazeera. She sought to assure her audience that the United States was not at war with Islam, expressed concern at Saddam Husseinís quest for weapons of mass destruction, and said that different means would be used with different countries in the fight against terrorism.

Italian Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi met with President Bush at the White House.

October 16, 2001: At the Pentagon, Lt. Gen. Gregory Newbold said that U.S. air attacks had "eviscerated" the Talibanís armed forces. Northern Alliance forces claimed to be about to capture the city of Mazar-e Sharif.

Secretary of State Powell concluded his visit to Pakistan and continued to India. President Musharraf admitted that a majority of his people opposed the U.S. air campaign in Afghanistan, but said that Pakistan would stay in the coalition for as long as necessary. Powell and Musharraf agreed that there was a role for moderate elements of the Taliban in a postwar Afghan government and urged Afghan opposition groups to hasten their efforts to form one. In northern Afghanistan, Northern Alliance Foreign Minister Abdullah Abdullah rejected any Taliban role in a postwar government.

Raymond C. Offenheiser, president of Oxfam America, said that U.S. air attacks and increasing lawlessness inside Afghanistan were preventing the delivery of humanitarian aid. The Defense Department, meanwhile, admitted that a Navy plane had accidentally bombed a warehouse used by the International Committee of the Red Cross in Kabul. Taliban military forces were believed to be storing equipment in nearby buildings.

The House of Representatives approved by a voice vote a two-year waiver of U.S. restrictions on economic aid to Pakistan. Secretary of State Powell sent a letter to the Senate Foreign Relations Committee in which he recommended that restrictions on financial aid to Azerbaijan should be lifted in view of that countryís assistance to the U.S. anti-terrorist campaign.

At the UN, special envoy Lakhdar Brahimi advised the Security Council against sending a peacekeeping force to Afghanistan without assuring political and financial support. He envisioned the UNís postwar role as humanitarian aid, helping the Afghans to form a broadly-based government, and reconstruction.

CNN announced that it planned to submit six questions to bin Laden through Al-Jazeera. They would include: Bin Laden and al-Qaidaís role in the September 11 attacks and in later outbreaks of anthrax, whether al-Qaida had trained or financed the hijackers, whether other foreign governments had been involved, whether bin Laden had weapons of mass destruction and planned to use them, how he would respond to Islamic leaders who called his attacks on the United States unjustified, and "how can you and your followers advocate the killing of innocent people."

October 17, 2001: During a stop at Travis Air Force Base on his way to the APEC Summit in Shanghai, President Bush said "Weíre paving the way for friendly troops on the ground to slowly, but surely, tighten the net" around the Taliban. He admitted that the war on terrorism might take more than two years, and that there might be political consequences if the public got tired of it.

In New Delhi, Secretary of State Powell assured Indian officials that the United States stood "shoulder to shoulder" with them in the campaign against terrorism, including that directed against India. He reportedly carried a promise from President Musharraf that Pakistan would curb extremists in Kashmir.

While flying from New Delhi to Shanghai, Powell endorsed a strong UN role in the postwar political reconstruction of Afghanistan and did not rule out a peacekeeping force. Special envoy Brahimi, however, believed that a UN military force probably would be resisted, and said that the Secretary-General was not interested in involving the UN in either forming an interim government or reconstruction.

The Defense Department admitted to two new developments in the air campaign in Afghanistan: F-15E fighters based in Persian Gulf states were taking part, and armed unmanned drones (Predators equipped with Hellfire missiles) had been used for the first time. Rear Admiral John D. Stufflebeem denied that U.S. forces were making any special effort to coordinate their attacks with the Northern Alliance, but said that U.S. planes had begun patrolling designated "engagement zones" in search of mobile targets, and were "flex-targeting" adjacent areas if nothing appeared in a designated zone.

In Afghanistan, reinforced Taliban forces counterattacked Northern Alliance forces at Mazar-e Sharif. Taliban forces also seized World Food Program warehouses in Kabul and Kandahar, to the alarm of international relief organizations.

Iran announced that it would conduct search-and-rescue missions if U.S. pilots operating over Afghanistan should crash in its territory.

October 18, 2001: President Bush met with Chinese President Jiang Zemin at the APEC Summit Meeting in Shanghai and said that China had agreed to share intelligence and help with the financial campaign against terrorism.

The Defense Department admitted that U.S. Special Forces were operating in southern Afghanistan. Secretary of Defense Rumsfeld and Gen. Myers hinted that the war in Afghanistan would become more intense. Rumsfeld said that the United States was prepared to aid the Northern Alliance. "Commando Solo" EC-130 aircraft were broadcasting messages urging civilians to stay away from potential targets and not to interfere with U.S. forces.

Special representative Haass met with UN officials in New York to discuss a possible UN role in postwar Afghanistan.

The Government of Uzbekistan announced that it would allow relief supplies to be delivered to northern Afghanistan.

Japanís House of Representatives approved a bill allowing the Self-Defense Forces to provide logistical support for the anti-terrorist campaign. Related bills allowed the Self-Defense Forces to protect U.S. bases in Japan and the Coast Guard to use force against suspicious ships in Japanese waters.

October 19, 2001: In the first acknowledged action by U.S. ground forces in Afghanistan, Army Rangers and Special Forces seized an airfield in the south and attacked Mullah Mohammed Omarís headquarters near Kandahar. One helicopter on a supporting mission crashed in southern Pakistan, killing 2 soldiers. The Defense Department denied Taliban claims that the helicopter had been damaged over Afghanistan and that the U.S. raiders had been quickly driven off. Gen. Myers later said that there were no U.S. casualties, resistance had been light, Taliban losses were unknown, no Taliban leaders were on the premises, but potentially useful information had been captured.

Secretary of Defense Rumsfeld admitted that the United States was supplying money and ammunition to Northern Alliance forces and that there was good "coordination" with them.

After meeting with President Zemin at the Shanghai APEC Summit, President Bush announced a new "constructive and cooperative relationship" with China. President Zemin urged the United States to minimize civilian casualties in Afghanistan and to seek a wider UN role in the conflict. Russian President Putin declared his "outright support" for the United States.

UN special envoy Brahimi came to Washington to discuss the UNís role in postwar Afghanistan with Vice President Cheney and Deputy Secretary Armitage.

EU heads of government met at Ghent and declared their support for the U.S. campaign in Afghanistan and pledged to help reconstruct the country once the Taliban had been replaced by a stable and representative government.

October 20, 2001: At the APEC Summit Meeting, President Bush called the September 11 attacks "an attack on all civilized countries." He met with Malaysian Prime Minister Mahathir Mohammed, who said that the two had agreed to disagree about the U.S. air campaign. The Presidents and Foreign Ministers of Russia and China expressed their hopes for a peaceful solution in which the UN Security Council could play a major role. President Bush also praised Japanese Prime Minister Koizumiís cooperation.

In Islamabad, a Foreign Ministry spokesman confirmed that Pakistani officials had met with Mullah Jalaluddin Haqqani, a Taliban leader from Khost Province, to discuss a possible role in a postwar Afghan government.

October 21, 2001: As U.S. planes attacked Taliban forces north of Kabul, Secretary of State Powell said that he expected Northern Alliance forces to "start moving on Kabul more aggressively" and eventually "invest" it. He declined to speculate about reports that President Bush had directed the CIA to destroy bin Laden and al-Qaida or about the origins of anthrax outbreaks in the United States. He hoped that the campaign in Afghanistan could be concluded before winter, and said that while "there is no place for the current Taliban leadership" in a postwar government, Taliban followers had to be included.

APEC leaders issued a statement condemning the September 11 attacks on the United States and agreeing on the need to deny terrorist access to money and arms and to expand cooperation between customs systems. Participants declined to comment about the U.S. air campaign in Afghanistan.

President Putin stopped in Tajikistan while returning from the APEC Summit Meeting. He met with Burhanuddin Rabbani of the Northern Alliance and pledged that Russia would supply it with arms. He later said that Russia recognized the Northern Alliance as the only legitimate government of Afghanistan.

October 22, 2001: As U.S. planes attacked Taliban positions near the Bagram air base and Mazar-e Sharif, Secretary of Defense Rumsfeld denied Taliban claims that U.S. helicopters had been shot down, prisoners had been taken, and that a hospital in He rat had been bombed. He also said that U.S. air attacks were now in direct support of Northern Alliance forces.

During an interview for CNNís "Larry King Live," President Musharraf warned of wider opposition in the Muslim world if the U.S. air campaign continued into Ramadan. In his news conference, however, Secretary Rumsfeld noted that there were many instances in which Muslim countries had fought each other or other countries during religious holidays.

Afghan opposition groups announced that they would meet in Istanbul as a first step toward forming a postwar government.

The United States signed an agreement with Uzbekistan to help it clean up a site where Soviet biological weapons were tested on an island in the Aral Sea.

Senator Joseph R. Biden, Jr., Chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, addressed the Council on Foreign Relations and feared that the air campaign in Afghanistan made the United States look like "a high-tech bully," and that the longer it lasted, the more vulnerable the United States would be to criticism in the Muslim world.

October 23, 2001: Defense Department spokesman Victoria Clarke admitted that U.S. planes had accidentally bombed a senior citizensí home near Herat and a residential district near Kabul, but declined to comment on Taliban claims that the first attack had killed 100 civilians.

After meeting with Security Council representatives, UN special envoy Brahimi announced that he planned to visit South Asia to meet with representatives of various Afghan political groups.

October 24, 2001: At the Pentagon, Adm. Stufflebeem said that the Taliban appeared ready for a long struggle. Stufflebeem also said that the Taliban might poison food supplied by international agencies and blame it on the United States and were using civilians as human shields in efforts to shelter personnel and equipment from U.S. air attacks.

British Foreign Secretary Jack Straw visited Washington and met with Secretary of State Powell, who said that military operations in Afghanistan would continue through Ramadan. Powell appeared before the House International Relations Committee in his first Congressional appearance since September 11 and discussed prospects for assembling a postwar government for Afghanistan. He said that the makeup of such a government was unclear, except that the Taliban would have no place in it. He expected the UN to play an important role. He also said that an airlift of food aid into Afghanistan might be necessary.

The Presidents of Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan agreed to open their borders to UN relief supplies bound for Afghanistan.

Over a thousand representatives of Afghan opposition groups met in Peshawar to discuss a possible postwar government. However, representatives of former King Mohammed Zahir Shah boycotted the meeting. Northern Alliance representatives were also conspicuously absent.

The Turkish Government offered to host a meeting of Afghan opposition groups at a time and place to be determined.

Pakistani officials said that a U.S. air raid on October 23 had killed 22 Pakistani guerrillas who were fighting alongside the Taliban near Kabul. The dead were members of the Harkat ul-Mujaheddin, which had also fought Indian forces in Kashmir; their group had been placed on the State Departmentís official list of terrorist organizations in 1995.

October 25, 2001: President Bush met with Crown Prince Sheikh Salman bin Hamad Khalifa of Bahrain, and designated Bahrain a "major non-NATO ally.í He also called Crown Prince Abdullah to thank him for Saudi Arabiaís cooperation in the anti-terrorist campaign.

Secretary of Defense Rumsfeld took exception to a headline in USA Today that implied that the United States expected that bin Laden would escape. He said that the hunt would continue and would be eventually successful. During the daily Defense Department briefing, he said that U.S. air strikes were mainly against Taliban forces facing the Northern Alliance, and that a B-52 had carpet-bombed Taliban positions.

In London, Prime Minister Blair briefed Conservative Party leaders on plans to commit British ground troops to Afghanistan.

The U.S. Government formed a 100-member team in New York, to track the financial assets of terrorists. Most of the team would be from the Customs Service and had prior experience in tracking funds from drug trafficking and related activities.

October 26, 2001: The Taliban claimed to have captured and executed Abdul Haq, a prominent opposition leader among Afghanistanís Pashtun community. Haq and two companions were apparently trying to persuade tribal leaders to defect. The Defense Department declined to comment on reports that Americans were with Haq before his capture, or that he had sought air support. State Department Spokesman Boucher called Haqís death "regrettable," but not a fatal setback to efforts to topple the Taliban regime.

In London, Armed Forces Minister Adam Ingram announced that 200 Royal Marine Commandos would be made available for service in Afghanistan, and that 400 more would be placed on alert. An 11-ship Royal Navy task force would join U.S. forces in the Indian Ocean after completing maneuvers near Oman.

In Pakistan, President Musharraf expressed concerns that "anarchy and atrocity" would follow the collapse of the Taliban unless the coalition devised a "political strategy."

The State Department issued its annual report on religious freedom in the world. The report criticized practices in Saudi Arabia, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan although it did not place them among states of "particular concern" (Iran, China, Burma, Sudan, Iraq, and, most recently, North Korea). It mentioned Afghanistanís Taliban, even though the United States had not recognized the Taliban as a legitimate government.

October 27, 2001: The Taliban claimed to have captured and executed five leaders and ten soldiers of the Northern Alliance. Northern Alliance leader Rabbani confirmed the death of Abdul Haq.

The London Sunday Telegraph interviewed Iraqís Deputy Prime Minister Tariq Aziz, who said that he expected the United States and Great Britain to use the "war on terrorism" as an excuse to attack his country and overthrow Saddam Hussein. He predicted that such an attack would break up the coalition.

President Bush signed into law a bill allowing him to waive sanctions imposed on Pakistan after Gen. Musharrafís seizure of power in 1999.

The Government of Pakistan announced that it had turned a suspected al-Qaida member over to U.S. authorities. Jamil Qasin Saeed Mohammad of Yemen was suspected of involvement in the October 2000 attack on the U.S.S. Cole in Aden.

October 28, 2001: Secretary of Defense Rumsfeld told CNNís "Late Edition" that the United States had been assisting the Northern Alliance with air strikes, would support occupation of Kabul by the Northern Alliance, and planned to continue the air campaign through Ramadan. When asked about civilian casualties, Rumsfeld noted that the Taliban was using mosques, schools, and hospitals to shelter military equipment and supplies.

The "Army of Omar" claimed responsibility for the massacre of 16 Pakistani Christians worshipping in a Catholic church in Bahawalpur, Pakistan. President Musharraf condemned the attack.

UN High Commissioner for Refugees Ruud Lubbers announced that Pakistan would open its borders to the neediest Afghan refugees.

October 29, 2001: Attorney General John Ashcroft and FBI Director Robert S. Mueller III warned that more terrorist attacks could be expected against U.S. interests at home or overseas within the next week.

After a meeting with U.S. Army General Tommy R. Franks in Islamabad, President Musharraf called for a bombing pause during Ramadan. In Washington, Secretary of Defense Rumsfeld said that the terrorists "are unlikely to take [a] holiday" and observed that there were many historical examples of Muslim countries continuing to wage war during Ramadan. In London, however, British Secretary of Defense Geoff Hoon told reporters that a bombing pause would not be ruled out.

The White House announced that President Bush planned to meet with President Musharraf at the UN General Assembly on November 10. The State Department announced the over $1 billion in economic aid would be offered to "strengthen" Pakistan.

During the Defense Department briefing, Rumsfeld said that U.S. planes were dropping ammunition to Northern Alliance forces. He did not rule out the possibility of establishing a forward base in Afghanistan. Gen. Myers said that "We are in the driver seat," and that U.S. forces were setting the pace for the campaign.

Rumsfeld also said that about 30 U.S. military personnel were serving as advisers to the Philippine Army against Abu Sayyaf Muslim rebels on the island of Basilan.

Japanís Diet approved legislation that would allow its Self-Defense Forces to provide logistical support for the U.S. campaign against terrorism.

October 30, 2001: Secretary of Defense Rumsfeld acknowledged that "a very modest number of " U.S. troops were in Afghanistan to coordinate air strikes and to provide logistical support for the Northern Alliance. He said that 80% of the dayís attacks were on Taliban front-line units in northern Afghanistan. Senior officials said that deployment of air and ground units to Central Asia was being considered. Rumsfeld declined to comment about reports of possible defections or supply problems among Taliban forces. He also announced plans visit Russia and Central Asia.

Gen. Franks, chief of the U.S. Central Command, visited Uzbekistan and met with President Karimov and senior officials.

British Defense Secretary Hoon visited Washington and met with senior officials and members of Congress. He suggested that the United States should take Ramadan into account when conducting the air campaign.

In Britain, Prime Minister Blair addressed the Welsh National Assembly in Cardiff, called the anti-terrorism campaign "a principled conflict," and pledged to use all possible means. Admiral Sir Michael Boyce, Chief of the British Defense Staff, said that the conflict might last three or four years. Brigadier Roger Lane of the Royal Marines recommended that his forces not be sent to Afghanistan until they received additional training and intelligence.

In Pakistan, UN High Commissioner for Refugees Lubbers met with President Musharraf and Taliban Ambassador Zaeef in hopes of assuring the security of UN relief workers and supplies in Afghanistan. Lubbers urged the United States and Britain to show "self-restraint" to minimize civilian casualties.

At the UN, Secretary-General Kofi Annan also called for a bombing halt to facilitate the delivery of urgently-needed humanitarian aid.

October 31, 2001: Gen. Franks met with Northern Alliance Gen. Mohammed Fahim in Dushanbe, Tajikistan, to discuss further military cooperation. Meanwhile U.S. air attacks included a B-52 strike against Taliban positions near Bagram. Adm. Stufflebeem said the preferred term for such an attack was "long stick" rather than "carpet bombing."

The Defense Department announced that reserve call-ups would exceed 50,000. Secretary of Defense Rumsfeld would leave on November 2 to visit Moscow and various countries near Afghanistan.

AID announced that it would supply the UN and other humanitarian agencies with $11.2 million to buy up to 30,000 tons of wheat from Central Asian countries for relief in Afghanistan. Administrator Andrew Natsios briefed President Bush on the impending food crisis in Afghanistan.

The European Union agreed to reinterpret its understanding of UN sanctions against Afghanistan so that arms could be supplied to opponents of the Taliban.

Saudi Arabia announced that it would freeze the assets of 66 persons and organizations on the U.S. list of sponsors of terrorism.

The U.S. Mission at the UN rejected a French proposal to seek Security Council condemnation of the anthrax attacks in the United States on the grounds that there was no clear proof that the attacks were of foreign origin.

In Kabul, Taliban spokesman Amir Khan Muttaqi said that negotiations with the United States were possible if it provided proof of bin Ladenís involvement in the September 11 attacks.

November 1, 2001:  Secretary of Defense Rumsfeld said that he planned to increase the number of Special Forces troops operating with the Northern Alliance as soon as possible. U.S. forces were currently directing 80% of their sorties against targets in northern Afghanistan. The Defense Department also announced plans to deploy a JSTARS surveillance aircraft and an experimental Global Hawk drone to Afghanistan.

National Security Adviser Rice said that the air campaign would continue through Ramadan.

Azerbaijan and Armenia offered to extend overflight rights to U.S. aircraft during the campaign against terrorism. The Administration in turn urged a House-Senate conference committee to approve a Senate provision in the foreign aid appropriations bill that would allow President Bush to waive a ban on military aid to Azerbaijan.

Turkey announced that it would sent 90 of its special forces troops to train the Northern Alliance.

President Bush proposed a plan to enforce the 1972 Biological Weapons Convention by calling on signatories to enact laws against developing biological weapons, as well as a UN procedure to investigate reports of their use.

Bin Laden, meanwhile, sent a handwritten letter to Al-Jazeera in which he urged Pakistanís Muslims to resist the "Christian crusade."

November 2, 2001: After a meeting with Nigerian President Obasanjo, President Bush said that the United States was "slowly but surely tightening the net" around bin Laden.

Secretary of Defense Rumsfeld left for Russia and Central Asia. He admitted that a Navy air strike had been called in to successfully protect Hamid Karzai, a Pashtun opposition leader who was being pursued by Taliban forces.

The Defense Department admitted that an Army helicopter had crashed in northern Afghanistan during bad weather. Four injured crew members were rescued and an air strike destroyed the wreck. Adm. Stufflebeem admitted that freezing rain was hampering efforts to fly more Special Forces teams into Afghanistan.

The State Department announced the freezing of the financial assets of 22 foreign terrorist organizations, including Hamas, Hizbollah, Islamic Jihad, the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine, the Basque ETA, the Real IRA, and three Colombian groups.

In Kabul, Muslim clerics denounced Muslim states, particularly Turkey, that had failed to support the Taliban.

November 3, 2001: Secretary of Defense Rumsfeld visited Moscow to discuss missile defense, nuclear arms reductions, and cooperation against terrorism with Russian officials. He then proceeded to Tajikistan, which authorized U.S. military engineers to survey three former Soviet air bases for possible use in the air campaign in Afghanistan.

Al-Jazeera broadcast another taped message by bin Laden, in which called on Muslims to defend Afghanistan against the U.S. "crusade" and called Muslim leaders who relied on the UN "hypocrites." Al-Jazeera also broadcast a 15-minute rebuttal by former U.S. Ambassador Christopher W. S. Ross.

November 4, 2001: Secretary of Defense Rumsfeld visited Uzbekistan and then continued to Pakistan. In Islamabad, President Musharraf cautioned him that bombings during Ramadan might offend the Muslim world. He privatedly offered to let the United States use three air bases in western Pakistan. Rumsfeld said that the Taliban had ceased to function as a government although "concentrations of power" still existed.

Gen. Franks appeared on ABC-TVís "This Week" and denied an article by Seymour Hersch in the New Yorker that claimed that 12 Delta Force soldiers had been wounded by enemy fire in an attack on a Taliban stronghold. Franks said that all injuries were minor and not the result of hostile action. On "Meet the Press," Gen. Myers said that more Special Forces teams had arrived in Afghanistan to direct air strikes, and that logistical support would make the Northern Alliance forces better-prepared for winter warfare than the Taliban. Both said that although the war would be a long one, it was proceeding on schedule.

The State Department had no comment on a Taliban report that an American citizen, identified as John Bolton, had been arrested on October 26 and had died while in captivity in Kandahar. ICRC officials later turned over documents to the U.S. Embassy in Islamabad.

As Arab League Foreign Ministers met in Damascus, Secretary-General Amr Moussa and Egyptian Foreign Minister Ahmad Maher denied that bin Laden spoke for all Arabs or Muslims.

November 5, 2001: President Abdelaziz Bouteflika of Algeria visited President Bush, endorsed the U.S. anti-terrorism campaign, but also called for action to improve the conditions that terrorists exploited.

Secretary of Defense Rumsfeld concluded his Central Asian tour with a visit to India. He praised Indian cooperation, called for closer political and military ties, and pledged support for Indiaís campaign against terrorists in Kashmir.

The State Department announced the appointment of former Assistant Secretary of State James Dobbins as a special envoy to Afghan opposition groups.

November 6, 2001: Northern Alliance forces claimed to have captured villages south of Mazar-e Sharif. Secretary of Defense Rumsfeld said that more Special Forces units would be sent to locate targets, and that the air campaign would intensify. The Defense Department said that it had used two BLU-82 15,000-pound bombs on Taliban targets on November 4.

French President Chirac visited President Bush and reaffirmed his support for the U.S. anti-terrorist campaign. They also discussed humanitarian aid to Afghanistan and the need to continue the Middle East peace process.

President Bush addressed an anti-terrorism conference in Warsaw by satellite video. He compared militant Islamic terrorists to the totalitarian regimes of the 20th Century, said that their access to weapons of mass destruction would pose a "dark threat" to civilization, and that no nation could be neutral in the struggle.

Secretary of State Powell was interviewed by Egyptian television. When asked whether Iraq was a possible target in the campaign against terrorism, he said that "there are no plans at the moment to undertake any other military action." Links between the September 11 terrorists and Iraqi intelligence had not been proven.

Chancellor Gerhard Schroeder announced that Germany would provide up to 3,900 troops for support duties in the U.S. campaign in Afghanistan. These would include up to 100 from a "special unit." The deployment would require approval by the lower house of Parliament.

In Islamabad, Embassy spokesman Mark Wentworth said that there was no evidence that a supposed relief worker who had died in Kandahar was an American citizen.

November 7, 2001: The United States froze the assets of 62 organizations and persons with suspected terrorist connections. Most were offices or affiliates of Al-Barakaat and Al-Taqwa, which were informal financial exchange institutions linking the United States with the Middle East and Somalia. FBI and Customs agents raided the offices of Al-Barakaat in Alexandria, Falls Church, Minneapolis, Boston, Seattle, and Columbus. Similar raids took place in Liechtenstein, Austria, the Netherlands, Italy, and Switzerland. President Bush held a press conference at the Treasury Departmentís financial crimes center and told the worldís financial institutions that failure to act against terrorism would prevent them from doing business with the United States.

President Bush also held a joint press conference with British Prime Minister Blair, in which the reaffirmed their commitment to the campaign against terrorism.

Secretary of State Powell replied to criticisms of Saudi Arabiaís role in the anti-terrorism campaign when he told reporters at the State Department than Saudi Arabia had "excommunicated" bin Laden, severed relations with the Taliban, and responded positively to U.S. initiatives. Powell also met with Kuwaitís Acting Prime Minister, who said that his country was and would remain "allied to the United States."

The Defense Department announced that the U.S.S. John C. Stennis and its escorts were being readied for duty in the Indian Ocean, which would bring the number of U.S. aircraft carriers in the region to four.

The House of Representatives voted, 405-2, to establish a Radio Free Afghanistan to broadcast news and entertainment to the country in local languages.

Pakistan asked Taliban diplomats to stop holding news conferences and restricted domestic broadcasts by Al-Jazeera in an effort to restrict the Talibanís propaganda campaign. President Musharraf called once more for the suspension of the U.S. air campaign during Ramadan during a stop in Istanbul on his way to a meeting of the UN General Assembly.

The UN and Pakistan reached an agreement to establish camps for Afghan refugees in Pakistanís North-West Frontier Province.

The Italian Parliament voted to commit a naval task force and up to 2,700 troops to the U.S. anti-terrorism campaign.

November 8, 2001: President Bush gave a speech in the George World Congress Center in Atlanta in which he stressed the publicís responsibility for preventing terrorism. He proposed mobilizing members of the Senior Corps and AmeriCorps to assist police departments, health agencies, and areas hit by terrorists, and concluded, "My fellow Americans, letís roll."

National Security Adviser Rice said that President Bush would not met with Palestinian Authority Chairman Yasir Arafat during the UN General Assembly in view of Arafatís failure to prevent terrorism in Israel.

The Government of Lebanon rejected U.S. requests to freeze the assets of Hezbollah on the grounds that "resistance groups" were not terrorist organizations.

The Government of Pakistan forbade the Talibanís Ambassador to hold press conferences, and ordered the Afghan Consulate in Karachi to close.

Indian Prime Minister Atal Valpayee began his visit to the United States. He expressed concern about the slow progress of the war in Afghanistan and predicted that the United States would need to commit substantial numbers of ground troops.

Three Japanese Naval Self-Defense Force ships left Sasebo for the Indian Ocean.

November 9, 2001: Northern Alliance forces captured Mazar-e Sharif and claimed that Taliban forces in northern Afghanistan were in retreat. Secretary of State Powell said that he would prefer to see Kabul be declared an "open city" rather than having it occupied by the Northern Alliance.

President Bush met with Indian Prime Minister Valpayee and expressed satisfaction with Indian and Saudi cooperation in the campaign against terrorism. Saudi Foreign Minister Prince Saud, however, expressed frustration with Bushís failure to seek a new Middle East peace initiative.

At the UN General Assembly, Organization of the Islamic Conference members postponed action on an anti-terrorism treaty until November 19. They sought an exemption for "national liberation movements." U.S. Ambassador Negroponte attended an Iranian-sponsored "Dialogue Among Civilization," during which he urged Muslim states not to accept bin Ladenís claim that the United States was at war with Islam.

Czech Foreign Minister Milos Zeman met with Secretary of State Powell on his way to the UN General Assembly. Zeman said that Mohamed Atta, mastermind of and participant in the September 11 attacks, had talked about attacking the headquarters of Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty during a meeting with a suspected Iraqi intelligence agent in Prague. Zeman also said that there was no record that Atta discussed attacks on targets in the United States.

November 10, 2001: President Bush addressed the UN General Assembly and said that each nation would be expected to play its part in the war against terrorism and that the Ďallies of terror" would be held accountable. He also said that his administration was working for the day that "two states--Israel and Palestine could live peacefully together within secure and recognized borders."

Bush also met with President Musharraf and said that he would seek an additional $1 billion in aid for Pakistan. Bush said that he would encourage the Northern Alliance to move south, but not into Kabul. When Musharraf addressed the UN General Assembly, he said that Pakistan had taken measures to ensure the security of its nuclear weapons. Musharraf also met with Iranian President Mohammad Khatami to discuss their countriesí policies in Afghanistan.

Two Pakistani newspapers published an interview by journalist Hamid Mir with bin Laden, in which bin Laden claimed to have chemical and nuclear weapons, which he would use if the coalition used weapons of mass destruction on his forces. Bin Laden claimed ignorance of anthrax outbreaks in the United States.

November 11, 2001: With Northern Alliance forces claiming to have liberated 6 northern provinces, the Taliban conceded the loss of three of them and claimed to be making a "strategic withdrawal." The Northern Alliance claimed a major victory over the Taliban at Taloqan. Foreign Minister Abdullah said that the Northern Alliance intended to fight "up to the gates of Kabul," but would only enter the capital to prevent a breakdown of law and order or the entry of Pakistani troops.

In New York, President Musharraf warned of anarchy and atrocities if the Northern Alliance captured Kabul and insisted that the Pashtuns must be involved in a postwar political settlement. He said that debt relief from the United States depended on a new agreement between Pakistan and the IMF. Secretary of State Powell said on "Meet the Press" that the United States had no plans to release F-16s that had been purchased by Pakistan and that had been impounded after Pakistan tested nuclear weapons.

Secretaries Powell and Rumsfeld and National Security Adviser Rice all expressed skepticism that bin Laden had nuclear weapons. Rumsfeld told "Face the Nation" that bin Laden probably had chemical and biological weapons, and that U.S. forces had bombed sites where they might have been kept. Rice said that the prospect of bin Laden getting nuclear weapons made his defeat all the more imperative.

President Bush and Secretary-General Annan attended a memorial service at "Ground Zero." Before returning to Washington, Bush met with the Presidents of South Africa, Colombia, and Argentina. Powell met with Arafat, and stayed in New York to meet with the Foreign Ministers of Syria and the Gulf Cooperation Council states.

The UN announced that its first shipment of humanitarian aid from Uzbekistan to Afghanistan was ready to be delivered.

Defense Secretary Geoff Hoon confirmed that British troops were operating in Afghanistan.

Johanne Sutton of Radio France Internationale, Pierre Billaud of RTL Radio, and Volker Handloik of the German magazine Stern became the first foreign journalists to die in the Afghan conflict when Taliban forces ambushed the Northern Alliance troops that they were accompanying.

November 12, 2001: The Northern Alliance announced the liberation of He rat. Its forces were said to be closing in on Kunduz, the last Taliban stronghold in the north, and to be approaching Kabul. Pakistani officials urged the United States and the UN to establish an interim government and to impose security on the Afghan capital.

At the UN, Secretary of State Powell attended a conference of Six-Plus- Two Group Foreign Ministers of states bordering Afghanistan. At the start of the meeting, he publicly shook hands with Iranian Foreign Minister Kamal Kharrazi. Powell urged his colleagues to quickly organize a peacekeeping force and a provisional administration for Kabul. He told the New York Times that Muslim countries like Turkey, Indonesia, and Bangladesh could have a role to play.

AID Administrator Natsios visited Tashkent, and said that the liberation of Mazar-e Sharif would simplify the delivery of humanitarian aid to Afghanistan

Defense Department officials said that the United States was considering the use of at least one air base in Tajikistan to support the air campaign in Afghanistan.

November 13, 2001: Taliban forces abandoned Kabul and Northern Alliance forces took control of the Afghan capital. Eight foreign aid workers, two of them American women accused of promoting Christianity, remained in captivity and were reportedly taken to Kandahar. Before the entry of Northern Alliance forces, mobs looted government offices and the Pakistani Embassy and killed any foreign Taliban supporters they could find. Foreign Minister Abdullah said that the Northern Alliance had sent its security forces into Kabul to prevent disorder, and that a Gen. Mohammed Fahim would lead a "military and security council." In Kandahar, Mohammad Omar urged the Taliban to "resist, put up resistance, and fight."

Secretary of Defense Rumsfeld said that U.S. Special Operations forces were operating in southern Afghanistan in pursuit of al-Qaida and Taliban leaders. Special Forces teams were currently in Kabul to observe the Northern Alliance. U.S. aircraft continued to harry fleeing Taliban forces. Rumsfeld urged other countries not to give sanctuary to fugitive terrorists and said that the struggle against terrorism was far from over.

Al-Jazeera reported that its Kabul office had been bombed before the Northern Alliance entered the city. A U.S. Central Command spokesman said that the building was thought to be used by al-Qaida.

President Bush issued a directive to authorize the establishment of military tribunals to try foreign terrorist suspects and their accomplices. The Secretary of Defense would appoint the tribunals and determine their rules and procedures.

Bush also held a joint press conference with Russian President Vladimir Putin at the White House, in which Putin hoped that the war on terrorism would make possible closer cooperation between the United States and Russia. Bush said, "We will continue to work with the Northern Alliance commanders to make sure they respect the human rights of the people that they are liberating."

As President Musharraf returned from the United States, he called for the immediate deployment to Kabul of a UN peacekeeping force from Muslim nations so that a hostile government would not establish itself on Pakistanís border. Pakistani spokesmen said that their government might contribute troops to a peacekeeping force.

At the UN, Brahimi proposed to the Security Council that a conference of Afghan representatives should be held under UN protection . This conference would establish a provisional council to select an interim government, which would in turn outline a program to draft a new constitution to be endorsed by a national council (loya jirga). Brahimi envisioned a two-year transition period between an interim and a permanent government. Secretary-General Annan instructed Brahimi to send UN political advisers to Kabul as soon as "security conditions permit."

U.S. special envoy James F. Dobbins met with former King Zahir Shah in Rome. Although Zahir Shah had been mentioned as the possible chairman of a provisional council, Northern Alliance leader Rabbani said that the king could only return to Afghanistan as a private citizen. In Kabul, Northern Alliance Foreign Minister Abdullah said that all factions except the Taliban would be welcome to help form a coalition government.

The State Department announced that it would institute a stricter screening program for men from 25 Arab and Muslim countries who were seeking visas to enter the United States.

In Germany, Chancellor Schroeder called for a vote of confidence when the lower house of Parliament voted on his decision to contribute up to 3,000 troops to the anti-terrorism campaign.

November 14, 2001: Taliban forces continued to flee southward towards Kandahar. Some Pashtun tribes in southern Afghanistan reportedly had taken up arms against the Taliban. U.S. Special Forces teams were said to be setting up roadblocks in the search for followers of bin Laden, and Air Force planes were dropping leaflets offering a $25 million reward for bin Ladenís capture. A Taliban spokesman, however, said that bin Laden and Mohammad Omar were still alive and well in Afghanistan.

The Taliban abandoned eight foreign relief workers who had been under arrest in Afghanistan since August. The workers were freed by residents of the town of Ghazni, who contacted the International Committee of the Red Cross, which arranged for their evacuation to Pakistan by U.S. Special Forces helicopters.

The UN Security Council approved a resolution calling on all parties in Afghanistan to attend a conference to settle the country's future, urging member states to provide humanitarian aid, and calling for a central role for the UN in the reconstruction process. The UN also authorized member states to provide peacekeeping forces.

Great Britain offered to commit 5,000 troops to peacekeeping in Afghanistan. Prime Minister Blair told Parliament that bin Laden had admitted his guilt in a video recorded on October 20. Bin Laden boasted that al-Qaida had attacked the United States "in self-defense" and as "revenge for our people killed in Palestine and Iraq."

U.S. special envoy Dobbins arrived in Islamabad to discuss the political future of Afghanistan.

November 15, 2001: Presidents Bush and Putin agreed that the United States and Russia would cooperate against terrorism and in the political reconstruction of Afghanistan. After their summit meeting at Bushís ranch in Crawford, Texas, Putin visited "Ground Zero" in New York before returning to Moscow.

The United States announced plans for an international conference for the reconstruction of Afghanistan, to be held at the White House later in November. A larger conference, sponsored by the World Bank, the UN Development Program, and the Asian Development Bank, was scheduled for Islamabad on November 27-29. AID Administrator Natsios flew to northern Afghanistan to assess relief needs.

The first peacekeeping forces arrived in Afghanistan as 100 British Marines landed at the Bagram airfield. President Chirac notified Secretary-General Annan that France would send troops to secure the airport at Mazar e-Sharif. Canada and the Netherlands also expressed their willingness to send troops. Turkey was expected to supply peacekeeping forces for Kabul, but was awaiting Security Council authorization.

As fighting continued around Kandahar and Kunduz, Gen. Franks said: "We are tightening the noose. Itís a matter of time." A Taliban envoy in Pakistan asked UN representatives for help in arranging the surrender of his forces in Kunduz; they were noncommittal. Bin Ladenís whereabouts were unknown, but a defiant Mohammad Omar vowed to fight on until "the destruction of America."

In the Philippines, Muslim Abu Sayyaf rebels released seven of their ten hostages. A Filipina nurse and an American missionary couple remained in captivity.

November 16, 2001: The Taliban admitted that Osama bin Ladenís deputy, Muhammad Atef, had been killed in an air raid near Kabul earlier in the week. Atef, a native of Egypt, was wanted in the United States for his involvement in the 1998 embassy bombings in Kenya and Tanzania.

The Defense Department announced that 300 Special Forces personnel were in Afghanistan: 200 in the north and the rest, along with allied personnel, in the south. Although Adm. Stufflebeem said that the Special Forcesí chief task was "strategic reconnaissance," Secretary Rumsfeld admitted that they were taking part in ground combat as they hunted for information and fugitive members of the Taliban and al-Qaida. Forty U.S. soldiers arrived at Bagram to join British forces in repairing the airfield.

In Berlin, Chancellor Schroederís Social Democratic/Green Party coalition survived a vote of confidence by two votes when it approved commitment of German troops to supporting the anti-terrorism campaign in Afghanistan.

In Afghanistan, a Taliban spokesman denied a report that Taliban leaders were trying to work out a deal for the evacuation of Kandahar. In Kabul, the Northern Alliance occupied Radio Kabul and government offices.

Secretary of State Powell discussed a possible humanitarian aid package for Uzbekistan with Foreign Minister Kamilov.

November 17, 2001: Former President Burhanuddin Rabbani made a triumphal return to Kabul. He invited all Afghan groups except the Taliban to meet in Kabul to form a new government. He told reporters that he welcomed the formation of a broad-based government and said that the Northern Alliance would respect the decision of a loya jirga. Two planeloads of UN officials, led by Deputy Special Representative Francisc Vendrell, arrived at Bagram to re-establish a UN presence in Afghanistan and to help arrange a conference among Afghan political groups.

Taliban Ambassador Zaeef said that bin Laden and his family had left Afghanistan for parts unknown. He later said that the bin Ladens had only left the Taliban-controlled part of the country.

First Lady Laura Bush delivered the weekly presidential address, in which she denounced the Talibanís oppression of Afghan women and children.

The French Defense Ministry announced that up to 10 French aircraft would be available for missions in Afghanistan in two weeks.

G-20 Finance Ministers met in Ottawa to discuss means of shutting down terrorist financial networks. They also discussed plans for the reconstruction of Afghanistan. Further discussions would be held during the IMF and World Bank meetings.

November 18, 2001: Northern Alliance Foreign Minister Abdullah met with U.S. special envoy Dobbins in Tashkent, and announced that the Northern Alliance would be willing to meet with other Afghan political groups in Europe to discuss a postwar government. No date or location had been set.

As fighting continued around Kunduz and Kandahar, Secretary of State Powell, National Security Adviser Rice, and Deputy Defense Secretary Wolfowitz told TV news programs that they believed that bin Ladenís options were shrinking along with the Taliban-controlled portions of Afghanistan. They doubted that bin Laden had fled the country or that neighboring countries would agree to take him in. Powell suggested that if bin Laden did escape, the United States would try to "coordinate" his capture with local authorities.

AID Administrator Natsios concluded a visit to five Central Asisn republics. He was confident that AID would be able to avert famine in Afghanistan by arranging for the delivery of 55,000 tons of food per month from Iran, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, and Tajikistan. The United States was also considering a program to rebuild roads, wells, and irrigation systems.

Russia sent a 12-member delegation to Kabul to meet with the Northern Alliance.

November 19, 2001: Secretary of Defense Rumsfeld said that the United States was counting on Afghan opposition groups to help find bin Laden, and that a $25 million reward for his capture might provide an incentive. There were as yet no plans to commit large numbers of U.S. troops to the search for bin Laden. Rumsfeld was also cool to the notion of a negotiated surrender of Taliban forces in Kunduz.

The air campaign around Kunduz and Kandahar continued, with Taliban leaders in Kunduz seeking a way to arrange an orderly surrender to the Northern Alliance and safe passage to an undisclosed third country for the Talibanís foreign contingents.

Special envoy Dobbins met with Northern Alliance officials at Bagram, and said that they would be willing to attend an international conference on the future of Afghanistan. Germany had offered to host the conference. Northern Alliance spokesmen remained noncommittal, and UN officials had not said what other parties would be invited to attend. Pakistani Foreign Minister Abdul Sattar called the Northern Allianceís occupation of Kabul unacceptable and called for the deployment of an international force. The Northern Alliance complained that it had not been consulted about the dispatch of British troops to the Bagram airfield, and said that France would have to negotiate sending troops to the airport at Mazar-e Sharif. Britain and France postponed plans to send additional troops to Afghanistan

Six armed men ambushed a caravan of vehicles that was traveling between Jalalabad and Kabul. Four foreign journalists were kidnapped, stoned, and then killed. It was not known whether their assailants were Taliban members or ordinary bandits.

In Geneva, Under Secretary of State for Arms Control and International Security John R. Bolton said that Iraq was pursuing a biological weapons program, while North Korea, Libya, Syria, Iran, and Sudan were suspected of doing so. The United States still favored enactment of domestic bans on biological weapons activities, international investigations of suspicious outbreaks of diseases, and more cooperation with the World Health Organization instead of the draft protocol for enforcement of the Biological Weapons Convention.

President Bush signed into law a bill federalizing U.S. airport security personnel. In the evening he hosted a dinner at the White House for Muslim diplomats in honor of Ramadan.

Secretary of State Powell addressed representatives of womenís advocacy groups and said that the United States was committed to ensuring that Afghan women would have their rightful place in any postwar government.

November 20, 2001: The United States hosted a conference at the State Department to discuss the postwar reconstruction of Afghanistan. Secretary of State Powell told the delegates that the United States expected to play a major role. U.S. and Japanese officials said that they had developed a long-term "action program."

President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo met with President Bush and the Secretaries of State and Defense, who promised to supply the Philippines with $92.3 million in military equipment. She also sought economic aid and the opening of U.S. markets to Filipino products. President Bush would consider adding the Communist New Peopleís Army and various Muslim insurgent groups to the list of terrorist organizations whose assets would be frozen.

Northern Alliance Foreign Minister Abdullah met with UN special envoy Vendrell in Kabul. They announced that the Northern Alliance would attend a UN-sponsored conference in Berlin about the political future of Afghanistan. Former president Rabbani said that the Berlin conference would be "mostly symbolic." Special envoy Brahimi said that all major Afghan political groups except the Taliban would attend. Abdullah still insisted that the Northern Alliance must approve further deployments of foreign peacekeeping troops.

The UN announced that it would provide air transportation between Islamabad and Bagram to journalists, diplomats, and aid workers. A one-way ticket would cost $2,500.

The Defense Department announced that 4,400 Marines from the 15th and 26th Marine Expeditionary Units were available for deployment in Afghanistan. Adm. Stufflebeem said that the United States had no plans for a Thanksgiving bombing pause, but did not rule out a cease-fire during possible negotiations for the surrender of Taliban forces in Kunduz. The Northern Alliance, meanwhile, gave the Taliban forces three days in which to surrender or face the consequences. The most likely sticking point was the fate of foreign members of the Taliban.

Pakistanís Foreign Ministry announced that the Talibanís consulates in Quetta and Peshawar would be closed. The U.S. Embassy in Islamabad opened a Coalition Information Center. Kenton Keith served as the Centerís director.

November 22, 2001: President Bush visited the 101st Airborne Division at Fort Campbell, Kentucky and spoke of a long and desperate struggle against terrorism in which "the most difficult steps in this mission still lie ahead."

At Spin Boldak, Taliban spokesman Tayab Agha told the United States to "forget the September 11 attacks," while vowing to fight on and refusing to take part in any postwar government. He denied any knowledge of bin Ladenís whereabouts.

Taliban commander Mullah Faizal said that his forces in Kunduz were ready to surrender to the Northern Alliance, though details remained to be worked out.

Gen. Myers attended a meeting of senior NATO military leaders in Brussels, and said that even if bin Laden were killed or captured, the hunt for other al-Qaida leaders would continue. Secretary of Defense Rumsfeld said during a visit to Fort Bragg that his personal preference would be that bin Laden were killed rather than captured. Deputy Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Gen. Peter Pace said that Navy ships would be searching foreign ships off the coast of Pakistan for fugitive terrorists.

In London, international development secretary Clare Short claimed that differences with the United States had delayed the deployment of more British troops to Afghanistan. Prime Minister Blair denied it. Further deployments, even for humanitarian purposes, still awaited approval by the Northern Alliance.

Interior Minister Yunus Qanuni announced that he would lead the Northern Alliance delegation to the Berlin conference on the future of Afghanistan.

In Kuala Lumpur, Admiral Dennis Blair, chief of the U.S. Pacific Command, doubted that U.S. forces would in involved in combat against terrorist groups in Southeast Asia. The United States would assist area governments in identifying terrorists, shutting off their funds, and preventing their movement.

The Northern Alliance resumed the bombardment of Kunduz after surrender negotiations with the Taliban broke down. President Musharraf had contacted Prime Minister Blair, Secretary of State Powell, and UN Secretary-General Annan in an effort to ensure the safety of Pakistanis fighting with the Taliban. Pakistan also closed the Talibanís embassy.

November 23, 2001: Northern Alliance Foreign Minister Abdullah said that Kunduz would be attacked if no agreement was reached by November 24 for its surrender. The sticking point was still the fate of the 3-4,000 foreign Taliban members. British Foreign Secretary Straw visited Islamabad, and said after meeting with senior Pakistani officials, that a Taliban surrender should be accepted. UN Spokesman Eric Falt also called for a cease-fire.

UN spokesman Ahmad Fawzi said that the peace conference, now to be held in Bonn, would open November 27 to allow delegates some more travel time. The four major Afghan groups were the Northern Alliance, the Rome Group (followers of former King Zahir Shah), the Peshawar Group (Pashtuns with ties to Pakistan), and the Cyprus Group (non-Pashtuns with ties to Iran).

November 24, 2001: In his weekly radio address, President Bush warned of "difficult times ahead" and hinted at pre-emptive strikes against terrorists.

Although no general surrender agreement had been reached at Kunduz, more than a thousand Taliban members surrendered to Northern Alliance forces. Another large surrender took place at Maidan Shahr.

President Musharraf said that it was unlikely that bin Laden had escaped to Pakistan.

The Defense Department said that captured al-Qaida members might be held on Guam. Former UN war crimes prosecutor Richard Goldstone called U.S. plans to try foreign terrorist suspects before military tribunals " second or third-class justice.".

Former President Rabbani said that he would step down if the Bonn Conference agreed upon a leader for an Afghan provisional government. He also called for "a new friendship, based on mutual respect, non-interference, and territorial independence" with Pakistan. UN High Commissioner for Refugees Mary Robinson called for excluding Afghan leaders from the provisional government if their followers had committee atrocities.

November 25, 2001: About 1,200 U.S. Marines established a base near Kandahar after opponents of the Taliban seized an airfield. The Marines were expected to take part in the search for bin Laden and other leading terrorists.

Captured Taliban soldiers revolted at the Qala Jangi prison near Mazar-e Sharif. Hundreds were believed to have been killed in several hours of fighting that included U.S. air strikes that were directed by U.S. Special Forces and British Special Air Service troops. Most of the captives were believed to have been foreign members of the Taliban. The Defense Department first denied that any U.S. military personnel were casualties, but said that a CIA officer had been wounded. The CIA declined to comment. The Defense Department later admitted that five U.S. soldiers were wounded by a stray bomb. Fighting continued in the prison until November 28.

Meanwhile, Northern Alliance forces began occupying Kunduz.

November 26, 2001: Northern Alliance forces completed the occupation of Kunduz. President Musharraf expressed concern about the fate of Pakistani nationals who had been serving with the Taliban in view of reports that foreign members of the Taliban had been shot out of hand during the fall of Kunduz.

U.S. Marines continued to build a forward base near Kandahar. Navy fighters and Marine helicopter gunships attacked a Taliban armored column. Secretary of Defense Rumsfeld said that the new base would allow U.S. forces and their allies to interdict roads leading out of Kandahar, and that no more than 2,000 Marines would be deployed. The base had been one attacked by Army Rangers on October 19.

Former President Rabbani said that the Bonn conference would not be a summit council, and that major councils and meetings would take place within Afghanistan. He made these remarks in the United Arab Emirates. UN spokesman Eric Falt said that 32 delegates from four major groups were expected to attend. The Northern Alliance and the Rome Group planned to send eight negotiators and three advisers each. The Peshawar and Cyptus Groups would each send three delegates and two advisers.

British Defense Secretary Hoon announced that most of the 6,000 troops alerted for deployment to Afghanistan would be stood down. He admitted that four British soldiers had been injured while operating with U.S. forces, but gave no details.

Pakistani officials said that they had initiated a search for bin Laden and other al-Qaida leaders in Afghanistan.

Russia began flying officials, technicians, and relief supplies to Afghanistan. The Russian contingent made its camp near the Bulgarian Embassy in Kabul. A UN spokesman said that Russia had notified the UN of its plans. A Russian Defense Ministry spokesman said that Russia had no plans to take part in military actions in Afghanistan. The Russian contingent came from the Ministry of Emergency Situations.

President Bush said that other countries that tried to develop weapons of mass destruction would "be held accountable." Countries that harbored, funded, or sheltered terrorists would be counted as terrorists. He urged Saddam Hussein to re-admit UN inspectors to Iraq or face the consequences, and linked the establishment of relations with North Korea to the admission of weapons inspectors.

November 27, 2001: President Ali Abdullah Saleh of Yemen met with President Bush and senior U.S. officials. Yemen had agreed to freeze the assets of groups linked to al-Qaida and had postponed the trials of six suspects in the attack on the U.S.S. Cole to allow further time for investigations. Yemen sought up to $400 million in economic and security assistance.

Secretary of Defense Rumsfeld visited the headquarters of the U.S. Central Command in Tampa, Florida, and told reporters that widespread lawlessness in Afghanistan threatened U.S. forces as they searched for bin Laden and his followers. The search was likely to be long and difficult. Rumsfeld also noted that fighting continued between the Northern Alliance and hard-core Taliban members in the Qalai Janghi fortress outside Mazar-e Sharif. Gen. Franks told reporters that U.S. forces had identified over 40 sites where al-Qaida members may have done research in weapons of mass destruction, although no evidence had been found that they had succeeded in producing any. Franks said that the U.S. strategy in southern Afghanistan would be to isolate Kandahar and work with opposition forces to obtain the surrender of Taliban forces.

Representatives of four Afghan factions met near Bonn and said that they hoped to establish a broad-based government of national unity. They agreed that former King Zahir Shah might serve as a titular head of a temporary government. German Foreign Minister Joschka Fischer linked economic aid to Afghanistan to the delegatesí success in forming a government that respected human rights and included women and all ethnic groups.

The World Bank and Asian Development Bank held a meeting in Islamabad to discuss reconstruction aid to Afghanistan.

White House Press Secretary Fleischer denied that President Bush was planning immediate military action against Iraq once the campaign in Afghanistan was over. He said that the President was merely restating U.S. policy when he called on Saddam Hussein to admit international inspectors to his country.

Iraq, meanwhile, refused to admit international inspectors unless economic sanctions dating back to the Gulf War were lifted. At the UN, the United States and Russia agreed to maintain the current oil-for-food program for another six months, after which a selected list of civilian goods could be imported by Iraq.

First Lady Laura Bush told reporters that she believed that womensí rights and education would be essential to the future stability of Afghanistan.

A Swedish TV cameraman became the eighth foreign journalist to die in Afghanistan when bandits robbed a group of foreign journalists in Taloqan.

November 28, 2001: The CIA admitted that Johnny Michael Spann, an employee of the Special Activities Division of the Directorate of Operations, had been killed during the Qalai Janghi prison revolt. Spann was the first American death in combat during the war in Afghanistan and the 79th CIA employee to be killed in the line of duty.

The Northern Alliance announced the end of the Qalai Janghi prison revolt. The death toll included at least 600 Taliban members and at least 40 from the Northern Alliance.

Pakistan initiated talks with Taliban officials and Pashtun tribal leaders in southeastern Afghanistan. Pakistani diplomats also met with former President Rabbani in Dubai in a first step toward establishing relations with the Northern Alliance.

In Bonn, Northern Alliance spokesman Younis Qanooni said during a press conference that there was no need for an international peacekeeping force in Afghanistan. He also downplayed a possible role for former King Zahir Shah as leader of an interim government.

The Defense Department announced that 100 soldiers from the 10th Mountain Division had been deployed to northern Afghanistan to support Special Forces and other units. Adm. Stufflebeem said that an air raid near Kandahar on November 26 had killed several Taliban and al-Qaida leaders. The Taliban said that Mullah Mohammed Omar was not among them. Mullah Omar, meanwhile, broadcast an appeal for his followers to fight to the death.

Spanish Prime Minister Jose Maria Aznar met with President Bush and offered to supply troops to the war on terrorism . He declined to criticize U.S. plans to establish military tribunals to try captured terrorists overseas. Extradition of terrorists (Spain held 14 suspected members of al-Qaida) would be done in accordance with U.S. and Spanish laws.

President Bush also met with UN Secretary-General Annan to discuss humanitarian relief for Afghanistan.

November 29, 2001: In Bonn, the Northern Alliance agreed to admit international peacekeepers to Afghanistan as part of an overall political settlement. Gen. Franks, however, said that it would be premature to admit them while military operations were still in progress.

The Bonn conference appeared closer to an agreement on the makeup of a postwar Afghan government. Northern Alliance spokesman Qanooni said that his party would not insist that former president Rabbani would be the next head of state, and that his comments about former King Zahir Shah had been mistranslated. International peacekeepers should come from Islamic countries.

Attorney General Ashcroft announced a "Responsible Cooperators Program," in which foreign nationals who supplied "useful and reliable information" about terrorists would receive assistance in becoming legal residents or U.S. citizens.

Egyptian Foreign Minister Maher protested to Secretary of State Powell that his government had not been informed of the names of Egyptian nationals who had been arrested or detained in the United States, or of the charges against them. Powell said that information would be forthcoming and that Egyptian diplomats would have access to the detainees.

November 30, 2001: Following consultations in Washington between the United States and Uzbekistan on November 26-30, the two countries issued a joint statement reaffirming support for combating terrorism; eradicating the social, economic, and financial sources of extremism; maintaining peace and stability in Central Asia; and strengthening security in the region.

At a Pentagon Briefing, Secretary of Defense Rumsfeld said that the Taliban had lost the ability to conduct any serious degree of control over their troops, and could no longer conduct troop movements in Afghanistan.

December 1, 2001: December 1, 2001: Palestinian suicide bombings in Jerusalem and Haifa killed 25 Israelis over a 12-hour period, and wounded over 200. Israel retaliated, starting December 3, by attacking Palestinian targets in Gaza and the West Bank. The attacks occurred after the arrival of the U.S. special envoy to the Middle East, retired Marine General Anthony C. Zinni.

December 2, 2001: President Bush held an emergency meeting at the White House with Israeli Prime Minister Ariel Sharon following the terrorist attacks in Israel. The President condemned the attacks as "horrific acts of murder," and called on Chairman Yasser Arafat to do everything in his power to find those responsible.

December 3, 2001: Homeland Security Director Tom Ridge issued a general alert of possible terrorist attacks either in the United States or abroad, but said that he could not be more specific. Ridgeís announcement marked the third time since the terrorist attacks of September 11 that the U.S. government issued such general warnings.

The United Nations announced that the World Food Program would employ more than 2,400 women in its emergency food distribution efforts in Kabul. The recruitment of women in the operation of the relief program would reverse the effect of the five-year-old Taliban policy barring women from the workplace.

December 4, 2001: The 55 member states of the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE), following a two-day ministerial meeting at Bucharest, Romania, issued a declaration condemning terrorism and agreed to a plan of broad-ranging counterterrorism measures. Secretary of State Colin Powell addressed the OSCE ministerial council following its meeting.

The Bush administration froze the financial assets of three organizations linked to Hamas, the militant Palestinian organization that claimed responsibility for the deadly suicide attacks in Israel during the weekend of December 1-2. The freeze applied to the assets of the Holy Land Foundation for Relief and Development, Beit Al-Mal Holdings and Al-Aqsa Islamic Bank.

Afghan representatives meeting in Bonn, Germany signed an interim agreement aimed at establishing a broad-based, multi-ethnic, stable, representative post-Taliban government in Afghanistan after 23 years of war. The interim administration in Afghanistan would be led by Hamid Karzai, a Pashtun leader from Kandahar.

December 5, 2001: White House Spokesman Ari Fleischer indicated that President Bush was "very pleased" with the Afghan agreement on interim government signed on December 4.

President Bush met with Norwayís Prime Minister Kjell Magne Bondevik in the Oval Office to discuss the ongoing situation in the Middle East and Afghanistan. Bondevik indicated that Norway would play a key role as the chair of the Afghanistan support group beginning in January 2002.

Secretary of State Powell and Turkish Foreign Minister Ismail Cem met in Ankara and discussed Afghanistan, Cyprus, the Middle East, Central Asia, and bilateral economic relations. Secretary Powell expressed his thanks and appreciation to Turkey for its solid support in the campaign against terrorism and for reaffirming its commitment to contribute soldiers to a future peacekeeping force in Afghanistan.

December 6, 2001: Secretary of State Powell attended a meeting of the North Atlantic Council at NATO Headquarters in Brussels, which discussed terrorism, Afghanistan, Russia, and Middle East peace.

The Department of State issued a terrorist exclusion list that designated 39 groups, charities, and companies as "supporters of terrorism", and that would be subject to specific visa restrictions.

At the United Nations, the Security Council endorsed the agreement reached on interim arrangements for Afghanistan, pending the re-establishment of a permanent government, and declared that it was willing to support a request for a UN-mandated security force.

December 7, 2001: President Bush, speaking in Norfolk, Virginia during ceremonies aboard the U.S.S. Enterprise marking the 60th anniversary of the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, called the terrorists who attacked the United States on September 11 "the heirs to fascism," with "the same will to power, the same disdain for the individual, the same mad global ambitions." They cannot be appeased, he said, "they must be defeated."

Richard Haass, Director of the Policy Planning Staff and U.S. Coordinator for the Future of Afghanistan, and James Dobbins, U.S. Special Representative to the Afghan Opposition, gave a press briefing at the Department of State. Ambassador Dobbins announced that the United States was working to open a diplomatic mission in Kabul before December 22, the date the new interim authority was to assume power. Ambassador Haass indicated that he expected the United States to play a "leading role" in recovery and reconstruction efforts in Afghanistan. After the elimination of terrorism, he said, the elimination of drug trafficking in Afghanistan was the second greatest priority.

Taliban forces fled the southern Afghan city of Kandahar.

December 8, 2001: Secretary of State Powell met in Tashkent, Uzbekistan, with Uzbek President Islam Karimov. They discussed terrorism, democratization, and human rights. Karimov confirmed that the Friendship Bridge, which links Uzbekistan to Afghanistan, and which provides an important route for the distribution of humanitarian aid, would reopen on December 9. Powell brought a letter from President Bush thanking Karimov for his support in the campaign against terrorism and inviting him to visit the United States. 

December 9, 2001: Continuing his 9-day trip to Europe and Eurasia, Secretary of State Powell gave an interview in Moscow to TV-6 television. He indicated that Russia had played a "very positive role" since the events of September 11. "We are very pleased at the immediate support President Putin gave to us," he said. "He was the first world leader to call [President] Bush, and that meant a lot to the American people." He said Russia has been working very closely with the United States in the international coalition against terrorism.

In Washington, Vice President Cheney confirmed that the United States had obtained videotape showing Osama bin Laden giving a detailed description of the September 11 attacks.

The U.S. dropped one of its largest conventional weaponsóa 15,000-pound "Daisy Cutter"óat the entrance of caves near Tora Bora, where bin Laden was believed to be hiding.

The five-year rule of the Taliban came to an official end as the last Afghan province slipped from their control.

December 10, 2001: Secretary of State Powell met in Moscow with Russian Foreign Minister Igor Ivanov. They discussed terrorism, Afghanistan, the 1972 Anti-Ballistic Missile (ABM) Treaty, and Chechnya. Powell said the improvement in U.S.-Russian relations "has been accelerated by the events of September 11th." The relationship "is strong and it will get stronger with each passing day."

Secretary Powell and President of Kazakhstan Nursultan Nazarbayev met in Astana, the new Kazakh capital. In a joint press conference, President Nazarbayev indicated that they had discussed relations between the two countries "in terms of economic, political, military, and technical cooperationóand of course, in the struggle against terrorism." Powell, in response, thanked the Kazakh government for its support.

Meeting with German Chancellor Schroeder in Berlin, Secretary Powell welcomed Germanyís support of the U.S.-led anti-terrorism campaign since the September 11 attacks, particularly Germanyís assistance with the law enforcement and intelligence and its role in hosting the recent conference of Afghan political groups.

The Department of Defense confirmed that Afghan opposition forces had captured several top Taliban officers. Among those arrested were the head of the Talibanís army and one of the regimeís top intelligence officers.

In a briefing with reporters at the Pentagon, Deputy Secretary of Defense Paul Wolfowitz said that the hunt for Osama bin Laden, as well as Taliban leader Mullah Omar, could require American troops to remain in Afghanistan for many more months.

U.S. Marines established a staging area about 12 miles outside of Kandahar in an effort to capture fleeing Taliban members. The Marines were also building a detention center for prisoners picked up by U.S forces or turned over by Afghan troops.

December 11, 2001: Attorney General Ashcroft announced a detailed indictment against Zacarias Moussaoui, who was charged with conspiracy in the September 11 attacks on New York and Washington. Moussaoui, a French citizen of Moroccan ancestry, was charged with undergoing the same training and receiving the same funding as the 19 hijackers who carried out the attacks.

President Bush led ceremonies at the White House to commemorate those killed and inured in the September 11 attacks on the United States. Similar ceremonies took place at the Pentagon, in New York City, and in more than 80 countries around the world.

December 12, 2001: President Bush signed into law legislation to help provide health and educational assistance to the women and children of Afghanistan and in refugee camps in neighboring countries. "The women and children of Afghanistan have suffered enough," the President said. "We work for a new era of human rights and human dignity in that country."

December 13, 2001: The Defense Department released a videotape of Osama bin Laden discussing the September 11 terrorist attacks against the World Trade Center and the Pentagon during the a courtesy visit with an unidentified Shaykh that was believed to have taken place in the Southern Afghan city of Kandahar in mid-November. The tape shows bin Laden as saying that the devastation caused by fuel-laden jetliners crashing into the twin towers of the trade center far exceeded his expectations.

December 14, 2001: President Bush met with Prime Minister Thaksin Shinawatra of Thailand to discuss the next phase of the war on terrorism and a new economic partnership between their countries. Bush said that Thaksinís visit was "further confirmation that our longtime friend will be a steady ally in the fight against terror."

During a picture-taking session with Prime Minister Thaksin, President Bush said it was "preposterous" to question the authenticity of the bin Laden videotape. He aid he wanted bin Laden captured "dead or alive."

In Berlin, Attorney General Ashcroft met with German Interior Minister Otto Schily to discuss cooperative efforts in the campaign against international terrorism. Ashcroft said the United States was grateful for the assistance provided by German authorities in the investigation of the terrorist attacks of September 11óespecially access to information and the opportunity to conduct investigations in Germanyóand also for German participation in European Union initiatives to disrupt terrorist funding and financing.

December 15, 2001: Italian Interior Minister Scajola announced that the U.S-Italy Bilateral Committee would be reactivated to "ensure an even more effective exchange of information between our two countries." His statements came after discussions with U.S. Attorney General Ashcroft, who was in Rome to promote the campaign against international terrorism.

In a joint press conference in Baku with Azerbaijan Minister of Defense Safar Abiyev, Secretary of Defense Rumsfeld thanked Azerbaijan for "the very forthcoming offers of assistance" in the war on terrorism and said they had also discussed strengthening cooperation between the two countries' armed forces.

Secretary Rumsfeld met in Yerevan with Armenian Defense Minister Serge Sorrgsyan to discuss Armeniaís involvement in the campaign against terrorism. Rumsfeld then met in Tbilisi with Georgian President Eduard Shevardnadze to express his deep appreciation for Georgiaís "splendid cooperation" in the war against terrorism.

December 16, 2001: Secretary Rumsfeld became the first senior U.S. official to visit Afghanistan since the fighting began in October. The Defense Secretary spoke to about 100 soldiers from the U.S. Armyís 10th Mountain Division and thanked them for their efforts "on behalf of the President and the people of the United States." Rumsfeld also met the leadership of the new Afghan government that was to take office on December 22.

Department of State Spokesman Richard Boucher said that Palestinian Authority Chairman Yasser Arafatís call earlier the same day for an end to terrorism was "constructive," and that the Palestinian Authority must take steps "to bring to justice those responsible for terrorist attacks and to destroy the organization that would launch future attacks.

Secretary Powell said on NBCís "Meet the Press" that Osama bin Laden was believed to be still alive and at large.

December 17, 2001: Meeting the day before the NATO Defense Ministerial, Secretary of Defense Rumsfeld and Russian Minister of Defense Sergei Ivanov discussed the anti-terrorism operation in Afghanistan, Russiaís future relationship with NATO, and President Bushís decision to withdraw from the Anti-Ballistic Missile (ABM) Treaty.

The U.S. diplomatic mission to Afghanistan reopened in Kabul. James Dobbins, U.S. Special Envoy to Afghanistan, said the reopening of the diplomatic mission signified that the United States had returned diplomatically, politically, and economically to the war-torn country.

December 18, 2001: Secretary Rumsfeld attended the semi-annual meeting of NATO Defense Ministers at Brussels to discuss the next phase on the war against terrorism.

December 19, 2001: Complying with a UN Security Council anti-terrorism resolution, the United States submitted a detailed report on its efforts to fight terrorism by cutting off financing to terrorist groups and their activities. The report was mandated by Resolution 1373, passed September 28, 2001. It requires nations, among other things, to criminalize terrorist activities, freeze the funds and financial assets of terrorists and their supporters, ban others from making funds available to terrorists, and deny safe haven to terrorists. Department of State Spokesman Richard Boucher said the report "shows a very broad effort that goes into legal, financial, military, [and] information in other areas. It shows a lot of the cooperation that we have established with countries around the world andÖdemonstrate[s] that we are making real advances on many fronts in the campaign against terrorismÖ."

Israeli and Palestinian security officers resumed high level talks to discuss the prevention of terrorist attacks.

December 20, 2001: President Bush added two organizations to the list of groups that support international terrorism and issued an Executive Order blocking their assets. The President identified Umnah E-nau (UTN) as a Pakistan-based group that has helped Osama bin Ladenís terrorist network gain access to information about nuclear technology. He also ordered a freeze on the assets of Lashkar e-Tayyaba (LET), which he called a "stateless sponsor of terror" based in the disputed Kashmir region.  

2001    2002     2003

This document, based entirely on public sources, was prepared or
background information and reference purposes. It isintended neither
as a complete or comprehensive account of the Global Coalition
Against Terrorism, nor as an official expression of U.S. policy.
Please email questions or comments to History@state.gov.

Office of the Historian
Bureau of Public Affairs
U.S. Department of State
June 2004 



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