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Fact Sheet
Office of the Director of U.S. Foreign Assistance
Washington, DC
October 27, 2006

Foreign Assistance Standardized Program Structure and Definitions

Peace & Security: To help nations effectively establish the conditions and capacity for achieving peace, security, and stability; and for responding effectively against arising threats to national or international security and stability.

Summary


Program Area 1.1: Counter-Terrorism


Program Element 1.1.1: Deny Terrorist Sponsorship, Support and Sanctuary
Sub-Element 1.1.1.1: Eliminate Safe Havens (Physical and Virtual)
Sub-Element 1.1.1.2: Restrict Travel
Sub-Element 1.1.1.3: Deny Terrorist Access to Finance

Program Element 1.1.2:
De-Legitimize Terrorist Ideology
Sub-Element 1.1.2.1: Isolate and Discredit Terrorist Leaders, Facilitators, and Organizations
Sub-Element 1.1.2.2: Engage At-Risk Populations and Communities

Program Element 1.1.3:
Governments’ Capabilities
Sub-Element 1.1.3.1: Collaborative CT Planning, Coordination and Information Sharing
Sub-Element 1.1.3.2: Counter-Bioterrorism/Biodefense Capabilities

Program Element 1.1.4:
Program Support
Sub-Element 1.1.4.1: Host Country Strategic Information Capacity
Sub-Element 1.1.4.2: Program Design and Learning
Sub-Element 1.1.4.3: Personnel

Program Area 1.2:
Combating Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD)

Program Element 1.2.1:
Counter WMD Proliferation and Combat WMD Terrorism
Sub-Element 1.2.1.1: Strategic Trade/Border Controls for WMD
Sub-Element 1.2.1.2: Nuclear Safeguards, Safety, Security, and Energy
Sub-Element 1.2.1.3: Monitoring Nuclear Explosions
Sub-Element 1.2.1.4: Nonproliferation of WMD-Applicable Expertise
Sub-Element 1.2.1.5: WMD Destruction/Facility Conversion
Sub-Element 1.2.1.6: WMD Terrorism

Program Element 1.2.2:
Program Support
Sub-Element 1.2.2.1: Host Country Strategic Information Capacity
Sub-Element 1.2.2.2: Program Design and Learning
Sub-Element 1.2.2.3: Personnel

Program Area 1.3:
Stabilization Operations and Security Sector Reform

Program Element 1.3.1:
Operations Support
Sub-Element 1.3.1.1: Deployment and Operations
Sub-Element 1.3.1.2: Stability Policing and Civilian Policing (CIVPOL)
Sub-Element 1.3.1.3: Corrections Assistance
Sub-Element 1.3.1.4: Facility and Dignitary/VIP Protection
Sub-Element 1.3.1.5: Peacekeeping and Regional Security
Sub-Element 1.3.1.6: Armed Physical Security

Program Element 1.3.2:
Disarmament, Demobilization & Reintegration (DDR)
Sub-Element 1.3.2.1: Disarmament
Sub-Element 1.3.2.2: Demobilization
Sub-Element 1.3.2.3: Reintegration

Program Element 1.3.3:
Destruction and Security of Conventional Weapons
Sub-Element 1.3.3.1: Destruction of At-Risk Conventional Weapons/Munitions
Sub-Element 1.3.3.2: Physical Security and Stockpile Management (PSSM)
Sub-Element 1.3.3.3: Destruction of Man-Portable Air Defense Systems (MANPADS)

Program Element 1.3.4:
Explosive Remnants of War (ERW)
Sub-Element 1.3.4.1: De-Mining and Mine Risk Education (MRE)
Sub-Element 1.3.4.2: Removal/Destruction of Abandoned and Unexploded Ordnance

Program Element 1.3.5:
Immediate Protection of Civilians in Conflict
Sub-Element 1.3.5.1: Monitoring and Documentation of Crimes
Sub-Element 1.3.5.2: Combating Impunity
Sub-Element 1.3.5.3: Civilian Safety Measures

Program Element 1.3.6:
Defense, Military, and Border Restructuring, Reform and Operations
Sub-Element 1.3.6.1: Territorial Security
Sub-Element 1.3.6.2: Military-to-Military Engagement
Sub-Element 1.3.6.3: Civil-Military Engagement

Program Element 1.3.7:
Law Enforcement Restructuring, Reform and Operations
Sub-Element 1.3.7.1: Civilian Police Reform
Sub-Element 1.3.7.2: Specialized Units
Sub-Element 1.3.7.3: Community Security Initiatives/Community Policing

Program Element 1.3.8:
Program Support
Sub-Element 1.3.8.1: Host Country Strategic Information Capacity
Sub-Element 1.3.8.2: Program Design and Learning
Sub-Element 1.3.8.3: Personnel

Program Area 1.4:
Counter-Narcotics

Program Element 1.4.1:
Eradication
Sub-Element 1.4.1.1: Forced Eradication
Sub-Element 1.4.1.2: Voluntary Eradication
Sub-Element 1.4.1.3: Aerial Eradication
Sub-Element 1.4.1.4: Aerial Reconnaissance and Support
Sub-Element 1.4.1.5: Domestic Legislation

Program Element 1.4.2:
Alternative Development and Alternative Livelihoods
Sub-Element 1.4.2.1: National Support
Sub-Element 1.4.2.2: Municipal Support
Sub-Element 1.4.2.3: Farmer/Community Group Support
Sub-Element 1.4.2.4: Corporate/Private Group Support

Program Element 1.4.3:
Interdiction
Sub-Element 1.4.3.1: Aviation Support
Sub-Element 1.4.3.2: Support Host Nation Operations
Sub-Element 1.4.3.3: Criminal Organization Investigative Assistance
Sub-Element 1.4.3.4: Enhance Border Surveillance and Border Patrol

Program Element 1.4.4:
Drug Demand Reduction
Sub-Element 1.4.4.1: Drug Prevention Programs
Sub-Element 1.4.4.2: Drug Treatment Programs
Sub-Element 1.4.4.3: Drug Research Programs

Program Element 1.4.5:
Program Support
Sub-Element 1.4.5.1: Host Country Strategic Information Capacity
Sub-Element 1.4.5.2: Program Design and Learning
Sub-Element 1.4.5.3: Personnel

Program Area 1.5:
Transnational Crime

Program Element 1.5.1:
Financial Crimes and Money Laundering
Sub-Element 1.5.1.1: Deny Criminals Access to Finance

Program Element 1.5.2:
Intellectual Property Theft, Corporate Espionage, and Cyber Security
Sub-Element 1.5.2.1: Deter Cyber Crime
Sub-Element 1.5.2.2: Prevent Intellectual Property Theft
Sub-Element 1.5.2.3: Protect Critical Information

Program Element 1.5.3:
Trafficking-in-Persons and Migrant Smuggling
Sub-Element 1.5.3.1: Protection
Sub-Element 1.5.3.2: Prosecution
Sub-Element 1.5.3.3: Prevention

Program Element 1.5.4:
Organized and Gang-related Crime
Sub-Element 1.5.4.1: Disruption and Dismantlement
Sub-Element 1.5.4.2: Extradition

Program Element 1.5.5:
Program Support
Sub-Element 1.5.5.1: Host Country Strategic Information Capacity
Sub-Element 1.5.5.2: Program Design and Learning
Sub-Element 1.5.5.3: Personnel

Program Area 1.6:
Conflict Mitigation and Reconciliation

Program Element 1.6.1:
Conflict Mitigation
Sub-Element 1.6.1.1: Early Warning and Response Mechanisms
Sub-Element 1.6.1.2: Peace Dividends

Program Element 1.6.2:
Peace and Reconciliation Processes
Sub-Element 1.6.2.1: Peace Structures
Sub-Element 1.6.2.2: Peace Messaging

Program Element 1.6.3:
Preventive Diplomacy
Sub-Element 1.6.3.1: Official Negotiation Processes
Sub-Element 1.6.3.2: Ceasefire Agreements/Peace Accords and Monitoring Mechanisms

Program Element 1.6.4:
Program Support
Sub-Element 1.6.4.1: Host Country Strategic Information Capacity
Sub-Element 1.6.4.2: Program Design and Learning
Sub-Element 1.6.4.3: Personnel


Definitions


Program Area 1.1: Counter-Terrorism
Definition: Expand foreign partnerships and foreign partner capacities and strengthen global capabilities to prevent terrorists from acquiring or using resources for terrorism. Institutionalize the U.S. War on Terror strategy abroad.
Program Element 1.1.1: Deny Terrorist Sponsorship, Support and Sanctuary
Definition: Deny terrorists the tools they need for long-term survival: sustainable leadership; safe havens that provide secure environments for training and operational planning; a steady influx of recruits; equipment; communications, documentation and logistics networks; and effective propaganda capabilities. This includes programs focused specifically on disrupting financial support for terrorists. Broad activities related to financial crime that includes terrorist financing as one part should be included under Transnational Crimes.
Sub-Element 1.1.1.1: Eliminate Safe Havens (Physical and Virtual)
Definition: Assist foreign partners in developing infrastructure to eliminate current safe havens and prevent others from emerging and in addressing non-governmental entities that provide safe havens for terrorists; assist foreign governments in security and stability in targeted, ungoverned territories; and coordinate and synchronize U.S. government assistance programs to enable nations to govern their territories.
Sub-Element 1.1.1.2: Restrict Travel
Definition: Increase sharing and collection of biometric data with foreign partners; assist foreign partners in the development of compatible biometrics, immigration, and border management screening programs; and help to fight corruption and fraud in foreign government identification and travel document issuance systems.
Sub-Element 1.1.1.3: Deny Terrorist Access to Finance
Definition: Identify, disrupt, and deny access to sources, means, and mechanisms of terrorist finance including technical assistance to strengthen foreign government legislative, regulatory, law enforcement, and prosecutorial capabilities and the establishment of multilateral organizations to ensure legal/enforcement standards for formal financial systems.
Program Element 1.1.2: De-Legitimize Terrorist Ideology
Definition: De-legitimize the use of terror by seeking to highlight the fundamental immorality, costs, and negative impacts of using violence and to emphasize the benefits of using peaceful, tolerant alternatives.
Sub-Element 1.1.2.1: Isolate and Discredit Terrorist Leaders, Facilitators, and Organizations
Definition: Assist legitimate governments and civil society institutions denying and disrupting the mechanisms and resources that violent extremists use to disseminate their propaganda.
Sub-Element 1.1.2.2: Engage At-Risk Populations and Communities
Definition: Promote constructive alternatives to political violence internationally; and reach out to community leaders and organizations spreading the message of alternatives to political violence.
Program Element 1.1.3: Governments’ Capabilities
Definition: Create partnerships with foreign governments that build political will, strengthen avenues of cooperation, and create interlocking mechanisms for sustaining partner engagement in the fight against terrorism.
Sub-Element 1.1.3.1: Collaborative Counter-Terrorism Planning, Coordination and Information Sharing
Definition: Assist foreign partners in developing the capability for counter-terrorism (CT) planning and coordination and commitment to support U.S. CT objectives. This includes coordinating, synchronizing, and expanding U.S. CT training and assistance programs; sharing technology with foreign partners; establishing or strengthening alliances/agreements, regional partnerships, and security assistance programs; promoting inter-agency cooperation among foreign government security and law enforcement forces; and supporting exchange programs.
Sub-Element 1.1.3.2: Counter-Bioterrorism/Biodefense Capabilities
Definition: Combat bioterrorism and strengthen biodefense by building international awareness, prevention, preparedness, and response capabilities. Foster multi-sectoral coordination; create and capitalize on international relationships to exchange information on vulnerability assessments of food production, agriculture and distribution mechanisms; and apply methodologies to counter deliberate introduction of diseases into crops and livestock populations, contamination of food supplies, or cause disease outbreaks. Support biosurveillance techniques and infrastructure, cooperative laboratory networks, medical surge capacity, mass decontamination, threat identification and epidemiology, biological incident command and control, and infection control interventions.
Program Element 1.1.4: Program Support
Definition: This is a special element that is used to support: 1) activities that strengthen the ability of host country institutions and the USG to use strategic information for decision-making, program performance assessment, and learning; and 2) the staffing and tools needed by the USG for program management and oversight under this area.
Sub-Element 1.1.4.1: Host Country Strategic Information Capacity
Definition: Establish and/or strengthen host country institutions’ management information systems (MIS) and their development and use of tools and models to collect, analyze and disseminate a variety of information related to the program area. These may include, but are not limited to MIS for government ministries or other host country institutions, needs assessments, baseline studies, censuses and surveys, targeted evaluations, special studies, routine surveillance, data quality assessments, and operational research. This sub-element may also include developing and disseminating best practices and lessons learned and testing demonstration and/or pilot models. Related training, supplies, equipment, and non-USG personnel are included.
Sub-Element 1.1.4.2: Program Design and Learning
Definition: Develop and conduct needs assessments, baseline studies, targeted evaluations, special studies or other information-gathering efforts specifically for the design, monitoring and evaluation of USG-funded programs. This sub-element may also include developing and disseminating best practices and lessons learned, testing demonstration and/or pilot models, or the preparation of strategic plans and other short-term programming tasks. Note: All such activities that are carried out by partners as an integral part of their monitoring and evaluation efforts for programs funded under other sub-elements should be included within those sub-elements.
Sub-Element 1.1.4.3: Personnel
Definition: Provide staff to help manage, administer and support programs in this area including related salaries, travel, housing, office space, equipment, training, and other personnel-related expenses (e.g. ICASS costs).
Program Area 1.2: Combating Weapons of Mass Destruction
Definition: Strengthen the global community’s ability to safely destroy, store, apply safeguards to, and transport weapons of mass destruction (WMD) and secure related facilities and materials; control borders and territory to prevent illicit movement of WMD and related materials and technology and to prosecute and punish violators; prevent the proliferation of WMD and related materials, technology, and expertise to states or non-state actors of concern or to potential terrorists; comply fully with international obligations concerning arms control, nonproliferation, and WMD terrorism; deter and prevent WMD terrorism; and respond to a WMD terrorism event.
Program Element 1.2.1: Counter WMD Proliferation and Combat WMD Terrorism
Definition: Provide assistance to governments for destroying, storing, or transporting WMD and related materials, technologies, and WMD-applicable expertise; in ensuring that their laws and regulations meet international standards for controlling borders and engaging in strategic trade; and that they have the appropriate technologies and techniques for interdicting illegally or illicitly traded WMD-related materials and technologies. This also covers assistance for detecting nuclear explosions to assist in the monitoring of nuclear testing moratoria, and supports partner and partnership capacity-building to develop a defense-in-depth to combat WMD terrorism, including managing and mitigating the consequences of a WMD terrorism incident.
Sub-Element 1.2.1.1: Strategic Trade/Border Controls for WMD
Definition: Strengthen countries’ ability to control strategic trade in WMD-relevant technologies by improving legal and regulatory frameworks, licensing processes, border control and other enforcement capabilities; their outreach to industry to promote corporate compliance; and their participation in or adherence to nonproliferation regimes. This assistance also helps countries meet their obligations under UNSCRs 1540 and 1673.
Sub-Element 1.2.1.2: Nuclear Safeguards, Safety, Security, and Energy
Definition: Provide assistance to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to support nuclear safeguards and promote the safe and secure development of nuclear energy, as well as to strengthen the physical protection of nuclear material, control radioactive materials, combat illicit trafficking of materials, and improve nuclear safety.
Sub-Element 1.2.1.3: Monitoring Nuclear Explosions
Definition: Provide assistance to the Technical Secretariat of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Organization to establish an International Monitoring System and a global network of seismic, hydroacoustic and other types of sensing stations that will enable international monitoring of nuclear explosions, and will supplement U.S. national capabilities for detecting nuclear explosions anywhere in the world.
Sub-Element 1.2.1.4: Nonproliferation of WMD-Applicable Expertise
Definition: Engage personnel with WMD or WMD-applicable expertise in peaceful, civilian, sustainable work to prevent the proliferation of their expertise to states of concern or terrorists. This also includes security assistance, particularly in the area of bio-security.
Sub-Element 1.2.1.5: WMD Destruction/Facility Conversion
Definition: Destroy, right-size, and/or reconfigure former WMD facilities to civilian, commercially-viable enterprises and destroy WMD and related materials and components.
Sub-Element 1.2.1.6: Combating WMD Terrorism
Definition: Support partner and partnership capacity-building to develop a defense-in-depth to combat WMD terrorism, including managing and mitigating the consequences of a WMD terrorism incident. Assist countries to assess the risks they face from WMD in the hands of terrorists, their capabilities to deny terrorisms access to WMD, and to deter, detect, and interdict the movement of WMD by or to terrorists. Ensure the safety and security of any seized weapons or materials. Develop partner nations’ capacity to respond to WMD attacks or incidents in areas subject to their jurisdiction through appropriate consequence management, attribution measures, and destruction of WMD and related materials and components. This could also cover assistance in training for the Proliferation Security Initiative.
Program Element 1.2.2: Program Support
Definition: This is a special element that is used to support: 1) activities that strengthen the ability of host country institutions and the USG to use strategic information for decision-making, program performance assessment, and learning; and 2) the staffing and tools needed by the USG for program management and oversight under this area.
Sub-Element 1.2.2.1: Host Country Strategic Information Capacity
Definition: Establish and/or strengthen host country institutions’ management information systems (MIS) and their development and use of tools and models to collect, analyze and disseminate a variety of information related to the program area. These may include, but are not limited to MIS for government ministries or other host country institutions, needs assessments, baseline studies, censuses and surveys, targeted evaluations, special studies, routine surveillance, data quality assessments, and operational research. This sub-element may also include developing and disseminating best practices and lessons learned and testing demonstration and/or pilot models. Related training, supplies, equipment, and non-USG personnel are included.
Sub-Element 1.2.2.2: Program Design and Learning
Definition: Develop and conduct needs assessments, baseline studies, targeted evaluations, special studies or other information-gathering efforts specifically for the design, monitoring and evaluation of USG-funded programs. This sub-element may also include developing and disseminating best practices and lessons learned, testing demonstration and/or pilot models, or the preparation of strategic plans and other short-term programming tasks. Note: All such activities that are carried out by partners as an integral part of their monitoring and evaluation efforts for programs funded under other sub-elements should be included within those sub-elements.
Sub-Element 1.2.2.3: Personnel
Definition: Provide staff to help manage, administer and support programs in this area including related salaries, travel, housing, office space, equipment, training, and other personnel-related expenses (e.g. ICASS costs).
Program Area 1.3: Stabilization Operations and Security Sector Reform
Definition: Support for USG and civilian partners’ participation in ongoing, existing, or potential operations, to include peacekeeping, humanitarian, coalition/multinational, and peace support operations. Support security sector reform through training and operational support. A host nation’s security forces include military, paramilitary, law enforcement (including civilian police, specialized units, border security, maritime security, etc). Security Sector Reform activities are not limited to post-conflict situations.
Program Element 1.3.1: Operations Support
Definition: Support for ongoing or future peacekeeping operations, humanitarian crises, or coalition/multinational operations. Includes strategic and tactical level capacity-building, including for military, paramilitary, counterterrorism units, etc.; USG management of civilian stabilization operations (e.g. peacekeeping operations, responding to humanitarian crises, or coalition/multinational operations); direct support to ongoing/existing operations(for example, deployment of U.S. and foreign personnel and support for international and regional organizations); support for corrections facilities, VIP and facility protection; and armed physical security for civilians and to secure humanitarian access.
Sub-Element 1.3.1.1: Deployment and Operations
Definition: Direct support to develop the capacity of partners’ security forces (to include military, paramilitary, counterterrorism units, etc) to enable them to deploy to peacekeeping operations, respond to humanitarian crises, or support coalition/multinational operations, as well as to directly support ongoing/existing operations. Includes strategic and tactical level capacity-building for deployment (headquarters, logistics) and USG management of civilian stabilization operations (e.g. peacekeeping operations, responding to humanitarian crises, or coalition/multinational operations) as well as direct support to ongoing/existing operations.
Sub-Element 1.3.1.2: Stability Policing and CIVPOL
Definition: Support to international stabilization missions, including the deployment of U.S. and foreign personnel and support to military, paramilitary, gendarme, police, special police units and other forces required to (re-)establish public order.
Sub-Element 1.3.1.3: Corrections Assistance
Definition: Provide detention facilities, systems and personnel required in stabilization missions and post-conflict environments. Activities conducted herein should be linked to the longer term development of effective, transparent and accountable penal systems (described under the Governing Justly and Democratically (GJD) objective).
Sub-Element 1.3.1.4: Facility and Dignitary/VIP Protection
Definition: Assist partner security forces to provide country dignitaries, key government officials, and internationals with personal protection.
Sub-Element 1.3.1.5: Peacekeeping and Regional Security
Definition: Direct support for international and regional organizations that are actors in existing operations (examples are: African Union, Multinational Force and Observers, Economic Community of West African States, Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe).

Sub-Element 1.3.1.6: Armed Physical Security


Definition: Provide armed, physical security for civilians (especially women and children) caught in conflict and to secure humanitarian access to populations in need, including physical security for refugee, IDP, or humanitarian assistance camps, and physical security to humanitarian supplies (including convoy security, physical security for aid workers, and security for infrastructure, such as roads or airfields). Security budgets are often integrated into program budgets; when interagency programs require dedicated security, however, this sub-element is the appropriate way to capture such programs. Element 3.5 provides unarmed physical security.
Program Element 1.3.2: Disarmament, Demobilization & Reintegration (DDR)
Definition: DDR programs generally constitute integral components of war-to-peace transitions in post-conflict environments. DDR activities are designed to reduce or eliminate belligerent armed forces and the supply of armed weapons. In particular, USG interventions seek to facilitate the return of ex-combatants, including women and children associated with armed forces, to sustainable civilian livelihoods and ease their transition to civilian communities to secure sustainable peace.
Sub-Element 1.3.2.1: Disarmament
Definition: Disarm belligerents through negotiating agreements; establishing and enforcing weapons control; reducing the availability of unauthorized weapons; securing, storing and disposing of weapons; and developing indigenous arms control.
Sub-Element 1.3.2.2: Demobilization
Definition: Demobilize belligerents as well as undertake rightsizing efforts in non-warring countries. Activities might include the following: establishing and decommissioning demobilization camps; ensuring adequate health, food provisions, and security for ex-belligerents; identifying, gathering and disbanding structural elements of belligerent groups; monitoring and verifying demobilization; and ensuring safety of quartered personnel and families.
Sub-Element 1.3.2.3: Reintegration
Definition: Reintegrate belligerents back into their communities, and women and children associated with armed groups, by: supporting infrastructure, quartering and civic training for ex-combatants; providing temporary jobs; funding education and vocational training for ex-combatants and their families; providing funding for income-generation; and offering remedial schooling, trauma counseling and family reintegration. It may also include family tracing and reunification of former child combatants, both boys and girls. Such programs are normally community based, and activities conducted herein should be integrated whenever possible with their sectoral counterparts, e.g. “Investing in People/Education” or “Economic Growth/Economic Opportunity.” They should also be connected to the Durable Solutions activities undertaken as part of Humanitarian Assistance.
Program Element 1.3.3: Destruction and Security of Conventional Weapons
Definition: Assist countries to destroy their excess stocks and/or to improve the security of their remaining conventional weapons (e.g. man-portable air defense systems [MANPADS], machine guns, man-portable anti-tank missiles, rocket-propelled grenade launchers, and light mortars) thereby reducing the risk that they will be illicitly diverted to terrorists, criminals and insurgents.
Sub-Element 1.3.3.1: Destruction of At-Risk Conventional Weapons/Munitions
Definition: Provide assistance in the destruction of surplus and illegal arms.
Sub-Element 1.3.3.2: Physical Security and Stockpile Management (PSSM)
Definition: Assess a state's internal processes and infrastructure at the operational level and train stockpile managers to develop effective procedures. Provide resources for security upgrades of weapons’ storage facilities and the destruction of obsolete or excess weapons.
Sub-Element 1.3.3.3: Destruction of Man-Portable Air Defense Systems (MANPADS)
Definition: Support multi-lateral initiatives in the G-8, Wassenaar Arrangement, and elsewhere including the following: provide assistance and technical expertise for the destruction of excess MANPADS; adopt stringent national export controls on MANPADS and their essential components; ban transfers to non-state actors; exchange information on uncooperative countries and entities; and examine for new MANPADS the feasibility of adding specific technical performance or launch control features that preclude their unauthorized use. Support bilateral efforts focused on regions and countries where there is a combination of excess MANPADS stocks, poor control, and a demonstrable risk of proliferation to terrorist groups or other undesirable end-users. This includes the destruction of obsolete weapons which have little military value, but could be lethal against civil aviation in the hands of terrorist organizations; improve safety and security of those weapons which may be needed for legitimate self-defense purposes; and improve standards of inventory control and accountability.
Program Element 1.3.4: Explosive Remnants Of War
Definition: Reduce the harmful global effects of conventional weapons, including developing host nation capacity to address these problems, and expand the funding base for mine action through private sector engagement. Support for demining and destruction of abandoned and unexploded ordnance comprises an integral part a comprehensive post-conflict strategy.
Sub-Element 1.3.4.1: De-Mining and Mine Risk Education (MRE)
Definition: Help host nations develop an indigenous cadre of de-miners and mine risk educators. Provide training and equipment, such as tools and vehicles and mine-detecting dogs, as well as funds to cover their maintenance and upkeep. Includes development and provision of appropriate educational material for men and women, different age groups and communities.
Sub-Element 1.3.4.2: Removal/Destruction of Abandoned and Unexploded Ordnance
Definition: Secure or destroy unexploded or abandoned ordnance and train host nation teams to do so.
Program Element 1.3.5: Immediate Protection of Civilians in Conflict
Definition: Encompasses non-armed interventions to promote the security and fundamental rights of civilians caught in conflict. Includes rapid-response mechanisms to monitor and document violations and to counter impunity.
Sub-Element 1.3.5.1: Monitoring and Documentation of Crimes
Definition: Deploy fact-finders/investigators; train and support local NGOs to investigate, photograph, record, and organize evidence; and support rapid-response mechanisms, advocacy, and media (radio, print, etc). Monitoring and documentation of crimes against humanity/war crimes, grave human rights violations, and related abuses
Sub-Element 1.3.5.2: Combating Impunity
Definition: Support quick-impact interventions aimed at preventing or mitigating ongoing grave human rights violations, such as rape as a weapon of war and other acts of gender-based violence, by holding perpetrators accountable. This sub-element involves urgent stop-gap measures rather than medium- or long-term support to judicial structures; however, these interventions may pave the way for the establishment of transitional justice mechanisms or other Rule of Law programming under the Governing Justly and Democratically objective and accordingly require coordination. Illustrative programming includes: witness protection, safeguarding of evidence such as mass grave sites, bolstering complaint mechanisms (traditional or formal), and emergency legal aid/public defenders.
Sub-Element 1.3.5.3: Civilian Safety Measures
Definition: Provide alternatives to high-risk activities that place civilians in vulnerable and dangerous situations (e.g. firewood gathering); identify potential flashpoints for violence and design/implement rapid preventative interventions (e.g. safeguard contested documents, protect symbolic buildings, encourage dialogue); and enhance community-peacekeeper relations.
Program Element 1.3.6: Defense, Military, and Border Security Restructuring, Reform, and Operations
Definition: Develop the capacity of partners’ security forces (including military, paramilitary, gendarmes, maritime security, border security, counterterrorism units, specialty units, etc.) to maintain a country’s territorial integrity, including self-defense against external threats, securing ungoverned/remote spaces, participating in regional defense, protecting borders, providing essential and/or emergency disaster response services, and providing force protection for coalition/U.S. forces.
Sub-Element 1.3.6.1: Territorial Security
Definition: Develop the capacity and supporting operations of partners’ security forces (to include military, paramilitary, gendarmes, specialized units, etc.) to conduct legitimate self-defense operations to maintain or regain sovereign control over national territory, including coastal waters. Professionalization of these actors should also seek to promote transparency and accountability (see Security Sector Governance in GJD). Develop the capacity and support the operations of specialized border police and customs officials to ensure the integrity of the borders and the legitimate flow of goods and people across the borders.

Sub-Element 1.3.6.2: Military-To-Military Engagement


Definition: Develop professional relationships with partner nations to provide U.S. access and influence, to enhance interoperability, and to further defense cooperation and understanding between the U.S. and foreign countries.
Sub-Element 1.3.6.3: Civil-Military Cooperation
Definition: Support effective coordination between civilian actors and uniformed personnel. This sub-element includes financial or in-kind support to enhance combined civil-security force operational planning. It may also include the establishment of joint operations centers (JOCs) for short-term or enduring missions. Activities conducted under this element should be linked to defense reform and Security Sector Governance sub-elements.
Program Element 1.3.7: Law Enforcement Reform, Restructuring, and Operations
Definition: Assist to establish and sustain effective, professional and accountable law enforcement services (civilian police, stability/formed police units, and specialized units trained and equipped for specific issues such as port and maritime security, border security, gangs or kidnapping). Improve state capacity to protect persons, property, and democratic institutions against criminal and other extralegal elements. Law enforcement programs should be conceived as part of the criminal justice system, described in detail in the GJD objective.

Sub-Element 1.3.7.1: Civilian Police Reform


Definition: Develop police forces through capacity-building (training and education both in the classroom and in the field); organizational development; civil service reform (pay and rank reform); management and leadership; equipping, infrastructure, aviation, and public affairs, among other activities. As the foundation for such a service is fundamentally rooted in the rule of law and respect for human rights, activities conducted in support of this sub-element should be coordinated with programs under the Rule of Law elements in GJD.
Sub-Element 1.3.7.2: Specialized Units
Definition: Build and support special law enforcement units such as police reaction groups (SWAT), special investigation units, riot/crowd control, special operation detachments, and intelligence units.
Sub-Element 1.3.7.3: Community Security Initiatives/Community Policing
Definition: Mobilize communities and individuals (women as well as men) to prevent or reduce crime, violence or insecurity singly or through community-police coordination. Provide safety and security services – via both state and non-state providers – to outlying areas. Assist communities and individuals to work with governments and police to reassert control over ungoverned spaces, militia strongholds, and/or ganglands in urban, peri-urban and rural environments and may include the expansion of essential services.
Program Element 1.3.8: Program Support
Definition: This is a special element that is used to support: 1) activities that strengthen the ability of host country institutions and the USG to use strategic information for decision-making, program performance assessment, and learning; and 2) the staffing and tools needed by the USG for program management and oversight under this area.
Sub-Element 1.3.8.1: Host Country Strategic Information Capacity
Definition: Establish and/or strengthen host country institutions’ management information systems (MIS) and their development and use of tools and models to collect, analyze and disseminate a variety of information related to the program area. These may include, but are not limited to MIS for government ministries or other host country institutions, needs assessments, baseline studies, censuses and surveys, targeted evaluations, special studies, routine surveillance, data quality assessments, and operational research. This sub-element may also include developing and disseminating best practices and lessons learned and testing demonstration and/or pilot models. Related training, supplies, equipment, and non-USG personnel are included.
Sub-Element 1.3.8.2: Program Design and Learning
Definition: Develop and conduct needs assessments, baseline studies, targeted evaluations, special studies or other information-gathering efforts specifically for the design, monitoring and evaluation of USG-funded programs. This sub-element may also include developing and disseminating best practices and lessons learned, testing demonstration and/or pilot models, or the preparation of strategic plans and other short-term programming tasks. Note: All such activities that are carried out by partners as an integral part of their monitoring and evaluation efforts for programs funded under other sub-elements should be included within those sub-elements.
Sub-Element 1.3.8.3: Personnel
Definition: Provide staff to help manage, administer and support programs in this area including related salaries, travel, housing, office space, equipment, training, and other personnel-related expenses (e.g. ICASS costs).
Program Area 1.4: Counter-Narcotics
Definition: Combat international narcotics production and trafficking; reduce the cultivation and production of drugs; prevent the resurgence of drug production; and limit the collateral effects of the drug trade through international drug control and demand reduction projects.
Program Element 1.4.1: Eradication
Definition: Provide logistical and technical assistance aimed at the reduction of illicit crop cultivation, either through manual crop destruction, or through the use of aerially delivered herbicide, including training for pilots, mechanics, and other technical and support personnel for each program aspect; procure vehicles, equipment, fuel and related equipment/materials; and support activities focusing on guaranteeing the safety and security of assets and personnel involved in these activities.
Sub-Element 1.4.1.1: Forced Eradication
Definition: Destroy illicit drug crops under cultivation, without the cooperation of farmers/owners.
Sub-Element 1.4.1.2: Voluntary Eradication
Definition: Destroy illicit drug crops under cultivation, with the cooperation and consent of owners/farmers as a result of incentives provided.

Sub-Element 1.4.1.3: Aerial Eradication


Definition: Use aircraft to spray herbicide on illicit drug crops to destroy them. Often involves accompanying security escort and Search and Rescue (SAR) helicopters.
Sub-Element 1.4.1.4: Aerial Reconnaissance and Support
Definition: Use aircraft to identify and survey illicit drug crops, assess the results of eradication operations, and to transport personnel and cargo to facilitate and logistically support eradication operations.
Sub-Element 1.4.1.5: Support for Host Country Eradication Policy and Legislation
Definition: Provide technical assistance and support, as required, to assist the host nation in developing and implementing eradication policies and legislation so as to make the eradication effort more effective and consistent with U.S. foreign and counter-narcotics policies, and to allow the host nation greater independence and self-reliance in this effort.
Program Element 1.4.2: Alternative Development and Alternative Livelihoods
Definition: Encourage the adoption of alternative livelihoods by providing technical, legal, and policy assistance as required; procuring vehicles, fuel and related equipment/materials; training professional, technical and support personnel; providing security experts and personnel; supporting promoters to form and work with groups that are eradicating drug crops; carrying out scientific studies and market research; developing the private sector, entrepreneurs or small enterprises; and providing support to financial markets and credit assistance.
Sub-Element 1.4.2.1: National Support
Definition: Finance productive infrastructure and investments, such as roads and bridges, as selected and identified by participating local communities in drug growing areas where eradication is taking place. Expand the presence of the state by improving participation in and access to local government institutions in coca or poppy growing areas where eradication is taking place. Improve general social conditions through social investment in areas such as health and education in drug growing areas where eradication is taking place.
Sub-Element 1.4.2.2: Municipal Support
Definition: Strengthening citizen participation in local government while simultaneously strengthening the administrative capabilities, efficiency, transparency, and accountability of municipalities and other local government units. Examples of other assistance or services that communities may request in exchange for remaining drug-free include: education, health, land titling; electrification, potable water, sewers, road maintenance, or other services that municipalities or communities identify as their top priorities for alternative development assistance. These activities should be captured here when specifically contributing to an Alternative Development and Alternative Livelihoods program rather than in the Investing in People Objective.
Sub-Element 1.4.2.3: Farmer/Community Group Support
Definition: Provide licit income alternatives. Develop sustainable farm-level production and marketing systems to increase licit employment opportunities and incomes in coca or poppy growing areas where eradication is taking place.
Sub-Element 1.4.2.4: Corporate/Private Group Support
Definition: Identify constraints that limit growth of private firms and help firms overcome these constraints. Develop sustainable market linkages to increase licit employment opportunities and incomes in coca or poppy growing regions where eradication is taking place.
Program Element 1.4.3: Interdiction
Definition: Prevent, interrupt, capture, or eliminate illegal drug production, movement or trafficking activities. These actions include, but are not limited to, the interception of drug trafficking aircraft, destruction of laboratories, destruction of precursor chemicals needed for production of illegal drugs, seizing drugs in transit or storage, and apprehending traffickers. Includes technical, legal, and policy assistance as required; procurement of vehicles, equipment, fuel, and related equipment/materials; training for pilots, professional, technical, and support personnel for each program aspect; and security equipment and personnel.
Sub-Element 1.4.3.1: Aviation Support
Definition: Transport law enforcement or military personnel for the conduct of interdiction or to intercept trafficking aircraft.
Sub-Element 1.4.3.2: Support Host Nation Operations
Definition: Strengthen the capacity of host nation partners, and increase the costs and risks associated with trafficking lanes to make suppliers unreliable. This is achieved through coordinated operations and intelligence sharing among law enforcement, and by supporting all facets of air bridge denial, ground and riverine interdiction programs. This includes adopting tactics to counter the exploitation of ports, coastal waters, and commercial shipping by transnational criminal organizations and promoting the development and implementation of maritime cooperation agreements while enhancing maritime interdiction capacity in source and transit countries.
Sub-Element 1.4.3.3: Criminal Organization Investigative Assistance
Definition: Improve coordination and enhance drug and crime interdiction capabilities and capacities of host nation law enforcement. It continues institution building in law enforcement countries to combat trafficking and to counter possible spillover of cultivation and/or processing operations from another country as a result of increased counter-narcotics activities there. Develop host nation law enforcement capabilities to assert the rule of law in drug cultivation and terrorist-occupied areas.
Program Element 1.4.4: Drug Demand Reduction
Definition: Reduce worldwide use and abuse of, and demand for narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances.
Sub-Element 1.4.4.1: Drug Prevention Programs
Definition: Prevent the initial/first time use of drugs and prevent destructive behaviors associated with drug use. Techniques can include school and community programs that teach drug resistance skills through interactive methods (discussion, group feedback, role-playing, etc) and/or teach social competence (communication, life skills, assertiveness, etc).
Sub-Element 1.4.4.2: Drug Treatment Programs
Definition: Treat drug addiction and prevent relapse through behavioral therapy/counseling, medications, or their combination with the aim of getting individuals to stop using drugs and modify the destructive behaviors that could lead to other problems such as STD transmission, criminal activity, and violence. Activities should be linked to Investing in People/Health.
Sub-Element 1.4.4.3: Drug Demand Research
Definition: Use empirical and science-based approaches to measuring and interpreting information on the prevention and treatment of drug use. This research includes identifying best practices and promising model programs to develop and improve demand reduction programs.
Program Element 1.4.5: Program Support
Definition: This is a special element that is used to support: 1) activities that strengthen the ability of host country institutions and the USG to use strategic information for decision-making, program performance assessment, and learning; and 2) the staffing and tools needed by the USG for program management and oversight under this area.
Sub-Element 1.4.5.1: Host Country Strategic Information Capacity
Definition: Establish and/or strengthen host country institutions’ management information systems (MIS) and their development and use of tools and models to collect, analyze and disseminate a variety of information related to the program area. These may include, but are not limited to MIS for government ministries or other host country institutions, needs assessments, baseline studies, censuses and surveys, targeted evaluations, special studies, routine surveillance, data quality assessments, and operational research. This sub-element may also include developing and disseminating best practices and lessons learned and testing demonstration and/or pilot models. Related training, supplies, equipment, and non-USG personnel are included. (Drug Demand Research should be captured in 4.4.3)
Sub-Element 1.4.5.2: Program Design and Learning
Definition: Develop and conduct needs assessments, baseline studies, targeted evaluations, special studies or other information-gathering efforts specifically for the design, monitoring and evaluation of USG-funded programs. This sub-element may also include developing and disseminating best practices and lessons learned, testing demonstration and/or pilot models, or the preparation of strategic plans and other short-term programming tasks. Note: All such activities that are carried out by partners as an integral part of their monitoring and evaluation efforts for programs funded under other sub-elements should be included within those sub-elements.
Sub-Element 1.4.5.3: Personnel
Definition: Provide staff to help manage, administer and support programs in this area including related salaries, travel, housing, office space, equipment, training, and other personnel-related expenses (e.g. ICASS costs).
Program Area 1.5: Transnational Crime
Definition: Minimize the adverse effects of criminal activities on the United States and its citizens, particularly when these criminal activities involve cross-border connections or have cross-border affects. Promote international cooperation and coordination, and provide training and other technical assistance to help build institutional capacity for combating international criminal activities such as corruption, alien smuggling, trafficking in persons, financial crimes (including money laundering), violations of intellectual property law, and cyber crime. Activities may be linked to Conflict Resources in EG, element 8.2.1.
Program Element 1.5.1: Financial Crimes and Money Laundering
Definition: Assist in drafting comprehensive legislation and implementing regulations; and training bank regulators and examiners, financial investigators, prosecutors, and judges. Establishing a Financial Intelligence Unit (FIU) that receives, analyzes and disseminates suspicious transaction reports with domestic law enforcement and foreign analogs is a necessary activity that enables the jurisdiction to share vital financial information with other countries.
Sub-Element 1.5.1.1: Deny Criminals Access to Finance
Definition: Build the capacity to combat criminal financing, or to engage the country in countering criminal financing efforts (either domestic or transnational), by means of training, investigative technical assistance, or building the hard and soft infrastructures for this purpose. This includes narcotraffickers. This does not include specific programs targeting terrorists or terrorist organizations which should be included under CT Program Sub-element 1.1.3, but these can be included if part of a larger finance program.
Program Element 1.5.2: Intellectual Property Theft, Corporate Espionage, and Cyber Security
Definition: Build the capacity of foreign governments to detect, investigate, prosecute, and prevent violations of laws designed to protect intellectual property, including the unlawful use and appropriation of such property. Build the capacity of foreign governments to identify, investigate, prosecute, and prevent crimes committed through the criminal misuse of information technology.
Sub-Element 1.5.2.1: Deter Cyber Crime
Definition: Provide training and other technical assistance and outreach to help build the capacity of prosecutors, investigators, judges, policymakers, and other foreign partners to identify, investigate, prosecute, and prevent crimes committed through the criminal misuse of information technology.
Sub-Element 1.5.2.2: Prevent Intellectual Property Theft
Definition: Provide training and other technical assistance and outreach to help build the capacity of prosecutors, investigators, judges, policymakers, customs officials, and other foreign partners to identify, investigate, prosecute and prevent violations of laws designed to protect intellectual property, including the unlawful use and appropriation of such property.
Sub-Element 1.5.2.3: Protect Critical Information
Definition: Provide training and other technical assistance and outreach to help build the capacity of foreign governments to identify, investigate and prevent threats to critical infrastructure and technology.
Program Element 1.5.3: Trafficking-In-Persons and Migrant Smuggling
Definition: Supports the Trafficking Victims Protection Act (see Act if more information is needed) 22 U.S.C. § 7102.; Migrant Smuggling as defined in article 3 of the UN Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime’s Migrant Smuggling Protocol, as well as in the International Labor Organization Convention 29. Activities may be linked to those included in Humanitarian Assistance, elements 3.1 and 3.2.
Sub-Element 1.5.3.1: Protection
Definition: Provide/support protection for trafficking victims -- most of whom are women and children -- which includes, but is not limited to: hotlines; safe housing; medical, psychological and legal assistance services; safe and voluntary repatriation; reintegration and economic assistance; and training and technical assistance for social workers, psychologists, medical personnel, non-governmental organization personnel, and legal advocates.
Sub-Element 1.5.3.2: Prosecution
Definition: Develop comprehensive anti-trafficking and anti-smuggling laws to include strong penalties against traffickers and smugglers and protections for trafficking victims; training and technical assistance to law enforcement officers, prosecutors, labor inspectors, judges, and immigration and border officials; and provision of equipment (such as vehicles, motorcycles, bicycles, radios, computers and software, flashlights, and forensic kits) to assist in investigation, arrest, prosecution and conviction of traffickers and smugglers.
Sub-Element 1.5.3.3: Prevention
Definition: Increase public awareness of trafficking and its dangers through public information and education campaigns in source, transit and destination countries including: educating the private sector about trafficking for child labor, offering educational messages and outreach to communities that are particularly vulnerable to trafficking, supporting local and regional NGO networks and faith-based institutions that are fighting trafficking, and increasing respect for girls and women through media, formal education, and youth-focused activities.
Program Element 1.5.4: Organized and Gang-related Crime
Definition: Supports activities that link domestic and international partners, and their associated investigative and enforcement actions in tackling organized and gang-related crime.
Sub-Element 1.5.4.1: Disruption and Dismantlement
Definition: Systematically dismantle organized and gang criminal networks (both vertically and horizontally) so as to make them impotent or ineffective, and dismantle their organizations and operations permanently so as to eliminate them. Work with host nations to not permit safe-havens for criminal organizations operating across borders.
Sub-Element 1.5.4.2: Extradition
Definition: Support the extradition of members of organized and/or gang-related networks who break international laws, the laws within their domestic operations, or laws of other countries in which their organizations operate.
Program Element 1.5.5: Program Support
Definition: This is a special element that is used to support: 1) activities that strengthen the ability of host country institutions and the USG to use strategic information for decision-making, program performance assessment, and learning; and 2) the staffing and tools needed by the USG for program management and oversight under this area.
Sub-Element 1.5.5.1: Host Country Strategic Information Capacity
Definition: Establish and/or strengthen host country institutions’ management information systems (MIS) and their development and use of tools and models to collect, analyze and disseminate a variety of information related to the program area. These may include, but are not limited to MIS for government ministries or other host country institutions, needs assessments, baseline studies, censuses and surveys, targeted evaluations, special studies, routine surveillance, data quality assessments, and operational research. This sub-element may also include developing and disseminating best practices and lessons learned and testing demonstration and/or pilot models. Related training, supplies, equipment, and non-USG personnel are included.
Sub-Element 1.5.5.2: Program Design and Learning
Definition: Develop and conduct needs assessments, baseline studies, targeted evaluations, special studies or other information-gathering efforts specifically for the design, monitoring and evaluation of USG-funded programs. This sub-element may also include developing and disseminating best practices and lessons learned, testing demonstration and/or pilot models, or the preparation of strategic plans and other short-term programming tasks. Note: All such activities that are carried out by partners as an integral part of their monitoring and evaluation efforts for programs funded under other sub-elements should be included within those sub-elements.
Sub-Element 1.5.5.3: Personnel
Definition: Provide staff to help manage, administer and support programs in this area including related salaries, travel, housing, office space, equipment, training, and other personnel-related expenses (e.g. ICASS costs).
Program Area 1.6: Conflict Mitigation and Reconciliation
Definition: Reduce the threat or impact of violent conflict and promote the peaceful resolution of differences, mitigate violence if it has already broken out, or establish a framework for peace and reconciliation. This is done by identifying the causes of conflict and state failure; supporting early responses that address the causes and consequences of instability and conflict; and developing long lasting solutions to the problems that drive conflict. This includes support for processes and mechanisms for reconciliation and conflict mitigation no matter what the source of the conflict may be, though this may require integration with other elements.
Program Element 1.6.1: Conflict Mitigation
Definition: Reduce the threat or impact of violent conflict and promote peaceful resolution of differences, mitigate violence if it has already broken out, or establish a framework for peace and reconciliation that includes both men and women.
Sub-Element 1.6.1.1: Early Warning and Response Mechanisms
Definition: Develop and support early warning and response mechanisms such as early warning models and response protocols; monitoring mechanisms and peace structures at different levels; confidence-building measures; crisis-response planning and management skills at the local and national levels; and means for rapid and effective response in the event of crisis.
Sub-Element 1.6.1.2: Peace Dividends
Definition: Support quick-impact, results-based activities required to demonstrate the positive impact of a peace process, operation or other event, such as mobilizing small grants for communities and local/national governments; ensuring delivery of services (e.g. "ministry in a box"); bringing local and national government authorities closer to their constituencies (e.g. town hall meetings, consultations, production and dissemination of information); generating employment for potential spoilers; and managing expectations.
Program Element 1.6.2: Peace and Reconciliation Processes
Definition: Support and strengthen the negotiation process and implement peace and reconciliation processes, accords and ceasefire agreements at track levels 1, 2 and 3, including support to indigenous peacebuilding efforts. For a peace/negotiations process to have a chance of success, it must entail building trust in the process, between parties, and among their constituents, with a special focus on including women. Illustrative activities include negotiation training; platform development; public opinion polling; facilitation activities; elder statesmen engagement; provision of international expert advice and knowledge; financial support to parties; multi-stakeholder dialogues; assistance with the design of peacebuilding training programs; support and maintenance of agreed verification mechanisms; support to complaint tracking mechanisms; and work with local and national government representatives to bring them closer to their constituencies.
Sub-Element 1.6.2.1: Peace Structures
Definition: Create substitute mechanisms in the absence of formal peace and in the midst of peace processes in order to meet the needs of people affected by conflict. Provide capacity building and training support to the parties in conflict; develop knowledge, attitudes and practices surveys; engage local communities in the peace process; and serve as a catalyst and connector between the national process and people. Support informal - most often civil society driven - multi-stakeholder confidential or public dialogues that facilitate dialogue and stimulate the exchange of ideas between the nation’s political stakeholder groups including civil society and community actors in a constructive, inclusive forum.
Sub-Element 1.6.2.2: Peace Messaging
Definition: Support the media during peace processes in order to ensure balance, transparency, and accountability. Includes: supporting innovative media programs that inform and prepare people to accept the outcome of credible negotiations; creating better understanding between parties and their followers – including providing forums for dialogue; educating the public about the process and issues involved in the negotiations; and facilitating important attitude and behavioral changes towards a more just and peaceable society.
Program Element 1.6.3: Preventive Diplomacy
Definition: Establish and/or support official negotiations and agreements between parties to prevent the escalation of conflicts between or within other nations.
Sub-Element 1.6.3.1: Official Negotiation Process
Definition: Support initiatives related to direct negotiation between the parties in conflict that support and strengthen the negotiation process and stakeholders’ ability to negotiate lasting and acceptable agreements. Provide technical and logistical support to the negotiators and facilitators.
Sub-Element 1.6.3.2: Ceasefire Agreements/Peace Accords and Monitoring Mechanism
Definition: Secure negotiations and peace process through establishing and maintaining a ceasefire or peace accord and establishing monitoring mechanisms and peace structures at different levels.
Program Element 1.6.4: Program Support
Definition: This is a special element that is used to support: 1) activities that strengthen the ability of host country institutions and the USG to use strategic information for decision-making, program performance assessment, and learning; and 2) the staffing and tools needed by the USG for program management and oversight under this area.
Sub-Element 1.6.4.1: Host Country Strategic Information Capacity
Definition: Establish and/or strengthen host country institutions’ management information systems (MIS) and their development and use of tools and models to collect, analyze and disseminate a variety of information related to the program area. These may include, but are not limited to MIS for government ministries or other host country institutions, needs assessments, baseline studies, censuses and surveys, targeted evaluations, special studies, routine surveillance, data quality assessments, and operational research. This sub-element may also include developing and disseminating best practices and lessons learned and testing demonstration and/or pilot models. Related training, supplies, equipment, and non-USG personnel are included.
Sub-Element 1.6.4.2: Program Design and Learning
Definition: Develop and conduct needs assessments, baseline studies, targeted evaluations, special studies or other information-gathering efforts specifically for the design, monitoring and evaluation of USG-funded programs. This sub-element may also include developing and disseminating best practices and lessons learned, testing demonstration and/or pilot models, or the preparation of strategic plans and other short-term programming tasks. Note: All such activities that are carried out by partners as an integral part of their monitoring and evaluation efforts for programs funded under other sub-elements should be included within those sub-elements.
Sub-Element 1.6.4.3: Personnel
Definition: Provide staff to help manage, administer and support programs in this area including related salaries, travel, housing, office space, equipment, training, and other personnel-related expenses (e.g. ICASS costs).

Governing Justly & Democratically: To promote and strengthen effective democracies in recipient states and move them along a continuum toward democratic consolidation.
Summary


Program Area 2.1: Rule of Law and Human Rights


Program Element 2.1.1: Constitutions, Laws, and Legal Systems
Sub-Element 2.1.1.1: Constitutions, Laws, Legal Frameworks
Sub-Element 2.1.1.2: Public Knowledge and Understanding of the Rule of Law
Sub-Element 2.1.1.3: Transitional Justice
Sub-Element 2.1.1.4: Non-State Legal Systems
Program Element 2.1.2: Judicial Independence
Sub-Element 2.1.2.1: Judicial Review
Sub-Element 2.1.2.2: Independence and Accountability
Sub-Element 2.1.2.3: Public Awareness and Advocacy
Program Element 2.1.3: Justice System
Sub-Element 2.1.3.1: Justice System Actors
Sub-Element 2.1.3.2: Operations of Institutions and Actors
Sub-Element 2.1.3.3: Fairness and Equity
Sub-Element 2.1.3.4: Access to Justice
Program Element 2.1.4: Human Rights
Sub-Element 2.1.4.1: Advocacy
Sub-Element 2.1.4.2: Systems and Policies
Sub-Element 2.1.4.3: Education and Training
Program Element 2.1.5: Program Support
Sub-Element 2.1.5.1: Host Country Strategic Information Capacity
Sub-Element 2.1.5.2: Program Design and Learning
Sub-Element 2.1.5.3: Personnel
Program Area 2.2: Good Governance
Program Element 2.2.1: Legislative Function and Processes
Sub-Element 2.2.1.1: Legislative Strengthening and Legal Reform
Sub-Element 2.2.1.2: Representation
Sub-Element 2.2.1.3: Oversight and Budget Capacity
Sub-Element 2.2.1.4: Legislative Management, Administration, Accountability and Transparency
Sub-Element 2.2.1.5: Citizen Participation
Program Element 2.2.2: Public Sector Executive Function
Sub-Element 2.2.2.1: State Formation and Democratic Legitimacy
Sub-Element 2.2.2.2: Strategic Planning and Policy Making
Sub-Element 2.2.2.3: Civil Service and Public Administration
Sub-Element 2.2.2.4: Oversight of the Executive Branch
Program Element 2.2.3: Local Government and Decentralization
Sub-Element 2.2.3.1: Representative and Responsive Local Governance
Sub-Element 2.2.3.2: Delivery of Local Goods and Services
Sub-Element 2.2.3.3: Local Government Revenue Generation
Sub-Element 2.2.3.4: Fiscal Decentralization
Sub-Element 2.2.3.5: Decentralization Enabling Environment
Sub-Element 2.2.3.6: Local Public Sector Associations
Program Element 2.2.4: Anti-Corruption Reforms
Sub-Element 2.2.4.1: Diplomatic Initiatives
Sub-Element 2.2.4.2: Governmental Reform
Sub-Element 2.2.4.3: Transparency and Oversight
Sub-Element 2.2.4.4: Anticorruption Enforcement
Program Element 2.2.5: Governance of the Security Sector
Sub-Element 2.2.5.1: Legal and Regulatory Framework of Security
Sub-Element 2.2.5.2: Civilian Management and Oversight
Sub-Element 2.2.5.3: Civil Society Capacity to Engage the Security Sector
Program Element 2.2.6: Program Support
Sub-Element 2.2.6.1: Host Country Strategic Information Capacity
Sub-Element 2.2.6.2: Program Design and Learning
Sub-Element 2.2.6.3: Personnel
Program Area 2.3: Political Competition and Consensus-Building
Program Element 2.3.1: Consensus-Building Processes
Sub-Element 2.3.1.1: Consensus Building and Dialogue Processes
Sub-Element 2.3.1.2: Advocacy and Oversight
Program Element 2.3.2: Elections and Political Processes
Sub-Element 2.3.2.1: Legal and Institutional Framework
Sub-Element 2.3.2.2: Election Management
Sub-Element 2.3.2.3: Public Awareness, Transparency and Turnout
Sub-Element 2.3.2.4: Enfranchisement, Access and Participation
Sub-Element 2.3.2.5: Observation, Monitoring and Oversight
Program Element 2.3.3: Political Parties
Sub-Element 2.3.3.1: Political Party Organizational Development
Sub-Element 2.3.3.2: Governing Capability
Sub-Element 2.3.3.3: Representation and Outreach
Sub-Element 2.3.3.4: Participation of Parties in Elections
Program Element 2.3.4: Program Support
Sub-Element 2.3.4.1: Host Country Strategic Information Capacity
Sub-Element 2.3.4.2: Program Design and Learning
Sub-Element 2.3.4.3: Personnel
Program Area 2.4: Civil Society
Program Element 2.4.1: Civic Participation
Sub-Element 2.4.1.1: Civil Society Legal and Regulatory Frameworks
Sub-Element 2.4.1.2: Civil Society Capacity for Democratic Processes
Sub-Element 2.4.1.3: Citizen Participation and Oversight
Sub-Element 2.4.1.4: Civic Education and Democratic Culture
Sub-Element 2.4.1.5: Democratic Trade Unions
Program Element 2.4.2: Media Freedom and Freedom of Information
Sub-Element 2.4.2.1: Enabling Environment for Independent Media
Sub-Element 2.4.2.2: Professional and Institutional Capacity
Sub-Element 2.4.2.3: Media Sustainability
Sub-Element 2.4.2.4: Media-Sector Civil Society Organizations (CSO) and other Support Institutions
Sub-Element 2.4.2.5: Media Outlets and Infrastructure
Sub-Element 2.4.2.6: Government Communications
Program Element 2.4.3: Program Support
Sub-Element 2.4.3.1: Host Country Strategic Information Capacity
Sub-Element 2.4.3.2: Program Design and Learning
Sub-Element 2.4.3.3: Personnel

Definitions:
Program Area 2.1: Rule of Law and Human Rights


Rule of law is a principle under which all persons, institutions and entities, public and private, including the State itself, are accountable to laws that are publicly promulgated, equally enforced, and independently adjudicated, and which are consistent with international human rights law. It also requires measures to ensure adherence to the principles of supremacy of law, equality before the law, accountability to the law, fairness in the application of the law, separation of powers, participation in decision-making, legal certainty, avoidance of arbitrariness and procedural and legal transparency. Human rights derive from the inherent dignity of the individual and are to be enjoyed by all without distinction as to race, color, sex, language, religion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status. They include fundamental freedoms of expression, association, peaceful assembly and religion set out in the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. They also include rights in labor conventions and provisions of national civil rights legislation. They reflect a common sense of decency, fairness and justice; and states have a duty to respect and ensure these rights and incorporate them into the processes of government and law.
Program Element 2.1.1: Constitutions, Laws, and Legal Systems
Definition: Support the development of constitutions, laws, and legal systems that are derived through democratic processes and are consistent with international human rights standards. Ensure that the public participates in the legal process as appropriate, perceives laws as legitimate and worthy of adherence, and respects the authority of law and legal institutions. Includes efforts to end impunity and enable peaceful transitions to democracy, as well as efforts to harmonize customary or religious law with state-based legal systems.
Sub-Element 2.1.1.1: Constitutions, Laws, and Legal Frameworks
Definition: Develop democratically-derived constitutions and legal and regulatory frameworks, including participatory processes; support for public and private research and debate on justice systems, including analysis and dissemination of jurisprudence, innovations, and best practices.
Sub-Element 2.1.1.2: Public Knowledge and Understanding of the Rule of Law
Definition: Foster and maintain a culture that is generally law-abiding, including through legal literacy, public awareness, constituency building, and citizen engagement in legal processes.
Sub-Element 2.1.1.3: Transitional Justice
Definition: Address past war crimes and human rights violations through retributive or restorative justice mechanisms, including vetting, truth and reconciliation commissions; international, local or hybrid tribunals; community-based approaches, and customary/traditional practices.
Sub-Element 2.1.1.4: Non-State Legal Systems
Definition: Harmonize customary, traditional, or religious legal systems with state legal systems to ensure appropriate linkages and human rights protections.
Program Element 2.1.2: Judicial Independence
Definition: Strengthen judicial independence as a means to maintain separation of powers and check excessive power in any branch or level of government. This element helps to ensure that government is bound by law, and government decision-making is in accordance with law. Work to create an independent and impartial judiciary through institutional and behavioral change, and also to promote public respect for the judiciary and judicial decision-making.
Sub-Element 2.1.2.1: Judicial Review
Definition: Enhance the judiciary’s ability to check abuses of power by any branch or level of government through creating and strengthening constitutional or judicial review, whether by Constitutional, Supreme, or other Courts, and ensuring enforcement of judicial decisions.
Sub-Element 2.1.2.2: Independence and Accountability
Definition: Increase independence and reduce improper influences on the judiciary through: open and participatory processes for judicial selection and appointment; security of tenure; budget allocations to ensure adequate infrastructure, training, and working conditions; judicial self-governance including management of administrative, budgetary, ethics, and disciplinary processes; and transparent court operations and judicial processes.
Sub-Element 2.1.2.3: Public Awareness and Advocacy
Definition: Foster public confidence and demand for an independent judiciary through judicial outreach, fair and accountable judicial processes, and external monitoring by legal professionals, civil society, academics, and the media.
Program Element 2.1.3: Justice System
Definition: Improve the capacity and sustainability of civil and criminal justice sector actors and institutions, enhance coordination amongst them, develop citizen demand for an effective and accountable justice system, and develop associations to advocate for all citizens. Justice sector actors and institutions include: police, border security, prosecutors, forensics experts, judges, court personnel, public defenders, corrections personnel, private bar, law schools, legal professional associations, and training institutions for each of them. Work towards an equitable justice system by ensuring equality before the law, fair trial standards, and other elements of procedural fairness. Ensure more equitable access to justice through innovations within and beyond the state system and through improvements in the quality and quantity of justice services, with a particular focus on women, youth, the poor, and other marginalized or vulnerable groups. Programs primarily focused on trafficking in persons or migrant smuggling should be included in element 5.3 under the Transnational Crime area in the Peace and Security Objective.
Sub-Element 2.1.3.1: Justice System Actors
Definition: Support educational and training institutions and programs for all justice system actors, to include reform of pedagogy and curricula, continuing and in-service training, and international partnerships; support of attestation, certification, and other standard-setting mechanisms; support of legal professional associations to promote professionalism, dignity, and public service; and strengthen oversight, including through institutions (judicial councils, inspectors general, ombudsmen, and disciplinary bodies), policies (ethics, internal integrity, and whistleblowers), and procedures (citizen oversight).
Sub-Element 2.1.3.2: Operations of Institutions and Actors
Definition: Improve administrative systems (including management, strategic planning, budget and finance, procurement, and personnel); improve operational systems and capacities to carry out core functions (including case management, client relations, advocacy, judicial decision-making, enforcement of decisions, protecting life and property, criminal investigations and prosecutions, victim/witness assistance and protection, crime prevention, humane and secure prison services, and offender parole, probation, and reintegration), and improve coordination among justice sector actors and institutions where appropriate, including harmonization of policies, procedures, and systems, and public/private partnerships relating to crime, violence, and other issues.
Sub-Element 2.1.3.3: Fairness and Equity
Definition: Develop and implement legal regimes to ensure equal protection of the law and fair process, to include non-discrimination laws and policies, civil and criminal procedures consistent with international fair trial standards, effective administrative law systems to guard against arbitrary government action, and observance by all justice system actors and institutions of international human rights standards. Support monitoring and advocacy by justice sector NGOs, including strategic lawyering, trial monitoring, and policy dialogue.
Sub-Element 2.1.3.4: Access to Justice
Definition: Expand access to state and non-state dispute-resolution fora, including court re-distribution and mobile courts. Support the removal of language, gender, cultural, and physical barriers; circulation of laws and legal decisions; and alternative dispute resolution systems. Expand access to legal services, including public defenders’ offices, legal aid and legal services, labor law services, justice or legal resources centers, and strengthen the private bar.
Program Element 2.1.4: Human Rights
Definition: Advance protection of international human rights, including labor rights, not covered under other elements. This element supports governmental and nongovernmental organizations created to protect, promote, and enforce human rights. Support programs to educate governments on incorporating human rights standards and practices into all government activity.
Sub-Element 2.1.4.1: Human Rights Advocacy
Definition: Support governmental and non-governmental human rights advocates, including human rights defenders, NGOs, ombudsmen, and human rights commissions, whether addressing human rights issues relating to justice or other sectors.
Sub-Element 2.1.4.2: Human Rights Systems and Policies
Definition: Support systems to prevent and address human rights violations through early warning, monitoring, investigating, and reporting, and through national, regional, and international legal systems for human rights protection and enforcement. Harmonize domestic laws and policies with international human rights standards; and promote the adoption and implementation of human rights standards, including core labor standards.
Sub-Element 2.1.4.3: Human Rights Education and Training
Definition: Integrate human rights into all education and training programs, develop quality human rights courses and materials, and promote research and learning.
Program Element 2.1.5: Program Support
Definition: This is a special element that is used to support: 1) activities that strengthen the ability of host country institutions and the USG to use strategic information for decision-making, program performance assessment, and learning; and 2) the staffing and tools needed by the USG for program management and oversight under this area.
Sub-Element 2.1.5.1: Host Country Strategic Information Capacity
Definition: Establish and/or strengthen host country institutions’ management information systems (MIS) and their development and use of tools and models to collect, analyze and disseminate a variety of information related to the program area. These may include, but are not limited to MIS for government ministries or other host country institutions, needs assessments, baseline studies, censuses and surveys, targeted evaluations, special studies, routine surveillance, data quality assessments, and operational research. This sub-element may also include developing and disseminating best practices and lessons learned and testing demonstration and/or pilot models. Related training, supplies, equipment, and non-USG personnel are included.
Sub-Element 2.1.5.2: Program Design and Learning
Definition: Develop and conduct needs assessments, baseline studies, targeted evaluations, special studies or other information-gathering efforts specifically for the design, monitoring and evaluation of USG-funded programs. This sub-element may also include developing and disseminating best practices and lessons learned, testing demonstration and/or pilot models, or the preparation of strategic plans and other short-term programming tasks. Note: All such activities that are carried out by partners as an integral part of their monitoring and evaluation efforts for programs funded under other sub-elements should be included within those sub-elements.
Sub-Element 2.1.5.3: Personnel
Definition: Provide staff to help manage, administer and support programs in this area including related salaries, travel, housing, office space, equipment, training, and other personnel-related expenses (e.g. ICASS costs).
Program Area 2.2: Good Governance
Support avenues for meaningful public participation and oversight, as well as for substantive separation of powers through institutional checks and balances. Transparency and integrity are also vital to government effectiveness and political stability.
Program Element 2.2.1: Legislative Function and Processes
Definition: Improve the way the legislature and legislative processes and procedures work to uphold democratic practices. Focus on the quality and effectiveness of legislation, including the constitution, codes, laws, and regulations applying to various development sectors. Increase the legislature’s capacity to be responsive to the people it serves, enhance public participation, engage in policy-making, hold itself and the executive accountable, and oversee the implementation of government programs, budgets, and laws.
Sub-Element 2.2.1.1: Legislative Strengthening and Legal Reform
Definition: Support more effective and efficient legislative processes and procedures through activities designed to strengthen, among others, legislative drafting, legal reform efforts, rules of procedure, committee processes, research capacity, and access to policy analysis and expertise.
Sub-Element 2.2.1.2: Representation
Definition: Build the capacity of legislatures to reach out to constituents, civil society, and marginalized groups to better represent the interests of people, respond to citizen grievances, provide for public services, and engage and inform the public on critical policy issues and priorities.
Sub-Element 2.2.1.3: Oversight and Budget Capacity
Definition: Strengthen the capacity and ability of the legislature to engage in monitoring and oversight of government policies, programs, actions, and budgets through committee investigations and hearings, greater interaction with government officials, questioning of government representatives, and increased engagement in budget formulation, review, and oversight.
Sub-Element 2.2.1.4: Citizen Participation
Definition: Train and support citizen groups and organizations to participate in legislative proceedings and engage in advocacy with legislative members and committees.
Program Element 2.2.2: Public Sector Executive Function
Definition: Assist executive offices, ministries, and independent governmental bodies to operate more efficiently and effectively; and assist executive branch offices and citizens to incorporate democratic structures and principles into state building, their ongoing systems of governance, and public administration services. Assist with policies, procedures, and skill sets (including leadership and strategic management) to guide operations; implementation and enforcement of laws, regulations and policies; linkages between and among branches, levels and functions of government; international relations; financial management systems; civil service reforms; public/private partnerships; and working with citizens as customers of the government.
Sub-Element 2.2.2.1: State Formation and Democratic Legitimacy
Definition: Support the reconstruction of state institutions and systems (to include indigenous and international transitional administrations) to match the role of the state to its citizens’ preferences and institutional and fiscal capability; and to incorporate democratic principles. It supports voice, negotiation/problem solving, and consensus building in the establishment and in the workings of government.
Sub-Element 2.2.2.2: Strategic Planning and Policy Making
Definition: Strengthen skills in planning, policy making, implementation, and leadership; strategic communication; availability of and access to information; offices of the president, prime minister, cabinet, and policy analysis units; and strengthen inter- and intra-governmental relations (linkages among branches and levels).
Sub-Element 2.2.2.3: Civil Service and Public Administration
Definition: Support civil service reform and develop human capacity. Improve organizational structures, systems and procedures that guide performance, including service delivery and provision, financial management systems, government engagement of citizens, public-private partnerships to serve public needs, e-government reform, and infrastructure
Sub-Element 2.2.2.4: Oversight of the Executive Branch
Definition: Ensure effective oversight of executive branch functions by citizens, other non-state actors, and within and among branches and levels of government (e.g., inspectors general, ombudsmen, task forces, commissions).
Program Element 2.2.3: Local Government and Decentralization
Definition: Provide technical assistance and training to strengthen sub-national government functions, including development of budgets, local revenue raising, provision of local public services, community planning, participation, and implementation of laws, regulations, policies, and programs. Develop and/or strengthen associations of local governments and/or local government officials.
Sub-Element 2.2.3.1: Representative and Responsive Local Governance
Definition: Support the interaction of civil society groups and local government officials in representative and participative processes designed to effectively reveal and respond to citizens’ preferences for local government services and policy positions. Reduce the barriers that limit participation of civil society, including the participation of women and marginalized populations.
Sub-Element 2.2.3.2: Delivery of Local Goods and Services
Definition: Build the capacities of local governments and local government officials to plan, manage, deliver, and account for local public goods and services.
Sub-Element 2.2.3.3: Local Government Revenue Generation through Economic Development
Definition: Ensure that local governments are entrusted with and effectively promote local economic development to ensure robust “own source” revenues and consequent local political autonomy from national authorities.
Sub-Element 2.2.3.4: Fiscal Decentralization
Definition: Support fiscal decentralization with appropriate sub-national revenue generation, inter-governmental fiscal transfers, and development of the necessary planning, management, and accounting skills that must accompany it.
Sub-Element 2.2.3.5: Decentralization Enabling Environment
Definition: Create a legislative/regulatory environment for decentralized governance with appropriate devolution of authority and resources to sub-national levels.
Sub-Element 2.2.3.6: Local Public Sector Associations
Definition: Develop and/or strengthen associations of local governments and/or local government officials to include prosecutorial and police/investigatory associations.
Program Element 2.2.4: Anti-Corruption Reforms
Definition: Promote governance institutions, processes, and policies that are transparent and accountable across all development sectors. Support non-governmental as well as governmental institutions (including enforcement and investigation entities, independent audit agencies, anti-corruption commissions, procurement agencies, legislatures, line ministries, independent agencies, political parties, judicial actors, as well as civil society organizations, academia, press and the private sector). Support civic education and advocacy for reform of laws and practices or directly improving accountability and transparency of governance processes covering various development sectors.
Sub-Element 2.2.4.1: Diplomatic Initiatives
Definition: Support treaty negotiation and implementation, which includes UNCAC, OECD, APEC-ADB, OAS Convention, GRECO, and G-8 anticorruption compacts.
Sub-Element 2.2.4.2: Governmental Reform
Definition: Support public administration reform, civil service reform, local government transparency, e-government, financial management systems and audits, government ethics regimes, regulatory reform/administrative law, public procurement reform, privatization, and tax and customs administration to reduce corruption.
Sub-Element 2.2.4.3: Transparency and Oversight
Definition: Support political party and candidate finance reform (transparency and disclosure regimes), electoral transparency, inspector general/ombudsmen/anticorruption agencies, legislative oversight, public-private partnerships to combat corruption, administration of justice, offices of professional responsibility, and administrative and regulatory sanctions. Also support civil society advocacy and oversight (incl. social auditing), complaint mechanisms and whistleblower protections, corruption surveys, access to information and Freedom of Information legislation, investigative journalism, open budget processes, and public education campaigns.
Sub-Element 2.2.4.4: Anticorruption Enforcement
Definition: Support rule of law/justice institutions including integrity and internal oversight mechanisms, tax and customs enforcement, anti-money laundering reforms, asset forfeiture, financial intelligence units, and specialized and vetted law enforcement units. Money laundering and terrorist financing can be addressed as part of a comprehensive program, but activities targeted specifically at money laundering and terrorism financing are covered in Peace and Security.
Program Element 2.2.5: Security Sector Governance
Definition: Support the development of effective, legitimate, and democratically accountable security systems (within the statutory restrictions on providing support to law enforcement forces). Illustrative activities include the following: public sector reform and public management; strategic planning, policy, and budget formulation; building ministry capacity; civilian and civic capacity building; formal oversight (legislative, fiscal, human rights); and informal oversight (civil society watchdog groups).
Sub-Element 2.2.5.1: Legal and Regulatory Framework for Security
Definition: Support drafting of laws and codes of conduct, constitutional reform, public finance management (national budgets), anticorruption and transparency measures related to the Security Sector.
Sub-Element 2.2.5.2: Civilian Management and Oversight
Definition: Support public sector reform (Ministry of Defense, Ministry of Intelligence, and Intelligence services), civil service reform, financial management systems, management and leadership development, human capacity development, internal oversight mechanisms (e.g., inspectors general, ombudsmen), defense and security reviews and plans, and local government capacity building (ability to oversee police/military units operating within local jurisdictions). Also support inter-ministerial policy/strategy coordination and decision-making (e.g., national security councils), national security strategies and papers, legislative oversight, access to information and civilian review boards.
Sub-Element 2.2.5.3: Civil Society Capacity to Engage the Security Sector
Definition: Public engagement advocacy, media and information sharing, networking and coalition-building, human rights monitoring, outside expertise (think tanks, academia), public-private partnerships, service delivery through non-state actors (traditional, religious, customary actors, citizen patrols, militia), community responses to crime (community policing, safe streets).
Program Element 2.2.6: Program Support
Definition: This is a special element that is used to support: 1) activities that strengthen the ability of host country institutions and the USG to use strategic information for decision-making, program performance assessment, and learning; and 2) the staffing and tools needed by the USG for program management and oversight under this area.
Sub-Element 2.2.6.1: Host Country Strategic Information Capacity
Definition: Establish and/or strengthen host country institutions’ management information systems (MIS) and their development and use of tools and models to collect, analyze and disseminate a variety of information related to the program area. These may include, but are not limited to MIS for government ministries or other host country institutions, needs assessments, baseline studies, censuses and surveys, targeted evaluations, special studies, routine surveillance, data quality assessments, and operational research. This sub-element may also include developing and disseminating best practices and lessons learned and testing demonstration and/or pilot models. Related training, supplies, equipment, and non-USG personnel are included.
Sub-Element 2.2.6.2: Program Design and Learning
Definition: Develop and conduct needs assessments, baseline studies, targeted evaluations, special studies or other information-gathering efforts specifically for the design, monitoring and evaluation of USG-funded programs. This sub-element may also include developing and disseminating best practices and lessons learned, testing demonstration and/or pilot models, or the preparation of strategic plans and other short-term programming tasks. Note: All such activities that are carried out by partners as an integral part of their monitoring and evaluation efforts for programs funded under other sub-elements should be included within those sub-elements.
Sub-Element 2.2.6.3: Personnel
Definition: Provide staff to help manage, administer and support programs in this area including related salaries, travel, housing, office space, equipment, training, and other personnel-related expenses (e.g. ICASS costs).
Program Area 2.3: Political Competition and Consensus-Building
Support peaceful political competition and negotiation of disputes through a democratic and representative political process. Create and support vehicles for people to debate public priorities, air alternative solutions, win support for proposed remedies and provide input to decisions that affect their lives.
Program Element 2.3.1: Consensus-Building Processes
Definition: Promote peaceful agreement on democratic reform, rules, and frameworks. Promote peaceful, broad-based participation in determining, defining, and negotiating changes to governing structures. Illustrative examples include promoting inclusive consensus-building processes related to peace agreements, national dialogues, referenda on key issues, and constitutional development or reform. Programs are designed to incorporate and support mechanisms that advance conflict mediation, resolution and negotiation of disputes in the context of these processes.
Sub-Element 2.3.1.1: Consensus Building and Dialogue Processes
Definition: Support consensus building political processes at national, sub-national and/or local levels that incorporate views of all stakeholders including political parties and groupings, citizens, and formerly warring factions to establish a national consensus on the political structures of the state. These processes can be directly related to broader peace agreements or may occur in the narrower context of a political transition. Support citizen knowledge of and participation in consensus building forums, including marginalized groups and vulnerable populations.
Sub-Element 2.3.1.2: Advocacy and Oversight
Definition: Advocacy for and oversight of the consensus-building processes.
Program Element 2.3.2: Elections and Political Processes
Definition: Promote legitimate contestation for ideas and political power through democratic political processes that reflect the will of the people. Establish or develop competitive multiparty systems through improving the legal and regulatory framework under which political parties and political entities operate.
Sub-Element 2.3.2.1: Legal and Institutional Framework
Definition: Develop impartial legal frameworks for elections and political processes including the laws, regulations, and constitutional provisions that govern them (election system design, boundary delimitation, election laws). It includes the development of laws and regulatory frameworks for a competitive, representative, multi-party system including laws, regulations, and constitutional provisions governing political parties and other political entities.
Sub-Element 2.3.2.2: Election Management
Definition: Support electoral management bodies to conduct elections, formal adjudication of electoral disputes, and security for elections
Sub-Element 2.3.2.3: Public Awareness, Transparency, and Turnout
Definition: Dissemination of information and education through the media, civil society groups and labor unions for all citizens/voters about the election, political process, and/or specific issues and to improve transparency of the process and the quality of debate.
Sub-Element 2.3.2.4: Enfranchisement, Access, and Participation of Marginalized Groups
Definition: Support broad and inclusive participation of all citizens in electoral and political processes, particularly by women and other disenfranchised groups including ethnic and religious minorities, internally displaced persons, and people with disabilities.
Sub-Element 2.3.2.5: Observation, Monitoring and Oversight
Definition: Observation, monitoring, and external oversight by local and international organizations including the use of parallel vote tabulations, quick counts, exit polling, media monitoring, and other related oversight tools.
Program Element 2.3.3: Democratic Political Parties
Definition: Establish and/or develop viable political parties and political entities that are effective and accountable, that represent and respond to citizens’ interests, and that govern responsibly and effectively.
Sub-Element 2.3.3.1: Political Party Organizational Development
Definition: Support organizational capacity of political parties and political entities including, internal democracy, expanded and more inclusive membership to include underrepresented groups, improved party discipline, transparent management of finances, and constituency relations.
Sub-Element 2.3.3.2: Governing Capacity
Definition: Strengthen the capacity of elected officials, democratic political parties, and political entities to govern responsibly and effectively, including efforts to achieve a peaceful and effective transfer of power from one government to another; build capacity of newly elected or re-elected leaders; develop skills in negotiation and dispute resolution, communications and media.
Sub-Element 2.3.3.3: Representation and Outreach
Definition: Support the ability of political parties and political entities to represent and aggregate member interests, as well as research, identify, and articulate policy positions and ideas. Strengthen communication, contact, and interaction with voters/constituents and civil society groups, and among political parties.
Sub-Element 2.3.3.4: Political Party Participation in Elections
Definition: Strengthen the ability of political parties and political entities to compete effectively in elections political processes, including campaigning, fund-raising, mobilizing voter turn-out, and monitoring voting processes.
Program Element 2.3.4: Program Support
Definition: This is a special element that is used to support: 1) activities that strengthen the ability of host country institutions and the USG to use strategic information for decision-making, program performance assessment, and learning; and 2) the staffing and tools needed by the USG for program management and oversight under this area.
Sub-Element 2.3.4.1: Host Country Strategic Information Capacity
Definition: Establish and/or strengthen host country institutions’ management information systems (MIS) and their development and use of tools and models to collect, analyze and disseminate a variety of information related to the program area. These may include, but are not limited to MIS for government ministries or other host country institutions, needs assessments, baseline studies, censuses and surveys, targeted evaluations, special studies, routine surveillance, data quality assessments, and operational research. This sub-element may also include developing and disseminating best practices and lessons learned and testing demonstration and/or pilot models. Related training, supplies, equipment, and non-USG personnel are included.
Sub-Element 2.3.4.2: Program Design and Learning
Definition: Develop and conduct needs assessments, baseline studies, targeted evaluations, special studies or other information-gathering efforts specifically for the design, monitoring and evaluation of USG-funded programs. This sub-element may also include developing and disseminating best practices and lessons learned, testing demonstration and/or pilot models, or the preparation of strategic plans and other short-term programming tasks. Note: All such activities that are carried out by partners as an integral part of their monitoring and evaluation efforts for programs funded under other sub-elements should be included within those sub-elements.
Sub-Element 2.3.4.3: Personnel
Definition: Provide staff to help manage, administer and support programs in this area including related salaries, travel, housing, office space, equipment, training, and other personnel-related expenses (e.g. ICASS costs).
Program Area 2.4: Civil Society
Provide mediums (media, civil society organizations, advocacy groups/ associations) through which citizens can freely organize, advocate, and communicate with their government and with each other; strengthen a democratic political culture that values citizen and civic engagement, tolerance, and respect for human rights; empower citizens to participate in decision-making on matters affecting them; and mobilize constituencies to advocate for political reform, good governance, and strengthened democratic institutions and processes.
Program Element 2.4.1: Civic Participation
Definition: Strengthen the legal, regulatory, institutional, and information environment which protects and enables the growth in associational life and the development of independent and sustainable civil society organizations (CSOs). Build the capacity of civil society organizations to act as agents for reform and support their participation in democratic decision-making through articulating and representing their members’ interests, engaging in service delivery, and advocating for issues which become part of the public agenda and are reflected in public policies. Encourage the strengthening of a civic culture which supports democratic institutions and processes, active participation in political and civic life, and the civic virtues of tolerance, pluralism, compromise, trust, and respect for individual rights, including gender equality.
Sub-Element 2.4.1.1: Civil Society Legal and Regulatory Frameworks
Definition: Establish legal and regulatory frameworks that protect and promote civil society and civic participation. This includes but is not limited to ensuring that frameworks are in place that enable CSOs to form and operate freely (e.g., NGO registration/incorporation laws, laws protecting freedom of association and collective bargaining), promoting the sustainability of the civil society sector (e.g., tax benefits for NGOs), and supporting public participation and social accountability (e.g., public hearings, instructional seminars, and conferences). This aspect also includes strengthening advocacy, networking, grassroots coalitions, and public support for reforms related to the enabling environment.
Sub-Element 2.4.1.2: Civil Society Capacity for Democratic Processes
Definition: Strengthen the capacity of CSOs for policy analysis, advocacy, coalition-building, internal governance, membership representation and services, and engage in other activities aimed at fostering more peaceful and democratic societies. CSOs include, but are not limited to, human rights organizations, women’s groups, labor unions, business and professional associations, youth movements, religious organizations, indigenous organizations, think tanks, and organizations representing vulnerable populations. Areas of capacity building may include, but are not limited to, technical expertise (e.g. human rights, legal reform); CSO self-regulation (e.g. establishing NGO Codes of Conduct); organizational capacity (e.g. strategic planning, financial management and accountability, public relations, issue management, and outreach, revenue generation, accountable fundraising); and targeted advocacy training and technical assistance.
Sub-Element 2.4.1.3: Citizen Participation and Oversight
Definition: Increase citizen participation in policy and decision-making processes, service delivery, resource allocation, the oversight of public institutions and in broader initiatives aimed at creating more peaceful, democratic, and pluralistic societies. Activities within this subelement may include, but are not limited to, CSO and citizen advocacy efforts; establishing and building public-private partnerships; multi-stakeholder civic fora; web-based NGO resources; political participation of marginalized and vulnerable groups and populations, such as women, youth and children; and citizen engagement in human rights, anticorruption, and peace building initiatives.
Sub-Element 2.4.1.4: Civic Education and Democratic Culture
Definition: Strengthen a political and civic culture which is supportive of democratic institutions and processes; active citizen participation; civic virtues, such as tolerance and gender equality; and other civic skills, attitudes, and behaviors. This includes, but is not limited to, informal civic education initiatives as well as the expansion of civic education in formal education systems. Includes community-based civic actions.
Sub-Element 2.4.1.5: Democratic Trade Unions
Definition: Develop and strengthen independent and democratic trade/labor unions and federations to promote international core labor standards through organizing and advocacy efforts, and to contribute to workforce development and health initiatives. This includes, but is not limited to, protecting and promoting laws and legal environments which guarantee the rights of freedom of association and collective bargaining; building unions’ capacities as incubators of democratic processes and values; supporting, training, and mentoring leaders of democratic trade unions and labor movements; promoting the understanding and use of tripartite mechanisms for worker participation in the policy processes of public institutions; and strengthening collective bargaining mechanisms at all levels.
Program Element 2.4.2: Media Freedom and Freedom of Information
Definition: Establish and/or develop a broadly functioning independent media sector, which is a crucial factor in democratic governance. Building this sector is accomplished through such activities as providing infrastructure and equipment to ensure access to information, shaping the media legal and regulatory environment, boosting professional capacity of the media sector, promoting sustainability through encouraging media-related business development and sound financial/management practices, and supporting advocacy and networking among media sector organizations.
Sub-Element 2.4.2.1: Enabling Environment for Independent Media
Definition: Strengthen the media-related legal and regulatory framework, and associated advocacy and other sector skills, in order to, for instance, enable the growth of independent media through legal and other means; protect media professionals and outlets who are being harassed, intimidated, imprisoned, and/or shut down for reporting on sensitive subjects; promote media sector business development; and/or reform state media into private or public service systems.
Sub-Element 2.4.2.2: Professional and Institutional Capacity
Definition: Boost professional capacity of the media sector through a variety of training, consulting, and mentoring methods, including, but not limited to, the use of media production support as a training mechanism, building of host country training institutions and capacities, production and distribution of training materials, and other educational approaches.
Sub-Element 2.4.2.3: Media Sustainability
Definition: Build a financially sustainable media sector through activities such as management training, advertising sector development, the development of audience research and/or circulation audit capacities, market research, outreach methods to potential advertising clients, business planning, facilitation of capital infusions and loans, network development and promotion of information exchanges, exploring innovative sponsorships/partnerships, and other methods/activities to enhance both the economic viability of media enterprises and an overall environment that supports the development of sustainable media.
Sub-Element 2.4.2.4: Media-Sector CSOs and Other Support Institutions
Definition: Support independent media by strengthening media sector civil society organizations and related groups/activities (including but not limited to internet-based networking initiatives and regional initiatives).
Sub-Element 2.4.2.5: Private, Public and/or Community Media Outlets and Infrastructure
Definition: Establish and/or develop community radio, newspapers, and/or multi-media community centers, in countries where needed. In addition, engage in infrastructure and equipment provision and maintenance, and restoration/cataloguing of archival media materials, as appropriate.
Sub-Element 2.4.2.6: Government Communications
Definition: Assist with government public information campaigns and other related activities. Also, in the context of sensitizing government officials to the role of independent media, assist governments in improving their press and public relations capacities, including training of press officers on free media systems and interaction with the media, promotion of e-government capacities, restoration/recovery/cataloguing of archival media materials, and building other communications capacities.
Program Element 2.4.3: Program Support
Definition: This is a special element that is used to support: 1) activities that strengthen the ability of host country institutions and the USG to use strategic information for decision-making, program performance assessment, and learning; and 2) the staffing and tools needed by the USG for program management and oversight under this area.
Sub-Element 2.4.3.1: Host Country Strategic Information Capacity
Definition: Establish and/or strengthen host country institutions’ management information systems (MIS) and their development and use of tools and models to collect, analyze and disseminate a variety of information related to the program area. These may include, but are not limited to MIS for government ministries or other host country institutions, needs assessments, baseline studies, censuses and surveys, targeted evaluations, special studies, routine surveillance, data quality assessments, and operational research. This sub-element may also include developing and disseminating best practices and lessons learned and testing demonstration and/or pilot models. Related training, supplies, equipment, and non-USG personnel are included.
Sub-Element 2.4.3.2: Program Design and Learning
Definition: Develop and conduct needs assessments, baseline studies, targeted evaluations, special studies or other information-gathering efforts specifically for the design, monitoring and evaluation of USG-funded programs. This sub-element may also include developing and disseminating best practices and lessons learned, testing demonstration and/or pilot models, or the preparation of strategic plans and other short-term programming tasks. Note: All such activities that are carried out by partners as an integral part of their monitoring and evaluation efforts for programs funded under other sub-elements should be included within those sub-elements.
Sub-Element 2.4.3.3: Personnel
Definition: Provide staff to help manage, administer and support programs in this area including related salaries, travel, housing, office space, equipment, training, and other personnel-related expenses (e.g. ICASS costs).

Investing In People: To help nations achieve sustainable improvements in the well-being and productivity of their populations through effective and accountable investments in education, health, and other social services.
Summary


Program Area 3.1: Health


Program Element 3.1.1: HIV/AIDS
Sub-Element 3.1.1.1: Preventing Mother-to-Child Transmission
Sub-Element 3.1.1.2: Abstinence/Be Faithful
Sub-Element 3.1.1.3: Medical Transmission/Blood Safety
Sub-Element 3.1.1.4: Medical Transmission/Injection Safety
Sub-Element 3.1.1.5: Condoms and Other Prevention Activities
Sub-Element 3.1.1.6: Palliative Care: Basic Health Care and Support
Sub-Element 3.1.1.7: Palliative Care: TB/HIV
Sub-Element 3.1.1.8: Orphans and Vulnerable Children
Sub-Element 3.1.1.9: Counseling and Testing
Sub-Element 3.1.1.10: HIV/AIDS Treatment/ARV Drugs
Sub-Element 3.1.1.11: HIV/AIDS Treatment/ARV Services
Sub-Element 3.1.1.12: Laboratory Infrastructure
Sub-Element 3.1.1.13: Other/Policy Analysis and System Strengthening
Sub-Element 3.1.1.14: Host Country Strategic Information Capacity
Sub-Element 3.1.1.15: Program Design and Learning
Sub-Element 3.1.1.16: Personnel
Program Element 3.1.2: Tuberculosis
Sub-Element 3.1.2.1: DOTS Expansion and Enhancement
Sub-Element 3.1.2.2: Increasing Availability of Drugs for Treatment of TB
Sub-Element 3.1.2.3: Improve Management of TB/HIV
Sub-Element 3.1.2.4: Multi Drug Resistant TB
Sub-Element 3.1.2.5: Care and Support
Sub-Element 3.1.2.6: Development of New Tools and Improved Approaches
Sub-Element 3.1.2.7: Health Governance and Finance (TB)
Sub-Element 3.1.2.8: Host Country Strategic Information Capacity
Sub-Element 3.1.2.9: Program Design and Learning
Sub-Element 3.1.2.10: Personnel
Program Element 3.1.3: Malaria
Sub-Element 3.1.3.1: Treatment with Artemisinin-Based Combination Therapies
Sub-Element 3.1.3.2: Insecticide-Treated Nets (ITNs) to Prevent Malaria
Sub-Element 3.1.3.3: Indoor Residual Spraying (IRS) to Prevent Malaria
Sub-Element 3.1.3.4: Intermittent Preventive Treatment of Pregnant Women with Sulfadoxine Pyrimethanine
Sub-Element 3.1.3.5: Epidemic Preparedness and Response
Sub-Element 3.1.3.6: Malaria Research
Sub-Element 3.1.3.7: Health Governance and Finance (Malaria)
Sub-Element 3.1.3.8: Anti-microbial Resistance (Malaria)
Sub-Element 3.1.3.9: Host Country Strategic Information Capacity
Sub-Element 3.1.3.10: Program Design and Learning
Sub-Element 3.1.3.11: Personnel
Program Element 3.1.4: Avian Influenza
Sub-Element 3.1.4.1: Planning and Preparedness for Outbreak Response
Sub-Element 3.1.4.2: Animal and Human Disease Surveillance
Sub-Element 3.1.4.3: Commodity Stockpile
Sub-Element 3.1.4.4: Behavior Change Communications
Sub-Element 3.1.4.5: Response to Disease Outbreak
Sub-Element 3.1.4.6: Health Governance and Finance (AI)
Sub-Element 3.1.4.7: Host Country Strategic Information Capacity
Sub-Element 3.1.4.8: Program Design and Learning
Sub-Element 3.1.4.9: Personnel
Program Element 3.1.5: Other Public Health Threats
Sub-Element 3.1.5.1: Neglected Tropical Diseases and Other Infectious Diseases
Sub-Element 3.1.5.2: Non-Communicable Public Health Threats Including Injuries
Sub-Element 3.1.5.3: Health Governance and Finance (Other Health)
Sub-Element 3.1.5.4: Host Country Strategic Information Capacity
Sub-Element 3.1.5.5: Program Design and Learning
Sub-Element 3.1.5.6: Personnel
Program Element 3.1.6: Maternal and Child Health
Sub-Element 3.1.6.1: Birth Preparedness and Maternity Services
Sub-Element 3.1.6.2: Treatment of Obstetric Complications and Disabilities
Sub-Element 3.1.6.3: Newborn Care and Treatment
Sub-Element 3.1.6.4: Immunization, Including Polio
Sub-Element 3.1.6.5: Maternal and Young Child Nutrition, Including Micronutrients
Sub-Element 3.1.6.6: Treatment of Child Illness
Sub-Element 3.1.6.7: Household Level Water, Sanitation, Hygiene and Environment
Sub-Element 3.1.6.8: Health Governance and Finance (MCH)
Sub-Element 3.1.6.9: Anti-microbial Resistance (MCH)
Sub-Element 3.1.6.10: Host Country Strategic Information Capacity
Sub-Element 3.1.6.11: Program Design and Learning
Sub-Element 3.1.6.12: Personnel
Program Element 3.1.7: Family Planning and Reproductive Health
Sub-Element 3.1.7.1: Service Delivery
Sub-Element 3.1.7.2: Communication
Sub-Element 3.1.7.3: Policy Analysis and System Strengthening
Sub-Element 3.1.7.4: Health Governance and Finance (FP)
Sub-Element 3.1.7.5: Host Country Strategic Information Capacity
Sub-Element 3.1.7.6: Program Design and Learning
Sub-Element 3.1.7.7: Personnel
Program Element 3.1.8: Water Supply and Sanitation
Sub-Element 3.1.8.1: Safe Water Access
Sub-Element 3.1.8.2: Basic Sanitation
Sub-Element 3.1.8.3: Water and Sanitation Policy and Governance
Sub-Element 3.1.8.4: Sustainable Financing for Water and Sanitation Services
Sub-Element 3.1.8.5: Water Resources Productivity
Sub-Element 3.1.8.6: Science and Technology Cooperation
Sub-Element 3.1.8.7: Host Country Strategic Information Capacity
Sub-Element 3.1.8.8: Program Design and Learning
Sub-Element 3.1.8.9: Personnel
Program Area 3.2: Education
Program Element 3.2.1: Basic Education
Sub-Element 3.2.1.1: Pre-Primary Education
Sub-Element 3.2.1.2: Primary Education
Sub-Element 3.2.1.3: Lower Secondary Education
Sub-Element 3.2.1.4: Learning for Out-of-School Youth
Sub-Element 3.2.1.5: Literacy and Numeracy for Adults
Sub-Element 3.2.1.6: Upper Secondary Education
Sub-Element 3.2.1.7: Education Systems
Sub-Element 3.2.1.8: Host Country Strategic Information Capacity
Sub-Element 3.2.1.9: Program Design and Learning
Sub-Element 3.2.1.10: Personnel
Program Element 3.2.2: Higher Education
Sub-Element 3.2.2.1: Policy Development and Reform
Sub-Element 3.2.2.2: Institutional Capacity Development
Sub-Element 3.2.2.3: Regional, National, and Local Development
Sub-Element 3.2.2.4: Professional Development
Sub-Element 3.2.2.5: Host Country Strategic Information Capacity
Sub-Element 3.2.2.6: Program Design and Learning
Sub-Element 3.2.2.7: Personnel
Program Area 3.3: Social Services and Protection for Especially Vulnerable Populations
Program Element 3.3.1: Policies, Regulations, and Systems
Sub-Element 3.3.1.1: Social Policy Governance
Sub-Element 3.3.1.2: Research Capacity
Sub-Element 3.3.1.3: Host Country Strategic Information Capacity
Sub-Element 3.3.1.4: Program Design and Learning
Sub-Element 3.3.1.5: Personnel
Program Element 3.3.2: Social Services
Sub-Element 3.3.2.1: Vulnerable Children
Sub-Element 3.3.2.2: Victims of War
Sub-Element 3.3.2.3: Victims of Torture
Sub-Element 3.3.2.4: Other Targeted Vulnerable Groups
Sub-Element 3.3.2.5: Host Country Strategic Information Capacity
Sub-Element 3.3.2.6: Program Design and Learning
Sub-Element 3.3.2.7: Personnel
Program Element 3.3.3: Social Assistance
Sub-Element 3.3.3.1: Targeted Assistance to Meet Basic Needs for the Poorest
Sub-Element 3.3.3.2: Conditional Cash Transfers
Sub-Element 3.3.3.3: Targeted Subsidies for Low-Income Households
Sub-Element 3.3.3.4: Self-Help Programs
Sub-Element 3.3.3.5: Host Country Strategic Information Capacity
Sub-Element 3.3.3.6: Program Design and Learning
Sub-Element 3.3.3.7: Personnel

Definitions:
Program Area 3.1: Health


To contribute to improvements in the health of people, especially women, children, and other vulnerable populations in countries of the developing world, through expansion of basic health services, including family planning; strengthening national health systems, and addressing global issues and special concerns such as HIV/AIDS and other infectious diseases
Program Element 3.1.1: HIV/AIDS
Definition: Reduce the transmission and impact of HIV/AIDS through support for prevention, care and treatment programs.
Sub-Element 3.1.1.1: Preventing Mother-to-Child Transmission
Definition: Prevent mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT) including counseling and testing for pregnant women, ARV prophylaxis for HIV-infected pregnant women and newborns, counseling and support for maternal nutrition and safe infant feeding practices. PMTCT-plus ARV-treatment activities should be coded under Sub-Element 1.1.10 (HIV/AIDS Treatment and Anti-Retroviral Drugs) and Sub-Element 1.1.11 (HIV/AIDS Treatment and Anti-Retroviral Services).
Sub-Element 3.1.1.2: Abstinence/Be Faithful
Definition: Promote abstinence, fidelity, delay of sexual activity, partner-reduction messages, and related social and community norms.
Sub-Element 3.1.1.3: Medical Transmission/Blood Safety
Definition: Support a nationally coordinated blood program, which includes policies; infrastructure, equipment and supplies; donor-recruitment activities; blood collection, distribution, testing and transfusion; training; and management to ensure a safe and adequate blood supply.
Sub-Element 3.1.1.4: Medical Transmission/Injection Safety
Definition: Support policies, training, waste-management systems, advocacy and other activities to promote (medical) injection safety, including distribution/supply chain, cost and appropriate disposal of injection equipment and other related equipment and supplies.
Sub-Element 3.1.1.5: Condoms and Other Prevention Activities
Definition: Support other activities aimed at preventing HIV transmission including purchase and promotion of condoms, sexually transmitted infection (STI) management (if not in palliative care settings/context), messages/programs to reduce injecting drug use and related risks.
Sub-Element 3.1.1.6: Palliative Care: Basic Health Care and Support
Definition: Basic health care and support, which includes: all clinic-based and home/community-based activities for HIV-infected adults, children, and their families that are aimed at optimizing the quality of life for HIV-infected clients and their families throughout the continuum of illness by the means of symptom diagnosis and relief, psychological and spiritual support, clinical monitoring, related laboratory services and management of opportunistic infections (excluding TB) and other HIV/AIDS-related complications (including pharmaceuticals), and culturally-appropriate end-of-life care. Basic health care and support also includes clinic-based and home/community-based support, social and material support such as nutrition support, legal aid, and housing, and training and support of caregivers. Clinic-based and home/community-based care and support activities for HIV-positive children within programs for orphans and other vulnerable children affected by HIV/AIDS would fall under sub-element 1.1.8 (Orphans and Vulnerable Children). ARV treatment should be coded under sub-element 1.1.10 (HIV/AIDS Treatment and Anti-Retroviral Drugs) and sub-element 1.1.11 (HIV/AIDS Treatment and Anti-Retroviral Services).
Sub-Element 3.1.1.7: Palliative Care: TB/HIV
Definition: Exams, clinical monitoring, related laboratory services, treatment and prevention of tuberculosis in HIV basic health care settings (including pharmaceuticals), as well as screening and referral for HIV testing, and clinical care related to TB clinical settings. If TB programs provide other basic health care and support services such as clinical or psychosocial services, these services would be coded under sub-element 1.1.6 (Basic Health Care and Support). If TB programs expand to provide clients with anti-retroviral treatment (ART), such services would fall under Sub-Element 1.1.10 (HIV/AIDS Treatment and Anti-Retroviral Drugs) and Sub-Element 1.1.11 (HIV/AIDS Treatment and Anti-Retroviral Services). Note: General TB treatment, prevention, and related programming must be funded with CSH/Infectious Diseases funds directed for TB, not with HIV/AIDS funds.
Sub-Element 3.1.1.8: Orphans and Vulnerable Children
Definition: Improve the lives of orphans and other vulnerable children and families affected by HIV/AIDS. Strengthen communities to meet the needs of orphans and other vulnerable children affected by HIV/AIDS, supporting community-based responses, helping children and adolescents to meet their own needs, creating a supportive social and policy environment. Activities could include training caregivers, increasing access to education, economic support, targeted food and nutrition support, and legal aid. Institutional responses would also be included. ARV treatment of children is excluded from this category and should be coded under Sub-Element 1.1.10 (HIV/AIDS Treatment and Anti-Retroviral Drugs) and Sub-Element 1.1.11 (HIV/AIDS Treatment and Anti-Retroviral Services). Palliative care, including basic health care and support and TB/HIV prevention, management and treatment, as well as their related laboratory services and pharmaceuticals, when delivered within programs for orphans and other vulnerable children affected by HIV/AIDS, should be coded under this aspect. Other health care associated with the continuum of HIV/AIDS illness, including HIV/TB services, when delivered outside a program for orphans and other vulnerable children affected by HIV/AIDS, should be coded under Sub-Element 1.1.6 (Basic Health Care and Support) or Sub-Element 1.1.7 (TB/HIV).
Sub-Element 3.1.1.9: Counseling and Testing
Definition: Provide HIV counseling and testing are provided for those who seek to know their HIV status (as in traditional voluntary counseling and testing) or as indicated in other contexts (e.g., STI clinics). Counseling and testing in the context of preventing mother-to-child transmission is coded under sub-element 1.1.1 PMTCT.
Sub-Element 3.1.1.10: HIV/AIDS Treatment/ARV Drugs
Definition: Distribution, supply chain, logistics, pharmaceutical management, and cost of ARV drugs.
Sub-Element 3.1.1.11: HIV/AIDS Treatment/ARV Services
Definition: Infrastructure, training clinicians, and other providers, exams, clinical monitoring, related laboratory services, and community-adherence activities. Clinical monitoring and management of opportunistic infections is classified under palliative care either Sub-Element 1.1.6 (Basic Health Care and Support) or Sub-Element 1.1.7 (TB/HIV)
Sub-Element 3.1.1.12: Laboratory Infrastructure
Definition: Develop and strengthen laboratory facilities to support HIV/AIDS-related activities including purchase of equipment and commodities, provision of quality assurance, staff training, and other technical assistance. Specific laboratory services supporting testing (e.g., under Sub-Element 1.1.9 [Counseling and Testing], Sub-Element 1.1.1 [PMTCT] or Sub-Element 1.1.3 [Blood Safety]), palliative care (Sub-Element 1.1.6 [Basic Health Care and Support] or Sub-Element 1.1.7 [TB/HIV]), and treatment (Sub-Element 1.1.11 [ARV Services]) should be included under the codes for those activities.
Sub-Element 3.1.1.13: Other/Policy Analysis and System Strengthening
Definition: Further other HIV/AIDS-related activities to support national prevention, care, and treatment efforts. This includes strengthening national and organizational policies and systems to address human resource capacity development, stigma, and discrimination, and gender issues; and other cross-cutting activities to combat HIV/AIDS including activities to support the implementation of Global Fund programs.
Sub-Element 3.1.1.14: Host Country Strategic Information Capacity
Definition: Establish and/or strengthen host country institutions’ management information systems (MIS) and their development and use of tools and models to collect, analyze and disseminate a variety of information related to the program element. These may include, but are not limited to MIS for government ministries or other host country institutions, needs assessments, baseline studies, censuses and surveys, targeted evaluations, special studies, routine surveillance, data quality assessments, and operational research. This sub-element may also include developing and disseminating best practices and lessons learned and testing demonstration and/or pilot models. Related training, supplies, equipment, and non-USG personnel are included.
Sub-Element 3.1.1.15: Program Design and Learning
Definition: Develop and conduct needs assessments, baseline studies, targeted evaluations, special studies or other information-gathering efforts specifically for the design, monitoring and evaluation of USG-funded programs. This sub-element may also include developing and disseminating best practices and lessons learned, testing demonstration and/or pilot models, or the preparation of strategic plans and other short-term programming tasks. Note: All such activities that are carried out by partners as an integral part of their monitoring and evaluation efforts for programs funded under other sub-elements should be included within those sub-elements.
Program SubElement 1.1.16: Personnel
Definition: Provide staff to help manage, administer and support programs in this element including related salaries, travel, housing, office space, equipment, training, and other personnel-related expenses (e.g. ICASS costs).
Program Element 3.1.2: Tuberculosis
Definition: Reduce the number of deaths caused by TB by increasing detection of cases of TB and by successfully treating detected cases, as well as addressing issues of multi-drug resistant TB, TB and HIV, and investing in new tools for TB.
Sub-Element 3.1.2.1: DOTS Expansion and Enhancement
Definition: Support political commitment and sustained financing for TB control; case detection through quality assured bacteriology; standardized treatment with supervision and patient support; reliable supply of quality-assured drugs; monitoring and evaluation; interventions to improve DOTS quality; and engagement of all public and private providers in DOTS.
Sub-Element 3.1.2.2: Increasing Availability of Drugs for the Treatment of TB
Definition: Procurement of drugs to treat TB, including forecasting, direct financing, purchasing, quality assurance, strengthening country supply chain to manage and deliver such drugs for public and private service delivery.
Sub-Element 3.1.2.3: Improve Management of TB/HIV
Definition: Build capacity for joint TB/HIV planning, monitoring, and evaluation; surveillance of HIV prevalence in TB patients; active TB case finding in people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA); HIV counseling and testing in TB patients; cotrimoxazole preventive therapy; referral of HIV+ TB patients to ARV treatment services; isoniazid preventive therapy; and TB infection control in health facilities and congregate settings.
Sub-Element 3.1.2.4: Multi Drug Resistant TB
Definition: Introduce and expand DOTS Plus for MDR TB including detection, diagnosis, and treatment of drug resistant TB and drug resistance surveillance.
Sub-Element 3.1.2.5: TB Care and Support
Definition: Support men and women affected by TB to improve early access to treatment and care, especially among the poor; empower TB patients and communities; and encourage community participation in TB care, with special attention to decreasing stigma and discrimination, using communication and social mobilization, and the introduction of international standards of care and TB patient charters.
Sub-Element 3.1.2.6: Development of New Tools and Improved Approaches
Definition: Support Phase IIB clinical trials and beyond in the areas of new drugs, diagnostics, vaccines; development of clinical trial capacity; operations research to improve approaches to treatment and care.
Sub-Element 3.1.2.7: Health Governance and Finance (TB)
Definition: Promote sustainable improvements in health outcomes for men/boys and women/girls by reducing key governance and financing constraints to the achievement of multiple health element objectives and the health area goal overall. These include activities that reduce corruption; increase equity; improve efficiency and increase financial protection (especially for underserved populations), including in the context of financing, organization of services, facility construction/renovation, human resources and pharmaceutical management, and strategic information. Note: Operating Units should make efforts to report activities that address specific earmarks under other sub-elements, reserving the use of the health governance and finance sub-element for overarching activities that support multiple health elements.
Sub-Element 3.1.2.8: Host Country Strategic Information Capacity
Definition: Establish and/or strengthen host country institutions’ management information systems (MIS) and their development and use of tools and models to collect, analyze and disseminate a variety of information related to the program element. These may include, but are not limited to MIS for government ministries or other host country institutions, needs assessments, baseline studies, censuses and surveys, targeted evaluations, special studies, routine surveillance, data quality assessments, and operational research. This sub-element may also include developing and disseminating best practices and lessons learned and testing demonstration and/or pilot models. Related training, supplies, equipment, and non-USG personnel are included.
Sub-Element 3.1.2.9: Program Design and Learning
Definition: Develop and conduct needs assessments, baseline studies, targeted evaluations, special studies or other information-gathering efforts specifically for the design, monitoring and evaluation of USG-funded programs. This sub-element may also include developing and disseminating best practices and lessons learned and testing demonstration and/or pilot models or the preparation of strategic plans and other short-term programming tasks. Note: All such activities that are carried out by partners as an integral part of their monitoring and evaluation efforts for programs funded under other sub-elements should be included within those sub-elements (e.g. ICASS costs).
Sub-Element 3.1.2.10: Personnel
Definition: Provide staff to help manage, administer and support programs in this area, including related salaries, travel, housing, training, office supplies, equipment, and other personnel-related expenses.
Program Element 3.1.3: Malaria
Definition: Support the implementation of the President’s Malaria Initiative (PMI), related malaria control programs, and malaria research activities to reduce malaria-related mortality. Develop effective malaria vaccines, new malaria treatment drugs, and targeted operations research.
Sub-Element 3.1.3.1: Treatment with Artemisinin-Based Combination Therapies
Definition: Improve equitable access to and appropriate use of artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) to treat malaria, including provision of drugs; logistic support for the delivery of drugs; informing and educating communities and health providers about using and prescribing ACTs; improved diagnostic capacity; training of health providers; and monitoring of adverse effects.
Sub-Element 3.1.3.2: Insecticide-Treated Nets (ITNs) to Prevent Malaria
Definition: Improve access to and use of ITNs to prevent malaria, including provision of nets and re-treatment kits; logistic support for the delivery of ITNs; behavior change about use of ITNs; improved access to long-lasting nets and net treatment technology; and private sector marketing of ITNs.
Sub-Element 3.1.3.3: Indoor Residual Spraying (IRS) to Prevent Malaria
Definition: Expand the use of indoor residual spraying to prevent malaria, including purchase of insecticide and spraying equipment; logistic support; information/education for communities on upcoming spray campaigns; environmental assessments; and capacity to conduct entomological and epidemiologic monitoring.
Sub-Element 3.1.3.4: Intermittent Preventive Treatment (IPT) of Pregnant Women with Sulfadoxine Pyrimethanine
Definition: Expand access to and use of IPT with sulfadoxine pyrimethanine (SP) via antenatal services in order to address malaria in pregnancy. Activities will include provision of SP; training of service providers; information, education, and communication (IEC) for women and their partners and for providers on IPT; and logistic support for the delivery of SP.
Sub-Element 3.1.3.5: Epidemic Preparedness and Response
Definition: Help countries forecast, prepare for, detect, and respond to epidemics of malaria including entomologic and epidemiologic surveillance; procurement and equitable distribution of insecticide sprayers, and ITNs; and training of service providers.
Sub-Element 3.1.3.6: Malaria Research
Definition: Further the research and development of improved or new malaria interventions, including new malaria vaccine candidates and new malaria drugs. Also, targeted operations research will be supported.
Sub-Element 3.1.3.7: Health Governance and Finance (Malaria)
Definition: Promote sustainable improvements in health outcomes for men/boys and women/girls by reducing key governance and financing constraints to the achievement of multiple health element objectives and the health area goal overall. These include activities that reduce corruption; increase equity; improve efficiency and increase financial protection (especially for underserved populations), including in the context of financing, organization of services, facility construction/renovation, and human resources and pharmaceutical management. Note: Operating Units should make efforts to report activities that address specific earmarks under other sub-elements, reserving the use of the health governance and finance sub-element for overarching activities that support multiple health elements.
Sub-Element 3.1.3.8: Antimicrobial Resistance (Malaria)
Definition: Address anti-malarial drug resistance, especially related to artemisinin-based combination therapies and other WHO-approved anti-malarial drugs. Multi-drug resistance is a particular threat in the Mekong Region and the Amazon Basis. Activities include, helping countries to update and implement new malaria treatment policies, ongoing monitoring of malaria drug efficacy, addressing sub-standard and counterfeit drugs, and information and education for both consumers and health workers.
Sub-Element 3.1.3.9: Host Country Strategic Information Capacity
Definition: Establish and/or strengthen host country institutions’ management information systems (MIS) and their development and use of tools and models to collect, analyze and disseminate a variety of information related to the program element. These may include, but are not limited to MIS for government ministries or other host country institutions, needs assessments, baseline studies, censuses and surveys, targeted evaluations, special studies, routine surveillance, data quality assessments, and operational research. This sub-element may also include developing and disseminating best practices and lessons learned and testing demonstration and/or pilot models. Related training, supplies, equipment, and non-USG personnel are included. This does not include anything captured under 1.3.6.
Sub-Element 3.1.3.10: Program Design and Learning
Definition: Develop and conduct needs assessments, baseline studies, targeted evaluations, special studies or other information-gathering efforts specifically for the design, monitoring and evaluation of USG-funded programs. This sub-element may also include developing and disseminating best practices and lessons learned, testing demonstration and/or pilot models, or the preparation of strategic plans and other short-term programming tasks. Note: All such activities that are carried out by partners as an integral part of their monitoring and evaluation efforts for programs funded under other sub-elements should be included within those sub-elements.
Sub-Element 3.1.3.11: Personnel
Definition: Provide staff to help manage, administer and support programs in this element including related salaries, travel, housing, office space, equipment, training, and other personnel-related expenses (e.g. ICASS costs).
Program Element 3.1.4: Avian Influenza
Definition: Limit the spread of avian influenza (AI) in animals and help to prevent a human influenza pandemic, and in the event of a pandemic, provide appropriate humanitarian response.
Sub-Element 3.1.4.1: Planning and Preparedness for Outbreak Response
Definition: Design national multi-sectoral AI plans and coordination mechanisms. Support will also be provided to ensure adequate response to contain animal outbreaks and plans for the possibility of future human cases.
Sub-Element 3.1.4.2: Animal and Human Disease Surveillance
Definition: Support passive and active surveillance for animal AI outbreaks, including enhancing in-country laboratory capacity, updating national surveillance strategies, linking animal and human surveillance efforts, and monitoring the health of wild bird and domestic poultry populations. Human surveillance also includes reporting incidence of human infections, researching primary modes of viral transmission, and strengthening communication and reporting pathways.
Sub-Element 3.1.4.3: Commodity Stockpile
Definition: Determine essential commodities, establish release triggers for mobilizing the stockpile, procure commodities, develop commodity deployment strategies, deploy commodities appropriately, and replenish stockpiles.
Sub-Element 3.1.4.4: Behavior Change Communications
Definition: Mobilize communication networks to prioritize AI efforts, design and implement communication strategies, broadcast AI awareness and behavior change messages, train trainers in the appropriate use of commodities, and provide accurate material to communicators.
Sub-Element 3.1.4.5: Response to Disease Outbreak
Definition: Respond to animal outbreaks, including: facilitating the deployment of rapid response teams; designing incentive schemes to report outbreaks, and implementing bio-security measures. This sub-element also includes collecting and transporting samples, and implementing containment measures (e.g., culling, vaccination, quarantine). Human response also includes training health workers about appropriate care models, implementing social distancing policies, facilitating humanitarian response to a pandemic, and promoting infection control.
Sub-Element 3.1.4.6: Health Governance and Finance (AI)
Definition: Promote sustainable improvements in health outcomes for men/boys and women/girls by reducing key governance and financing constraints to the achievement of multiple health element objectives and the health area goal overall. These include activities that reduce corruption; increase equity; improve efficiency and increase financial protection (especially for underserved populations), including in the context of financing, organization of services, facility construction/renovation, and human resources and pharmaceutical management. Note: Operating Units should make efforts to report activities that address specific earmarks under other sub-elements, reserving the use of the health governance and finance sub-element for overarching activities that support multiple health elements.

Sub-Element 3.1.4.7: Host Country Strategic Information Capacity
Definition: Establish and/or strengthen host country institutions’ management information systems (MIS) and their development and use of tools and models to collect, analyze and disseminate a variety of information related to the program element. These may include, but are not limited to MIS for government ministries or other host country institutions, needs assessments, baseline studies, censuses and surveys, targeted evaluations, special studies, routine surveillance, data quality assessments, and operational research. This sub-element may also include developing and disseminating best practices and lessons learned and testing demonstration and/or pilot models. Related training, supplies, equipment, and non-USG personnel are included.
Sub-Element 3.1.4.8: Program Design and Learning
Definition: Develop and conduct needs assessments, baseline studies, targeted evaluations, special studies or other information-gathering efforts specifically for the design, monitoring and evaluation of USG-funded programs. This sub-element may also include developing and disseminating best practices and lessons learned, testing demonstration and/or pilot models, or the preparation of strategic plans and other short-term programming tasks. Note: All such activities that are carried out by partners as an integral part of their monitoring and evaluation efforts for programs funded under other sub-elements should be included within those sub-elements.
Sub-Element 1.6.4.4: Personnel
Definition: Provide staff to help manage, administer and support programs in this element including related salaries, travel, housing, office space, equipment, training, and other personnel-related expenses (e.g. ICASS costs).
Program Element 3.1.5: Other Public Health Threats
Definition: Address public health threats posed by infectious diseases not targeted elsewhere in the Framework as well as significant non-communicable health threats of major public health importance.
Sub-Element 3.1.5.1: Neglected Tropical Diseases and Other Infectious Diseases
Definition: Control and reduce the burden of targeted neglected tropical diseases (onchocerciasis, schistosomiasis, soil-transmitted helminthes, lymphatic filariasis, and trachoma) and other infectious diseases of public health importance (e.g. Japanese encephalitis, dengue hemorrhagic fever), including diagnosis treatment and other proven interventions.
Sub-Element 3.1.5.2: Non-Communicable Public Health Threats Including Injuries
Definition: Support cost-effective, evidence-based interventions that address health conditions that have very significant negative impact on morbidity of men and women in the workforce, mortality, and productivity and that are not addressed in other health program elements. These may include cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancers, mental health, birth disabilities, sexual and domestic violence, environmental and occupational health and safety, and injuries, such as auto accidents and drowning, with attention to differing susceptibility of and impact on men and women, boys and girls.
Sub-Element 3.1.5.3: Health Governance and Finance (Other Health)
Definition: Promote sustainable improvements in health outcomes for men/boys and women/girls by reducing key governance and financing constraints to the achievement of multiple health element objectives and the health area goal overall. These include activities that reduce corruption; increase equity; improve efficiency and increase financial protection (especially for underserved populations), including in the context of financing, organization of services, facility construction/renovation, and human resources and pharmaceutical management. Note: Operating Units should make efforts to report activities that address specific earmarks under other sub-elements, reserving the use of the health governance and finance sub-element for overarching activities that support multiple health elements.

Sub-Element 3.1.5.4: Host Country Strategic Information Capacity
Definition: Establish and/or strengthen host country institutions’ management information systems (MIS) and their development and use of tools and models to collect, analyze and disseminate a variety of information related to the program element. These may include, but are not limited to MIS for government ministries or other host country institutions, needs assessments, baseline studies, censuses and surveys, targeted evaluations, special studies, routine surveillance, data quality assessments, and operational research. This sub-element may also include developing and disseminating best practices and lessons learned and testing demonstration and/or pilot models. Related training, supplies, equipment, and non-USG personnel are included.
Sub-Element 3.1.5.5: Program Design and Learning
Definition: Develop and conduct needs assessments, baseline studies, targeted evaluations, special studies or other information-gathering efforts specifically for the design, monitoring and evaluation of USG-funded programs. This sub-element may also include developing and disseminating best practices and lessons learned, testing demonstration and/or pilot models, or the preparation of strategic plans and other short-term programming tasks. Note: All such activities that are carried out by partners as an integral part of their monitoring and evaluation efforts for programs funded under other sub-elements should be included within those sub-elements.
Sub-Element 3.1.5.6: Personnel
Definition: Provide staff to help manage, administer and support programs in this element including related salaries, travel, housing, office space, equipment, training, and other personnel-related expenses (e.g. ICASS costs).
Program Element 3.1.6: Maternal and Child Health
Definition: Increase the availability and use of proven life-saving interventions that address the major killers of mothers and children and improve their health and nutrition status, including effective maternity care and management of obstetric complications; prevention services including newborn care, routine immunization, polio eradication, safe water and hygiene, and micronutrients; improved maternal, infant and young child feeding; and treatment of life-threatening childhood illnesses.
Sub-Element 3.1.6.1: Birth Preparedness and Maternity Services
Definition: Support registration of pregnancies, infection prevention, nutrition, education about need for a skilled birth attendant and recognition of complications, identification and discouragement of harmful practices such as inadequate provision of food during pregnancy, development of individualized birth plans, constructive engagement of partners and families in support of pregnant women, community based-financing of deliveries, and organization for transport. Support facility-based and outreach services, improving the quality and equitable coverage of antenatal, delivery and postpartum care services, including periodic evaluation of the progress of pregnancy, labor support, use of the partogram, clean delivery, and active management of the third stage of labor.
Sub-Element 3.1.6.2: Treatment of Obstetric Complications and Disabilities
Definition: Promote recognition and treatment of obstetric complications by women, their partners and the community, such as post-abortion care, management of hypertension, induction or augmentation of labor, assisted delivery, blood transfusion, surgery (including cesarean section, repair of lacerations, and management of postpartum hemorrhage); and management of pregnancy-related disabilities including case identification, medical management of chronic problems such as anemia, and surgical repair and postoperative rehabilitation of obstetric fistula.
Sub-Element 3.1.6.3: Newborn Care and Treatment
Definition: Improve care of male and female newborns by identifying and treating serious infections and other neonatal complications, including immediate care at birth (resuscitation, thermal stabilization, cord care, breastfeeding), the provision of routine essential care, special care for low birth weight and premature infants, increasing family and health worker recognition of newborn danger signs, and increasing access to appropriate treatment when required.
Sub-Element 3.1.6.4: Immunization, Including Polio
Definition: Strengthen the delivery of immunization services, increase equitable coverage, and contribute to disease control strategies when appropriate, including improvement of planning, vaccine forecasting and management, cold chain and logistics, vaccine-preventable disease surveillance, lab capacity and quality, injection safety, and non-polio immunization campaigns. Support introduction of Immunization Days (NIDs), Special Immunization Days (SNIDs), mop-ups, and other special polio immunization approaches, Acute Flaccid Paralysis (AFP) surveillance, laboratory support, and eradication certification activities.
Sub-Element 3.1.6.5: Maternal and Young Child Nutrition, Including Micronutrients
Definition: Deliver maternal and child iron, zinc, vitamin A, iodine, and other key micronutrients through supplementation, fortification, and other delivery approaches. Support breastfeeding promotion, infant and young child feeding, community-based growth promotion, activities to increase partners’/fathers’ knowledge and support, management of acute and severe child malnutrition, nutrition of pregnant and lactating mothers and adolescent girls, monitoring the nutrition status of maternal and child populations, and targeted supplemental feeding.
Sub-Element 3.1.6.6: Treatment of Child Illness
Definition: Increase boys’ and girls’ access to and utilization of appropriate treatment for diarrhea, pneumonia, and other potentially life-threatening childhood illnesses, including improved recognition of serious illness, community and facility-based treatment of uncomplicated pneumonia, recognition and treatment of severe and complicated pneumonia, Oral Rehydration Therapy, introduction of new formulation ORS, introduction and evaluation of zinc treatment, antibiotic treatment of dysentery, and management of persistent diarrhea. (Malaria detection in children should be budgeted here, but treatment and prevention in the malaria element.)
Sub-Element 3.1.6.7: Household Level Water, Sanitation, Hygiene and Environment
Definition: Increase household-level actions to prevent disease regardless of the state of public service infrastructure, including point-of-use water treatment, safe water storage and handling, sanitation marketing and promotion, promotion of hand washing with soap, reduction of exposure to indoor smoke from cooking and to local sources of environmental toxins such as lead. (Note that this sub-element addresses behavior, while Element 1.8 addresses other sub-elements to Water and Sanitation.)
Sub-Element 3.1.6.8: Health Governance and Finance (MCH)
Definition: Promote sustainable improvements in health outcomes for men/boys and women/girls by reducing key governance and financing constraints to the achievement of multiple health element objectives and the health area goal overall. These include activities that reduce corruption; increase equity; improve efficiency and increase financial protection (especially for underserved populations), including in the context of financing, organization of services, facility construction/renovation, and human resources and pharmaceutical management. Note: Operating Units should make efforts to report activities that address specific earmarks under other sub-elements, reserving the use of the health governance and finance sub-element for overarching activities that support multiple health elements.
Sub-Element 3.1.6.9: Antimicrobial Resistance (MCH)
Definition: Slow the emergence of antimicrobial resistance in child and maternal health. Improving pharmaceutical management will increase access to and the correct use of quality essential medicines for MCH priorities. This sub-element will also strengthen quality assurance of essential medicines, community case management for childhood illnesses, and development of treatment guidelines for priority childhood diseases.
Sub-Element 3.1.6.10: Host Country Strategic Information Capacity
Definition: Establish and/or strengthen host country institutions’ management information systems (MIS) and their development and use of tools and models to collect, analyze and disseminate a variety of information related to the program element. These may include, but are not limited to MIS for government ministries or other host country institutions, needs assessments, baseline studies, censuses and surveys, targeted evaluations, special studies, routine surveillance, data quality assessments, and operational research. This sub-element may also include developing and disseminating best practices and lessons learned and testing demonstration and/or pilot models. Related training, supplies, equipment, and non-USG personnel are included.
Sub-Element 3.1.6.11: Program Design and Learning
Definition: Develop and conduct needs assessments, baseline studies, targeted evaluations, special studies or other information-gathering efforts specifically for the design, monitoring and evaluation of USG-funded programs. This sub-element may also include developing and disseminating best practices and lessons learned, testing demonstration and/or pilot models, or the preparation of strategic plans and other short-term programming tasks. Note: All such activities that are carried out by partners as an integral part of their monitoring and evaluation efforts for programs funded under other sub-elements should be included within those sub-elements.
Sub-Element 3.1.6.12: Personnel
Definition: Provide staff to help manage, administer and support programs in this element including related salaries, travel, housing, office space, equipment, training, and other personnel-related expenses (e.g. ICASS costs).
Program Element 3.1.7: Family Planning and Reproductive Health
Definition: Expand access to high-quality voluntary family planning (FP) services and information, and reproductive health (RH) care. This element contributes to reducing unintended pregnancy and promoting healthy reproductive behaviors of men and women, reducing abortion, and reducing maternal and child mortality and morbidity.
Sub-Element 3.1.7.1: Service Delivery
Definition: Expand sustainable provision of family planning services in clinical and non-clinical programs including those in the public, private, NGO, and PVO sectors, and at the community level; activities that help improve the quality of the services and care provided, including pre- and in-service training of providers and application of evidence-based service-delivery norms and standards; and availability of a wide range of contraceptive options (temporary, fertility awareness methods, and long-acting and permanent methods) for men and women. Improve responsiveness to client needs, including the FP/RH needs of youth and men, women and girls affected by violence, refugees/IDP, and other underserved populations. Also included are activities that integrate FP and related RH care, including integrated FP/MCH services, especially provision of post-partum family planning, FP information within the ANC setting, and post-abortion care; FP, as appropriate, in the context of HIV/AIDS/STI prevention, treatment, care and support; fistula prevention and repair; prevention and mitigation of gender-based violence in the context of FP/RH programs; and programs that encourage abandonment of female genital cutting and other harmful traditional practices that are associated with negative RH outcomes.
Sub-Element 3.1.7.2: Communication
Definition: Increase awareness of the availability of services, including through mass media, community mobilization, outreach, and/or national campaigns; behavior change interventions to encourage constructive engagement of men, equitable gender norms and adoption of healthy reproductive behaviors by women/girls and men/boys; and provision of information on family planning options, benefits, and side-effects to enable male and female clients to make an informed choice. Also included are synthesis and dissemination of best practices and lessons learned.
Sub-Element 3.1.7.3: Policy Analysis & System Strengthening
Definition: Create an enabling environment for effective FP/RH programs, including policy interventions (advocacy, dialogue, analysis, planning, finance, implementation, multisectoral engagement, attention to equity); organizational capacity building in human and financial resource management, and management and leadership of FP/RH programs. Also included are activities that aim to ensure the near- and long-term availability of high quality temporary and long-acting contraceptives including condoms for family planning and STI prevention, including direct financing, procurement, delivery, quality assurance, and strengthening country supply chains to manage and deliver contraceptives and condoms for public and private services.
Sub-Element 3.1.7.4: Health Governance and Finance (FP)
Definition: Promote sustainable improvements in health outcomes for men/boys and women/girls by reducing key governance and financing constraints to the achievement of multiple health element objectives and the health area goal overall. These include activities that reduce corruption; increase equity; improve efficiency and increase financial protection (especially for underserved populations), including in the context of financing, organization of services, facility construction/renovation, and human resources and pharmaceutical management. Note: Operating Units should make efforts to report activities that address specific earmarks under other sub-elements, reserving the use of the health governance and finance sub-element for overarching activities that support multiple health elements.
Sub-Element 3.1.7.5: Host Country Strategic Information Capacity
Definition: Establish and/or strengthen host country institutions’ management information systems (MIS) and their development and use of tools and models to collect, analyze and disseminate a variety of information related to the program element. These may include, but are not limited to MIS for government ministries or other host country institutions, needs assessments, baseline studies, censuses and surveys, targeted evaluations, special studies, routine surveillance, data quality assessments, and operational research. This sub-element may also include developing and disseminating best practices and lessons learned and testing demonstration and/or pilot models. Related training, supplies, equipment, and non-USG personnel are included.
Sub-Element 3.1.7.6: Program Design and Learning
Definition: Develop and conduct needs assessments, baseline studies, targeted evaluations, special studies or other information-gathering efforts specifically for the design, monitoring and evaluation of USG-funded programs. This sub-element may also include developing and disseminating best practices and lessons learned, testing demonstration and/or pilot models, or the preparation of strategic plans and other short-term programming tasks. Note: All such activities that are carried out by partners as an integral part of their monitoring and evaluation efforts for programs funded under other sub-elements should be included within those sub-elements.
Sub-Element 3.1.7.7: Personnel
Definition: Provide staff to help manage, administer and support programs in this element including related salaries, travel, housing, office space, equipment, training, and other personnel-related expenses (e.g. ICASS costs).
Program Element 3.1.8: Water Supply and Sanitation
Definition: Ensure broadly accessible, reliable and economically sustainable water and sanitation services for health, security, and prosperity. (Note that this element does not include the household behavior aspects found in sub-element 1.6.7 or water issues directly relating to Agriculture – found in the EG Objective.)
Sub-Element 3.1.8.1: Safe Water Access
Definition: Increase access to water of appropriate quantity and quality for use in households, schools, health facilities, and industrial/commercial facilities through protection of existing water sources, sustainable development of new sources (e.g., well drilling and spring capping); expansion and rehabilitation of water supply infrastructure, such as pumps and distribution systems; implementation of appropriate community-based approaches to design, construction, operation and maintenance.
Sub-Element 3.1.8.2: Basic Sanitation
Definition: Increase access to and use of sanitation services for safe human waste disposal to protect human health and environmental quality. Support innovative approaches to building demand for sanitation-related products and services. Facilitate private sector participation in providing sanitation products and services. Where applicable, promote sustainable solutions for wastewater treatment and reuse.
Sub-Element 3.1.8.3: Water and Sanitation Policy and Governance
Definition: Improve policy, laws, and regulations to expand service delivery and treatment, and to ensure national standards for tariff setting, licensing, benchmarking, and performance monitoring. Improve water utility operations and service delivery through strengthening corporate governance and management of utilities, private sector participation, and demand management; achieving cost recovery tariffs while addressing affordability and access issues; and increasing operating efficiency to achieve economies of scale as well as responsiveness to users. Promote appropriate involvement of various users of water (domestic supply, industrial users, agriculture) in decision-making so that all sectoral interests have access to and ownership of water resource management decisions.
Sub-Element 3.1.8.4: Sustainable Financing for Water & Sanitation Services
Definition: Increase mobilization of domestic public and private sector financing for water and sanitation sector development and increased access to services. Develop financially sustainable options for wastewater treatment.
Sub-Element 3.1.8.5: Water Resources Productivity
Definition: Increase efficiency and promote productive, multiple uses of water in domestic and industrial sectors.
Sub-Element 3.1.8.6: Science and Technology Cooperation
Definition: Build the scientific, technological and information capacity necessary for science-based decision-making in water supply, conservation and management and in sanitation.
Sub-Element 3.1.8.7: Host Country Strategic Information Capacity
Definition: Establish and/or strengthen host country institutions’ management information systems (MIS) and their development and use of tools and models to collect, analyze and disseminate a variety of information related to the program element. These may include, but are not limited to MIS for government ministries or other host country institutions, needs assessments, baseline studies, censuses and surveys, targeted evaluations, special studies, routine surveillance, data quality assessments, and operational research. This sub-element may also include developing and disseminating best practices and lessons learned and testing demonstration and/or pilot models. Related training, supplies, equipment, and non-USG personnel are included.
Sub-Element 3.1.8.8: Program Design and Learning
Definition: Develop and conduct needs assessments, baseline studies, targeted evaluations, special studies or other information-gathering efforts specifically for the design, monitoring and evaluation of USG-funded programs. This sub-element may also include developing and disseminating best practices and lessons learned, testing demonstration and/or pilot models, or the preparation of strategic plans and other short-term programming tasks. Note: All such activities that are carried out by partners as an integral part of their monitoring and evaluation efforts for programs funded under other sub-elements should be included within those sub-elements.
Sub-Element 3.1.8.9: Personnel
Definition: Provide staff to help manage, administer and support programs in this element including related salaries, travel, housing, office space, equipment, training, and other personnel-related expenses (e.g. ICASS costs).
Program Area 3.2: Education
Promote effective, accountable, and sustainable formal and non-formal education systems.
Program Element 3.2.1: Basic Education
Definition: Improve early childhood education, primary education, and secondary education, delivered in formal or non-formal settings. It includes literacy, numeracy, and other basic skills programs for youth and adults.
Sub-Element 3.2.1.1: Pre-Primary Education
Definition: Introduce very young children, generally aged at least 3 years, to pre-academic readiness. A structured and purposeful set of learning activities are provided either in a formal institution or as part of a non-formal child development program.
Sub-Element 3.2.1.2: Primary Education
Definition: Provide children an education in reading, writing, and mathematics, and the basic skills of problem-solving, cooperative learning, and communication to develop pupils’ ability to obtain and use information they need about their home, community, and country. Activities typically utilize a formal school curriculum in or outside of a school. Primary education is also sometimes called elementary education.
Sub-Element 3.2.1.3: Lower Secondary Education
Definition: Provide more advanced basic learning and basic skills that include critical thinking, assessing solutions, team cooperation, and effective communication, beyond the primary level. The teaching is typically more subject-focused, requiring more specialized teachers and materials for each subject area. The end of this level often coincides with the end of compulsory education. Lower secondary education is sometimes referred to as junior high school, middle school, or junior secondary school.
Sub-Element 3.2.1.4: Learning for Out-of-School Youth
Definition: Provide learners, generally 13 to 24 year olds, an alternative education that integrates reading, writing, and mathematics with basic skills such as critical thinking, problem-solving, team building, and effective communication. These complementary learning activities are typically designed to reintegrate youth back into a formal school setting or provide an equivalent primary or secondary school diploma.
Sub-Element 3.2.1.5: Literacy and Numeracy for Adults
Definition: Provide individuals, 18 years or older, basic skills in reading, writing, and mathematics. It requires a unique set of learning activities with specialized instruction. Activities may be formal or non-formal, but are typically outside of the formal school setting.
Sub-Element 3.2.1.6: Upper Secondary Education
Definition: Continue basic subject area learning and skills, including critical analysis, problem solving, and complex communication, beyond lower secondary level. The instruction is highly organized along subject lines, as are textbooks, and teachers need a higher level of subject-specific qualifications. In most countries, this level is the final stage of basic education. Upper Secondary Education is sometimes referred to as high school, senior high school, or senior secondary school.
Sub-Element 3.2.1.7: Education Systems
Definition: Contribute to sustained improvements in education quality, efficiency, and equity through strengthened education policy, governance, financing, facilities, human resources, public information, and management of education services. A range of activities may target the national, regional, district, and community levels of the education system; pre-primary, primary, lower-secondary, upper secondary, and non-formal education; and public or private education.
Sub-Element 3.2.1.8: Host Country Strategic Information Capacity
Definition: Establish and/or strengthen host country institutions’ management information systems (MIS) and their development and use of tools and models to collect, analyze and disseminate a variety of information related to the program element. These may include, but are not limited to MIS for government ministries or other host country institutions, needs assessments, baseline studies, censuses and surveys, targeted evaluations, special studies, routine surveillance, data quality assessments, and operational research. This sub-element may also include developing and disseminating best practices and lessons learned and testing demonstration and/or pilot models. Related training, supplies, equipment, and non-USG personnel are included.
Sub-Element 3.2.1.9: Program Design and Learning
Definition: Develop and conduct needs assessments, baseline studies, targeted evaluations, special studies or other information-gathering efforts specifically for the design, monitoring and evaluation of USG-funded programs. This sub-element may also include developing and disseminating best practices and lessons learned, testing demonstration and/or pilot models, or the preparation of strategic plans and other short-term programming tasks. Note: All such activities that are carried out by partners as an integral part of their monitoring and evaluation efforts for programs funded under other sub-elements should be included within those sub-elements.
Sub-Element 3.2.1.10: Personnel
Definition: Provide staff to help manage, administer and support programs in this element including related salaries, travel, housing, office space, equipment, training, and other personnel-related expenses (e.g. ICASS costs).
Program Element 3.2.2: Higher Education
Definition: Strengthen institutional capacities of public and private higher education institutions (including research institutes, teacher-training colleges and institutes, universities, community colleges, and the relevant officials, departments, and ministries responsible for higher education) to teach, train, conduct research, and provide community service; to contribute to development; and to promote professional development opportunities, institutional linkages, and exchange programs.
Sub-Element 3.2.2.1: Policy Development and Reform
Definition: Foster collaboration among higher education institutions and relevant local government institutions and ministries; U.S. and local institutions of higher education; and NGOs and private sector to discuss and develop policies and laws addressing higher education; and policies and laws in other sectors.
Sub-Element 3.2.2.2: Institutional Capacity Development
Definition: Increase higher education institution’s ability to contribute to social and economic development by strengthening their organizational effectiveness. Organizational effectiveness includes, but is not limited to, improving management and administration, research capacity and methods, facilities, degree programs, curricula, and pedagogy.
Sub-Element 3.2.2.3: Regional, National, and Local Development
Definition: Engage higher education institutions in addressing social and economic development challenges. Programs include, but are not limited to, applied research, community outreach, and service delivery.
Sub-Element 3.2.2.4: Professional Development
Definition: Broaden and increase access of individuals to higher education opportunities relevant to professional development. Participant training not directly involved in Higher Education is captured under the appropriate and relevant elements in education and other technical areas.
Sub-Element 3.2.2.5: Host Country Strategic Information Capacity
Definition: Establish and/or strengthen host country institutions’ management information systems (MIS) and their development and use of tools and models to collect, analyze and disseminate a variety of information related to the program element. These may include, but are not limited to MIS for government ministries or other host country institutions, needs assessments, baseline studies, censuses and surveys, targeted evaluations, special studies, routine surveillance, data quality assessments, and operational research. This sub-element may also include developing and disseminating best practices and lessons learned and testing demonstration and/or pilot models. Related training, supplies, equipment, and non-USG personnel are included.
Sub-Element 3.2.2.6: Program Design and Learning
Definition: Develop and conduct needs assessments, baseline studies, targeted evaluations, special studies or other information-gathering efforts specifically for the design, monitoring and evaluation of USG-funded programs. This sub-element may also include developing and disseminating best practices and lessons learned, testing demonstration and/or pilot models, or the preparation of strategic plans and other short-term programming tasks. Note: All such activities that are carried out by partners as an integral part of their monitoring and evaluation efforts for programs funded under other sub-elements should be included within those sub-elements.
Sub-Element 3.2.2.7: Personnel
Definition: Provide staff to help manage, administer and support programs in this element including related salaries, travel, housing, office space, equipment, training, and other personnel-related expenses (e.g. ICASS costs).
Program Area 3.3: Social Services and Protection for Especially Vulnerable Populations
Address factors that place individuals at risk for poverty, exclusion, neglect, or victimization. Help populations manage their risks and gain access to opportunities that support their full and productive participation in society. Help populations rebound from temporary adversity, cope with chronic poverty, reduce vulnerability, and increase self-reliance
Program Element 3.3.1: Policies, Regulations and Systems
Definition: Address society-wide norms, policies, laws, and capacities to develop or reform safety nets. Build the frameworks for identifying populations in need or at-risk; devise criteria for eligibility; direct resources to public and private organizations for program administration; set standards for the delivery of effective assistance and services; and track the impact on target populations.
Sub-Element 3.3.1.1: Social Policy Governance
Definition: Create or improve legislation essential to the operation of effective safety nets. It includes supporting laws on behalf of specific groups to protect their rights; reducing intentional acts of discrimination, exploitation or exclusion; and improving their access to programs that meet basic needs. It also strengthens government capacity to deliver essential assistance, services, and insurance, including formulating financing and outsourcing guidelines; acquiring the technology needed to carry out means testing and improved targeting; developing accreditation standards and regulations for service providers; administering oversight mechanisms to ensure quality, control costs, and reduce the incidence of malfeasance or corruption. Promote policies and increase public awareness aimed at decreasing temporary or chronic poverty by addressing underlying causal factors for vulnerability.
Sub-Element 3.3.1.2: Research Capacity
Definition: Develop or strengthen the quantity and quality of host country capacity to measure the incidence and depth of poverty and factors contributing to social exclusion; to identify groups most adversely affected; to assess the effectiveness of interventions to rehabilitate, protect, promote, or integrate vulnerable and at-risk groups; and to develop innovative programs for early warning to reduce vulnerability and mitigate risk factors.
Sub-Element 3.3.1.3: Host Country Strategic Information Capacity
Definition: Establish and/or strengthen host country institutions’ management information systems (MIS) and their development and use of tools and models to collect, analyze and disseminate a variety of information related to the program element. These may include, but are not limited to MIS for government ministries or other host country institutions, needs assessments, baseline studies, censuses and surveys, targeted evaluations, special studies, routine surveillance, data quality assessments, and operational research. This sub-element may also include developing and disseminating best practices and lessons learned and testing demonstration and/or pilot models. Related training, supplies, equipment, and non-USG personnel are included.
Sub-Element 3.3.1.4: Program Design and Learning
Definition: Develop and conduct needs assessments, baseline studies, targeted evaluations, special studies or other information-gathering efforts specifically for the design, monitoring and evaluation of USG-funded programs. This sub-element may also include developing and disseminating best practices and lessons learned, testing demonstration and/or pilot models, or the preparation of strategic plans and other short-term programming tasks. Note: All such activities that are carried out by partners as an integral part of their monitoring and evaluation efforts for programs funded under other sub-elements should be included within those sub-elements.
Sub-Element 3.3.1.5: Personnel
Definition: Provide staff to help manage, administer and support programs in this element including related salaries, travel, housing, office space, equipment, training, and other personnel-related expenses (e.g. ICASS costs).
Program Element 3.3.2: Social Services
Definition: Assist special populations which may be vulnerable or at-risk on a temporary or chronic basis whose needs are not addressed under emergency humanitarian assistance or other programs. These include groups such as the disabled; orphans, children and at-risk youth; victims of trafficking; victims of gender-based violence; refugees, returnees, ethnic minorities, internally displaced or other socially excluded groups; the elderly; and female heads of household. Depending on circumstances, services may intend to protect groups; mitigate adverse conditions they face, or to remove barriers to help integrate them into society. Components may include measures to increase the capacity of local service and advocacy NGOs and/or professional social workers; to establish public/private service delivery partnerships as well as family and community focused service models; to establish effective referral networks; to develop appropriate service protocols and methods for screening prospective recipients; or to improve public understanding and sensitivity to the needs of the vulnerable. While services provided should not exclude victims of trafficking in persons, programs designed specifically for this group fall under the Peace and Security Objective under the Transnational Crime Area and the Trafficking in Persons and Migrant Smuggling Element.
Sub-Element 3.3.2.1: Vulnerable Children
Definition: Strengthen the capacity of families, communities and host-country governments to provide care, support, and protection for orphans, unaccompanied minors, and war-affected children. Note: activities aimed at care and support for HIV/AIDS orphans and vulnerable children should be included under the Orphans and Vulnerable Children sub-element of the HIV/AIDS program element.
Sub-Element 3.3.2.2: Victims of War
Definition: Remove barriers to enable the full participation of victims of war in supportive communities. Help people obtain prosthetics and rehabilitation as well as training to return as functioning members of society and to be able to provide for themselves and their families after suffering injuries caused by conflict or the remnants of conflict, including landmines and other unexploded ordinance (which may be linked to the Peace and Security Objective, specifically the Explosive Remnants of War Element).
Sub-Element 3.3.2.3: Victims of Torture
Definition: Address the physical and psychological effects of torture on victims, families and communities. Activities will be cross-cutting and include treatment, rehabilitation, re-integration, and advocacy.
Sub-Element 3.3.2.4: Other Targeted Vulnerable Groups
Definition: Remove barriers to enable the full participation of vulnerable people in supportive communities. Activities will be cross-cutting and range from community advocacy and strengthening family reunification/foster care, to supporting disability-appropriate infrastructure modifications and apprenticeship programs, and the integration of disabled or socially excluded workers into the workforce.
Sub-Element 3.3.2.5: Host Country Strategic Information Capacity
Definition: Establish and/or strengthen host country institutions’ management information systems (MIS) and their development and use of tools and models to collect, analyze and disseminate a variety of information related to the program element. These may include, but are not limited to MIS for government ministries or other host country institutions, needs assessments, baseline studies, censuses and surveys, targeted evaluations, special studies, routine surveillance, data quality assessments, and operational research. This sub-element may also include developing and disseminating best practices and lessons learned and testing demonstration and/or pilot models. Related training, supplies, equipment, and non-USG personnel are included.
Sub-Element 3.3.2.6: Program Design and Learning
Definition: Develop and conduct needs assessments, baseline studies, targeted evaluations, special studies or other information-gathering efforts specifically for the design, monitoring and evaluation of USG-funded programs. This sub-element may also include developing and disseminating best practices and lessons learned, testing demonstration and/or pilot models, or the preparation of strategic plans and other short-term programming tasks. Note: All such activities that are carried out by partners as an integral part of their monitoring and evaluation efforts for programs funded under other sub-elements should be included within those sub-elements.
Sub-Element 3.3.2.7: Personnel
Definition: Provide staff to help manage, administer and support programs in this element including related salaries, travel, housing, office space, equipment, training, and other personnel-related expenses (e.g. ICASS costs).
Program Element 3.3.3: Social Assistance
Definition: Cash or in-kind transfers to the poor or to those suffering from temporary shocks.
Sub-Element 3.3.3.1: Targeted Assistance to Meet Basic Needs for the Poorest
Definition: Provide financial or technical support for programs that provide income transfers (cash, food rations or vouchers, supplementary feeding) to the neediest households, including the chronically poor, to maintain their survival.
Sub-Element 3.3.3.2: Conditional Cash Transfers
Definition: Provide financial or technical support for programs that provide poor households with cash, food, or other benefits on condition that they keep children in school, attend health clinics, or make other desired behavioral changes. Paying for school uniforms and school fees is not captured here, but directly under the Basic Education element.
Sub-Element 3.3.3.3: Targeted Subsidies for Low-Income Households
Definition: Provide poor households access to key services such as water, power, or housing at subsidized “lifeline” rates.
Sub-Element 3.3.3.4: Self-Help Programs
Definition: Provide financial or technical support for food-for-work or cash-for-work programs that provide temporary employment to workers suffering transitional unemployment in post-conflict or post-disaster settings, economic recession, and shifts in labor demand resulting from economic reform, while at the same time contributing to road construction and maintenance, irrigation works, reforestation, soil conservation. Ex-belligerents and their families are covered in the Peace and Security Objective under the Reintegration sub-element under the Disarmament, Demobilization, and Reintegration element.
Sub-Element 3.3.3.5: Host Country Strategic Information Capacity
Definition: Establish and/or strengthen host country institutions’ management information systems (MIS) and their development and use of tools and models to collect, analyze and disseminate a variety of information related to the program element. These may include, but are not limited to MIS for government ministries or other host country institutions, needs assessments, baseline studies, censuses and surveys, targeted evaluations, special studies, routine surveillance, data quality assessments, and operational research. This sub-element may also include developing and disseminating best practices and lessons learned and testing demonstration and/or pilot models. Related training, supplies, equipment, and non-USG personnel are included.
Sub-Element 3.3.3.6: Program Design and Learning
Definition: Develop and conduct needs assessments, baseline studies, targeted evaluations, special studies or other information-gathering efforts specifically for the design, monitoring and evaluation of USG-funded programs. This sub-element may also include developing and disseminating best practices and lessons learned, testing demonstration and/or pilot models, or the preparation of strategic plans and other short-term programming tasks. Note: All such activities that are carried out by partners as an integral part of their monitoring and evaluation efforts for programs funded under other sub-elements should be included within those sub-elements.
Sub-Element 3.3.3.7: Personnel
Definition: Provide staff to help manage, administer and support programs in this element including related salaries, travel, housing, office space, equipment, training, and other personnel-related expenses (e.g. ICASS costs).


Economic Growth: To generate rapid, sustained, and broad-based economic growth.

Summary


Program Area 4.1: Macroeconomic Foundation for Growth
Program Element 4.1.1: Fiscal policy
Sub-Element 4.1.1.1: Revenue Structure and Administration
Sub-Element 4.1.1.2: Expenditure Structure and Management
Program Element 4.1.2: Monetary policy
Sub-Element 4.1.2.1: Interest Rate Regime
Sub-Element 4.1.2.2: Net Domestic Credit Management
Sub-Element 4.1.2.3: Exchange Rate Regime
Sub-Element 4.1.2.4: Net Foreign Assets Management
Sub-Element 4.1.2.5: Debt Management
Program Element 4.1.3: Program Support
Sub-Element 4.1.3.1: Host Country Strategic Information Capacity
Sub-Element 4.1.3.2: Program Design and Learning
Sub-Element 4.1.3.3: Personnel
Program Area 4.2: Trade and Investment
Program Element 4.2.1: Trade and Investment Enabling Environment
Sub-Element 4.2.1.1: Mainstreaming Trade for Growth and Poverty Reduction
Sub-Element 4.2.1.2: Trade Liberalization and Agreements
Sub-Element 4.2.1.3: Trade Facilitation
Sub-Element 4.2.1.4: Support for International Standards
Program Element 4.2.2: Trade and Investment Capacity
Sub-Element 4.2.2.1: Trade Communication and Technologies
Sub-Element 4.2.2.2: Trade Knowledge and Skills
Sub-Element 4.2.2.3: Non-Agricultural Standards Compliance
Program Element 4.2.3: Program Support
Sub-Element 4.2.3.1: Host Country Strategic Information Capacity
Sub-Element 4.2.3.2: Program Design and Learning
Sub-Element 4.2.3.3: Personnel
Program Area 4.3: Financial Sector
Program Element 4.3.1: Financial Sector Enabling Environment
Sub-Element 4.3.1.1: Sector Liberalization and Strengthening
Sub-Element 4.3.1.2: Supervision
Sub-Element 4.3.1.3: Corporate Governance
Sub-Element 4.3.1.4: Accounting and Financial Transparency
Program Element 4.3.2: Financial Services
Sub-Element 4.3.2.1: Banking
Sub-Element 4.3.2.2: Systems and Risk Management
Sub-Element 4.3.2.3: Equity and Debt Markets
Sub-Element 4.3.2.4: Insurance and Private Pension Funds
Sub-Element 4.3.2.5: Special Fund Programs
Sub-Element 4.3.2.6: Credit Guarantees
Program Element 4.3.3: Program Support
Sub-Element 4.3.3.1: Host Country Strategic Information Capacity
Sub-Element 4.3.3.2: Program Design and Learning
Sub-Element 4.3.3.3: Personnel
Program Area 4.4: Infrastructure
Program Element 4.4.1: Modern Energy Services
Sub-Element 4.4.1.1: Basic Energy Infrastructure Project Financing
Sub-Element 4.4.1.2: Legal and Regulatory Development
Sub-Element 4.4.1.3: Energy Sector Restructuring and Corporatization
Sub-Element 4.4.1.4: Commercialization and Management Improvement
Sub-Element 4.4.1.5: Market Design, Implementation and Monitoring
Sub-Element 4.4.1.6: Energy Efficiency, Renewable Energy, and Decentralized Energy Technologies and Financing
Sub-Element 4.4.1.7: Privatization and Private Investment Promotion
Sub-Element 4.4.1.8: Expanded Access to Rural and Low Income Areas
Program Element 4.4.2: Communications Services
Sub-Element 4.4.2.1: Basic Communications Infrastructure Financing
Sub-Element 4.4.2.2: Legal and Regulatory Development
Sub-Element 4.4.2.3: Expanded Access to ICT Services and Applications
Sub-Element 4.4.2.4: Restructuring and Corporatization
Sub-Element 4.4.2.5: Privatization and Promotion of Private Investment
Program Element 4.4.3: Transport Services
Sub-Element 4.4.3.1: Basic Transport Infrastructure Financing
Sub-Element 4.4.3.2: Legal and Regulatory Restructuring and Governance
Sub-Element 4.4.3.3: Transport Policy and Planning
Sub-Element 4.4.3.4: Financing and Investment Promotion
Program Element 4.4.4: Program Support
Sub-Element 4.4.4.1: Host Country Strategic Information Capacity
Sub-Element 4.4.4.2: Program Design and Learning
Sub-Element 4.4.4.3: Personnel
Program Area 4.5: Agriculture
Program Element 4.5.1: Agricultural Enabling Environment
Sub-Element 4.5.1.1: Agricultural Resource Policy
Sub-Element 4.5.1.2: Food Policy
Sub-Element 4.5.1.3: Agricultural Market Standards and Regulations
Sub-Element 4.5.1.4: Public Investment Policy
Program Element 4.5.2: Agricultural Sector Productivity
Sub-Element 4.5.2.1: Research and Technology Dissemination
Sub-Element 4.5.2.2: Land and Water Management
Sub-Element 4.5.2.3: Rural and Agricultural Finance
Sub-Element 4.5.2.4: Agribusiness and Producer Organizations
Sub-Element 4.5.2.5: Markets and Trade Capacity
Sub-Element 4.5.2.6: Emerging Agricultural Threats
Sub-Element 4.5.2.7: Agricultural Safety Nets and Livelihood Services
Program Element 4.5.3: Program Support
Sub-Element 4.5.3.1: Host Country Strategic Information Capacity
Sub-Element 4.5.3.2: Program Design and Learning
Sub-Element 4.5.3.3: Personnel
Program Area 4.6: Private Sector Competitiveness
Program Element 4.6.1: Business Enabling Environment
Sub-Element 4.6.1.1: Property Rights
Sub-Element 4.6.1.2: Business and Organizations
Sub-Element 4.6.1.3: Transactions
Sub-Element 4.6.1.4: Competitiveness
Program Element 4.6.2: Private Sector Productivity
Sub-Element 4.6.2.1: Business Management, Marketing, and Governance Practices
Sub-Element 4.6.2.2: Sector Supply and Value Chains
Sub-Element 4.6.2.3: Research and Technology Development and Application
Sub-Element 4.6.2.4: Business, Trade Unions, and Professional Association Development
Program Element 4.6.3: Workforce Development
Sub-Element 4.6.3.1: Systemic Reform
Sub-Element 4.6.3.2: Partnership Development
Sub-Element 4.6.3.3: Workforce Readiness
Sub-Element 4.6.3.4: Technical/Vocational Training for Employment
Program Element 4.6.4: Program Support
Sub-Element 4.6.4.1: Host Country Strategic Information Capacity
Sub-Element 4.6.4.2: Program Design and Learning
Sub-Element 4.6.4.3: Personnel
Program Area 4.7: Economic Opportunity
Program Element 4.7.1: Inclusive Financial Markets
Sub-Element 4.7.1.1: Policy Environment for Microfinance
Sub-Element 4.7.1.2: Investments in Microfinance
Program Element 4.7.2: Policy Environment for Micro and Small Enterprises
Sub-Element 4.7.2.1: Reduce Barriers to Registering Micro and Small Enterprises
Sub-Element 4.7.2.2: Reduce Regulatory Burden on Micro and Small Enterprises
Program Element 4.7.3: Strengthen Microenterprise Productivity
Sub-Element 4.7.3.1: Microenterprise Business Development Services
Sub-Element 4.7.3.2: Value Chains for Micro and Small Enterprises
Sub-Element 4.7.3.3: Entrepreneurship Development
Program Element 4.7.4: Inclusive Economic Law and Property Rights
Sub-Element 4.7.4.1: Equal Economic Rights for Women and Other Disadvantaged Groups
Sub-Element 4.7.4.2: Property Rights for the Poor
Program Element 4.7.5: Program Support
Sub-Element 4.7.5.1: Host Country Strategic Information Capacity
Sub-Element 4.7.5.2: Program Design and Learning
Sub-Element 4.7.5.3: Personnel
Program Area 4.8: Environment
Program Element 4.8.1: Natural Resources and Biodiversity
Sub-Element 4.8.1.1: Natural Resource Policy and Governance
Sub-Element 4.8.1.2: Sustainable Natural Resource Management and Production
Sub-Element 4.8.1.3: Biodiversity Policy and Governance
Sub-Element 4.8.1.4: Biodiversity Conservation
Sub-Element 4.8.1.5: International Cooperation
Sub-Element 4.8.1.6: Science, Technology and Information
Program Element 4.8.2: Clean Productive Environment
Sub-Element 4.8.2.1: Clean Productive Environment Policy and Governance
Sub-Element 4.8.2.2: Clean Production
Sub-Element 4.8.2.3: Clean Energy
Sub-Element 4.8.2.4: Climate Change
Sub-Element 4.8.2.5: Air Quality
Sub-Element 4.8.2.6: Sound Management of Waste
Sub-Element 4.8.2.7: Toxic Substances
Sub-Element 4.8.2.8: Science and Technology as a Tool for Environmental Decision-Making
Program Element 4.8.3: Program Support
Sub-Element 4.8.3.1: Host Country Strategic Information Capacity
Sub-Element 4.8.3.2: Program Design and Learning
Sub-Element 4.8.3.3: Personnel

Definitions:
Program Area 4.1: Macroeconomic Foundation for Growth


Establish a stable and predictable macroeconomic environment that encourages the private sector to make productivity- and growth-enhancing investments. A solid macroeconomic foundation for growth consists of stable fiscal and monetary policies and institutions and the ability of the government to utilize these tools, in concert, to manipulate the economy.
Program Element 4.1.1: Fiscal Policy
Definition: Encourage and help countries to apply sustainable and efficient fiscal policies, which consist of establishing revenue and expenditure structures and develop management techniques that allow a government to manage the economy through the expansion and contraction of government spending. All support for fiscal policy should be decentralized to the appropriate level of government, and seek to eliminate the potential for corruption.
Sub-Element 4.1.1.1: Revenue Structure and Administration
Definition: Develop revenue/tax systems and administrations that generate the resources needed to support key public functions. These systems and administrations need to be fair, easy to administer, and minimize distortions to economic activity.
Sub-Element 4.1.1.2: Expenditure Structure and Management
Definition: Design and administer public expenditure systems that are transparent, lend themselves to equitable and timely budget formulation, and plan for the needs of the entire population.
Program Element 4.1.2: Monetary Policy
Definition: Monetary policy consists of various mechanisms, such as interest rates, to allow the government to manage the economy by expanding or contracting the money supply. Programs must encourage and help host countries to apply monetary policies that keep inflation low in the short- and long-term, establish the basis for financial stability, and are properly coordinated with fiscal policy to maintain internal and external balance.
Sub-Element 4.1.2.1: Interest Rate Regime
Definition: Strengthen the central bank’s ability to utilize interest rates to affect the money supply and control inflation.
Sub-Element 4.1.2.2: Net Domestic Credit Management
Definition: Manage and control the level of the net domestic credit component of the money supply.
Sub-Element 4.1.2.3: Exchange Rate Regime
Definition: Strengthen the capacity of a government to manage its
currency with respect to foreign currencies and the foreign exchange market. Regimes include: floating, pegged, and fixed. This includes policies related to the exchange rate per se, current account issues and capital account issues.
Sub-Element 4.1.2.4: Net Foreign Assets Management
Definition: Manage and control the level of the net foreign assets component of the money supply.
Sub-Element 4.1.2.5: Debt Management
Definition: Manage and control both domestic and foreign borrowing and debt.
Program Element 4.1.3: Program Support
Definition: This is a special element that is used to support: 1) activities that strengthen the ability of host country institutions and the USG to use strategic information for decision-making, program performance assessment, and learning; and 2) the staffing and tools needed by the USG for program management and oversight under this area.
Sub-Element 4.1.3.1: Host Country Strategic Information Capacity
Definition: Establish and/or strengthen host country institutions’ management information systems (MIS) and their development and use of tools and models to collect, analyze and disseminate a variety of information related to the program area. These may include, but are not limited to MIS for government ministries or other host country institutions, needs assessments, baseline studies, censuses and surveys, targeted evaluations, special studies, routine surveillance, data quality assessments, and operational research. This sub-element may also include developing and disseminating best practices and lessons learned and testing demonstration and/or pilot models. Related training, supplies, equipment, and non-USG personnel are included.
Sub-Element 4.1.3.2: Program Design and Learning
Definition: Develop and conduct needs assessments, baseline studies, targeted evaluations, special studies or other information-gathering efforts specifically for the design, monitoring and evaluation of USG-funded programs. This sub-element may also include developing and disseminating best practices and lessons learned, testing demonstration and/or pilot models, or the preparation of strategic plans and other short-term programming tasks. Note: All such activities that are carried out by partners as an integral part of their monitoring and evaluation efforts for programs funded under other sub-elements should be included within those sub-elements.
Sub-Element 4.1.3.3: Personnel
Definition: Provide staff to help manage, administer and support programs in this area including related salaries, travel, housing, office space, equipment, training, and other personnel-related expenses (e.g. ICASS costs).
Program Area 4.2: Trade and Investment
The institution of international agreements and trade facilitation techniques allows countries to exchange goods and services and make financial investments without fear of loss. This is done through supporting public and private sector efforts to participate effectively in international trade and investment agreements and institutions, implement international agreements, adjust to changing trade conditions, and take full advantage of trade and investment to generate economic growth and reduce poverty.
Program Element 4.2.1: Trade and Investment Enabling Environment
Definition: The policies, laws, regulations, and administrative practices affecting international trade and investment and the public and private sector institutions that support sustained, locally driven improvements in the trade environment that are fair to men and women.
Sub-Element 4.2.1.1: Mainstreaming Trade for Growth and Poverty Reduction
Definition: Coordinate trade and investment policies, and related assistance programs, with national poverty reduction and development strategies, including through participation in the Integrated Framework for Trade-Related Technical Assistance to Least Developed Countries.
Sub-Element 4.2.1.2: Trade Liberalization and Agreements
Definition: Build public and private sector capacity to analyze the impact of trade and investment agreements on economic growth, productivity, employment, poverty, gender equity, fiscal revenues, and other national and individual male and female stakeholders’ interests. Support trade liberalization. Build the capacity of the public sector to meet requirements for accession to the WTO and participating effectively in the WTO system and to meet other international agreements such as the U.S. Free Trade Area agreements and Bilateral Investment Treaties.
Sub-Element 4.2.1.3: Trade Facilitation
Definition: Remove unnecessary “red tape,” control corruption, and simplify and consolidate import and export licensing, regulation of foreign investment and trade in services, and other policies, laws, regulations, and administrative practices governing international trade of goods and services. .
Sub-Element 4.2.1.4: Support for International Standards
Definition: Build and/or strengthen the policies, laws, regulations, administrative practices, and public and private sector institutions not governed by international treaty that support the development, dissemination, and implementation of non-agricultural international business and product standards.
Program Element 4.2.2: Trade and Investment Capacity
Definition: The collection of services, technologies, equipment, and techniques used to enhance private sector response to international trade and investment opportunities.
Sub-Element 4.2.2.1: Trade Communication and Technologies
Definition: Enhance the information and communication technologies employed by both men and women to improve goods and services suppliers’ capacity to identify specific commercial opportunities and establish contacts with potential international business partners.
Sub-Element 4.2.2.2: Trade Knowledge and Skills
Definition: Provide the necessary training, information, data, and other inputs, equally accessible to men and women, to improve suppliers’ understanding of international market demand and competitive conditions, and the regulatory standards and other requirements for accessing specific markets.
Sub-Element 4.2.2.3: Non-Agricultural Standards’ Compliance
Definition: Enhance suppliers’ capacity to meet regulatory and market-driven standards that are required to access and effectively compete in international markets for non-agricultural goods and services, including process standards like ISO-9000 and ISO-14000 and product standards like those governing electrical safety.
Program Element 4.2.3: Program Support
Definition: This is a special element that is used to support: 1) activities that strengthen the ability of host country institutions and the USG to use strategic information for decision-making, program performance assessment, and learning; and 2) the staffing and tools needed by the USG for program management and oversight under this area.
Sub-Element 4.2.3.1: Host Country Strategic Information Capacity
Definition: Establish and/or strengthen host country institutions’ management information systems (MIS) and their development and use of tools and models to collect, analyze and disseminate a variety of information related to the program area. These may include, but are not limited to MIS for government ministries or other host country institutions, needs assessments, baseline studies, censuses and surveys, targeted evaluations, special studies, routine surveillance, data quality assessments, and operational research. This sub-element may also include developing and disseminating best practices and lessons learned and testing demonstration and/or pilot models. Related training, supplies, equipment, and non-USG personnel are included.
Sub-Element 4.2.3.2: Program Design and Learning
Definition: Develop and conduct needs assessments, baseline studies, targeted evaluations, special studies or other information-gathering efforts specifically for the design, monitoring and evaluation of USG-funded programs. This sub-element may also include developing and disseminating best practices and lessons learned, testing demonstration and/or pilot models, or the preparation of strategic plans and other short-term programming tasks. Note: All such activities that are carried out by partners as an integral part of their monitoring and evaluation efforts for programs funded under other sub-elements should be included within those sub-elements.
Sub-Element 4.2.3.3: Personnel
Definition: Provide staff to help manage, administer and support programs in this area including related salaries, travel, housing, office space, equipment, training, and other personnel-related expenses (e.g. ICASS costs).
Program Area 4.3: Financial Sector
Support the establishment of a sound private, well-functioning, equitable financial sector that fulfills critical roles in a market economy, most importantly financial intermediation – the efficient generation and allocation of savings to their most productive use.
Program Element 4.3.1: Financial Sector Enabling Environment
Definition: Support the establishment of expert regulators and professional bodies that constantly improve laws, regulations, standards, and administrative practices that shape the sector.
Sub-Element 4.3.1.1: Sector Liberalization and Strengthening
Definition: Improve policies, laws, and regulations affecting the performance of the financial sector, providing for appropriately sequenced liberalization of financial markets that expand the role of the private sector in providing services; that enlarge the range, improve the quality, and enhance the equitable accessibility of financial services; maintain the stability of the financial sector; and, optimize coordinated, unified, and effective supervision across all sub-sectors of the financial system.
Sub-Element 4.3.1.2: Supervision
Definition: Create a competent set of regulators for the financial sector, including supervision of banking, capital markets, insurance, private pension funds, and other non-bank financial institutions in a unified framework that optimizes coordination, shared resources, and professional development. Enhance their capacity to advance policy and administer international best practices of regulation including self-regulation in the industry. Support private sector initiatives in policy setting and regulatory compliance by promoting self-regulation in institutions such as stock exchanges, accounting standard setting bodies, broker-dealer and insurance associations. Enhance regulators’ capacity to gather and analyze information from the financial sector, inform monetary policy, move to risk based management of the financial system, and share information with the industry and the public.
Sub-Element 4.3.1.3: Corporate Governance
Definition: Promote public and investor confidence in the financial system and beyond by implementing and enforcing sound, equitable corporate governance policy for financial institutions, enterprises, municipalities, and entities using the financial system. Increase the transparency of disclosure of information important to investors, creditors, and regulators. Activities conducted herein should be linked to the GJD objective.
Sub-Element 4.3.1.4: Accounting and Financial Transparency
Definition: Support the establishment of international accounting and auditing standards in the financial sector and throughout the economy. Advance independent, broad-based, highly professional standard-setting bodies for accountants and auditors; and, strengthen the profession of accountants and auditors through the development of education and certification programs in academe and trade associations that will provide professionals qualified at international standards.
Program Element 4.3.2: Financial Services
Definition: Advance the capacity of all public and private institutions to adopt modern management practices, strengthen their professionalism, and improve their systems, including providing equal access to both men and women.
Sub-Element 4.3.2.1: Banking
Definition: Increase the capacity of banks and non-bank credit institutions serving the private sector; strengthen the sub-sector through privatization and restructuring; and advance its capacity to conduct operations in full compliance with international and national norms of corporate governance, transparency, and stakeholder accountability. Increase public confidence through development of deposit insurance; widen credit and savings products; increase accessibility to both men and women; increase tenors, term finance and leasing; enlarge financial services to select targeted sectors (e.g., SMEs, rural business, agriculture, business in conflict or recovery zones); advance banks’ capacity to address the challenges of money laundering and other financial crimes; and, increases banks’ ability to attract credit and capital for their expansion. Note: activities specifically targeting money laundering as a financial crime should be included in the Financial Crimes element of the Peace and Security/Transnational Crimes area.
Sub-Element 4.3.2.2: Systems and Risk Management
Definition: Encourage use of the formal financial system for trade settlements through efficient inter-bank payment and settlement systems; encourage the reduction of credit risk evaluation costs; enable good borrowers to expand their access to finance by creating and strengthening credit bureaus for use throughout the entire financial system; and support the development of property valuation, expeditious loan recovery, and effective creditor claim recovery.
Sub-Element 4.3.2.3: Equity and Debt Markets
Definition: Enhance the capacity of financial intermediaries to generate debt, equity, pooled, and securitized products for sale and resale; to create and modernize trading systems, registries, depositories, clearance and settlement systems for these products; and, to conduct their intermediation in full compliance with international and national norms for financial intermediation, transparency, and stakeholder accountability.
Sub-Element 4.3.2.4: Insurance and Private Pension Funds
Definition: Support the advancement of insurance and the development of private pension funds by enhancing the capacity of regulators, trade associations, and professional bodies (e.g., insurance brokers, actuaries, pension fund managers) in the provision of a wide range of contract savings and risk-management products to the public including the insurance of other financial products, annuities, and private pension funds. Support bringing operations to full compliance with international and national norms, and expanding and modernizing industry statistical and actuarial systems for more effective product development and broader service to the public.
Sub-Element 4.3.2.5: Special Fund Programs
Definition: Support the creation of special fund programs (e.g., enterprise funds and small enterprise assistance funds) that provide credit and capital to small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) and other priority entities in the developmental context when funding is scarce. Advocate through these special funds for improvements in the legal and regulatory framework that affect business and the finance of business; demonstrate through these funds to developing financial markets the best practices in the conduct of “hands-on” investment, corporate governance, product and service development; and support the mentoring of other financial institutions, real sector entities as well as SMEs to accelerate economic growth.
Sub-Element 4.3.2.6: Credit Guarantees
Definition: Enhance financial sector development and the development of sectors targeted by the USG within its development agenda with technical assistance and modestly subsidized guarantees to private financial institutions that are able to provide the sought-after market-based services on a sustained basis. It also trains local USG officials, as well as the financial institutions, in the benefits and responsibilities of guarantee programs and their key role as a catalyst for the expansion of access to finance within a larger financial sector development program.
Program Element 4.3.3: Program Support
Definition: This is a special element that is used to support: 1) activities that strengthen the ability of host country institutions and the USG to use strategic information for decision-making, program performance assessment, and learning; and 2) the staffing and tools needed by the USG for program management and oversight under this area.
Sub-Element 4.3.3.1: Host Country Strategic Information Capacity
Definition: Establish and/or strengthen host country institutions’ management information systems (MIS) and their development and use of tools and models to collect, analyze and disseminate a variety of information related to the program area. These may include, but are not limited to MIS for government ministries or other host country institutions, needs assessments, baseline studies, censuses and surveys, targeted evaluations, special studies, routine surveillance, data quality assessments, and operational research. This sub-element may also include developing and disseminating best practices and lessons learned and testing demonstration and/or pilot models. Related training, supplies, equipment, and non-USG personnel are included.
Sub-Element 4.3.3.2: Program Design and Learning
Definition: Develop and conduct needs assessments, baseline studies, targeted evaluations, special studies or other information-gathering efforts specifically for the design, monitoring and evaluation of USG-funded programs. This sub-element may also include developing and disseminating best practices and lessons learned, testing demonstration and/or pilot models, or the preparation of strategic plans and other short-term programming tasks. Note: All such activities that are carried out by partners as an integral part of their monitoring and evaluation efforts for programs funded under other sub-elements should be included within those sub-elements.
Sub-Element 4.3.3.3: Personnel
Definition: Provide staff to help manage, administer and support programs in this area including related salaries, travel, housing, office space, equipment, training, and other personnel-related expenses (e.g. ICASS costs).
Program Area 4.4: Infrastructure
Support the creation, improvement and sustainability of physical infrastructure, and related services, in both urban and rural areas, to enhance the economic environment and improve economic productivity, including for women. The main infrastructures include energy; telecom and ICT; and transport, including roads, airports, railways, and ports. Water and sanitation services are included under the Investing in People, Health area.
Program Element 4.4.1: Modern Energy Services
Definition: Increase the efficiency, reliability, and transparency of energy services and promote investment in the development, transport, processing, and utilization of indigenous energy sources and imported fuels.
Sub-Element 4.4.1.1: Basic Energy Infrastructure Project Financing
Definition: Assist in financing and implementing physical energy infrastructure, e.g. electricity, particularly to rehabilitate or restore services.
Sub-Element 4.4.1.2: Legal and Regulatory Development
Definition: Prepare laws and regulations for network and non-network energy sub-sectors and provide support for the development of professional energy regulatory authorities, including their role in tariff formulation.
Sub-Element 4.4.1.3: Energy Sector Restructuring and Corporatization
Definition: Restructure state monopolies (and the separation of operational functions from Ministries) and create corporate entities for specific operational functions (e.g. generation, transmission, distribution).
Sub-Element 4.4.1.4: Commercialization and Management Improvement
Definition: Assist energy utilities or companies in improving their management and operations to achieve higher levels of service and financial performance.
Sub-Element 4.4.1.5: Market Design, Implementation, and Monitoring
Definition: Design of competitive markets for energy, the implementation of power exchanges, and market governance institutions, and the development of effective monitoring capabilities. Includes support for involvement in regional markets.
Sub-Element 4.4.1.6: Energy Efficiency, Renewable Energy, and Decentralized Energy Technologies and Financing
Definition: Assist in the planning and introduction of projects, including pilot or demonstration projects, to reduce energy intensity and energy waste. Assist in training personnel in management of these systems, and on developing financial mechanisms to disseminate and commercialize these systems.
Sub-Element 4.4.1.7: Privatization and Private Investment Promotion
Definition: Assist in privatizing existing state energy companies, developing the frameworks and promoting projects for private investment in energy resources exploration and production, processing and conversion, transmission and transportation, and distribution and delivery of energy to end-users, taking into account the differential uses of energy by men and women.
Sub-Element 4.4.1.8: Expanded Access to Rural and Low Income Areas
Definition: Support interventions that expand access of rural and urban poor to modern energy services and fuels.
Program Element 4.4.2: Communications Services
Definition: Strengthen and support communications networks.
Sub-Element 4.4.2.1: Basic Communications Infrastructure Financing
Definition: Directly finance and implement physical transport infrastructure, e.g., land lines or internet backbone.
Sub-Element 4.4.2.2: Legal and Regulatory Development
Definition: Prepare laws and regulations and draft national policies to de-regulate the communications sector, promoting competition and investment while ensuring access and service quality to consumers.
Sub-Element 4.4.2.3: Expanded Access to ICT Services and Applications
Definition: Support extension of access to economic groups and geographic areas with insufficient connection or access rates through private sector expansion, targeted subsidies and e-government initiatives.
Sub-Element 4.4.2.4: Restructuring and Corporatization
Definition: Introduce market-based approaches to public sector communications utilities by introducing management improvements in structure, incentives and performance targets and revised ownership arrangements.
Sub-Element 4.4.2.5: Privatization and Promotion of Private Investment
Definition: Assist with privatization of public sector communications utilities and facilitate private investment.
Program Element 4.4.3: Transport Services
Definition: Support and strengthen reliable and affordable transport systems.
Sub-Element 4.4.3.1: Basic Transport Infrastructure Financing
Definition: Directly finance and implement physical transport infrastructure, e.g., highways, particularly to rehabilitate or restore capacity.
Sub-Element 4.4.3.2: Legal and Regulatory Restructuring and Governance
Definition: Reform and restructure sub-sector policies, laws and regulations to ensure broad access, support for privatization and competition, and ensure safety and reliability.
Sub-Element 4.4.3.3: Transport Policy and Planning
Definition: Prepare national laws and regulations and draft national policies for sub-sectors (ports, rails, roads, air, etc) to promote efficiency in the transport of goods and people, set geographic priorities for public funding and enable private sector participation.
Sub-Element 4.4.3.4: Financing, Investment and Private Sector Participation
Definition: Facilitate investment through project identification, feasibility analyses, development funds and support for private sector participation.
Program Element 4.4.4: Program Support
Definition: This is a special element that is used to support: 1) activities that strengthen the ability of host country institutions and the USG to use strategic information for decision-making, program performance assessment, and learning; and 2) the staffing and tools needed by the USG for program management and oversight under this area.
Sub-Element 4.4.4.1: Host Country Strategic Information Capacity
Definition: Establish and/or strengthen host country institutions’ management information systems (MIS) and their development and use of tools and models to collect, analyze and disseminate a variety of information related to the program area. These may include, but are not limited to MIS for government ministries or other host country institutions, needs assessments, baseline studies, censuses and surveys, targeted evaluations, special studies, routine surveillance, data quality assessments, and operational research. This sub-element may also include developing and disseminating best practices and lessons learned and testing demonstration and/or pilot models. Related training, supplies, equipment, and non-USG personnel are included.
Sub-Element 4.4.4.2: Program Design and Learning
Definition: Develop and conduct needs assessments, baseline studies, targeted evaluations, special studies or other information-gathering efforts specifically for the design, monitoring and evaluation of USG-funded programs. This sub-element may also include developing and disseminating best practices and lessons learned, testing demonstration and/or pilot models, or the preparation of strategic plans and other short-term programming tasks. Note: All such activities that are carried out by partners as an integral part of their monitoring and evaluation efforts for programs funded under other sub-elements should be included within those sub-elements.
Sub-Element 4.4.4.3: Personnel
Definition: Provide staff to help manage, administer and support programs in this area including related salaries, travel, housing, office space, equipment, training, and other personnel-related expenses (e.g. ICASS costs).
Program Area 4.5: Agriculture
Agriculture is the science and practice of food, feed, and fiber production (including forestry, wildlife, fisheries, aquaculture and floraculture) and its relationships to natural resources, processing, marketing, distribution, utilization (including nutrition), and trade.
Program Element 4.5.1: Agricultural Enabling Environment
Definition: Support agricultural policies, institutions, and agricultural markets; foster adoption of improved technology; invest in infrastructure at all levels, and enhance the natural resource base in ways that respond to the needs of men and women producers.
Sub-Element 4.5.1.1: Agricultural Resource Policy
Definition: Support institutions and equitable policies that foster sustainable utilization of land, water, plant, and animal resources to enhance agricultural productivity and incomes, increase resource quality and quantity, and decrease degradation of productive resources. This includes access to and securing property rights over agricultural resources, including by female-headed households and returning internally displaced persons and refugees, and it includes increasing returns of agricultural labor.
Sub-Element 4.5.1.2: Food Policy
Definition: Support institutions, policies and incentives aimed at ensuring that adequate, safe, and nutritious food is available; markets function efficiently; and that low-income groups and those vulnerable to food insecurity (e.g., female farmers with small land holdings, female-headed households, children, and HIV-affected) are able to access and appropriately utilize that food.
Sub-Element 4.5.1.3: Agricultural Market Standards and Regulations
Definition: Improve laws, institutions, and policies that impact market transactions of agricultural goods, inputs, practices, and services. This includes international policies such as agriculture-related agreements of the WTO; domestic science-based regulation to ensure food, feed, and environmental safety; and market-based or industry-led quality grades, standards, and certification.
Sub-Element 4.5.1.4: Public Investment Policy
Definition: Improve institutions and policies that encourage increased and more effective public and private investments in agricultural institutions and infrastructure to provide the basis for expanded productivity in the agricultural sector. This includes support for (1) scientific and technological advances through research and development, (2) governmental actions that provide a positive climate for innovation and investment, and (3) efforts to comply with international treaties and encourage international cooperation and public-private partnerships.
Program Element 4.5.2: Agricultural Sector Productivity
Definition: Sustain the productivity of the agricultural sector through investments that foster increasing returns to land, labor, and capital. Targeted interventions to male and female producers provide improvements in technology and management practices, expanded access to markets and credit, increased organizational and market efficiency, and restoration and protection of resiliency in production and livelihood systems.
Sub-Element 4.5.2.1: Research and Technology Dissemination
Definition: Support scientific research and technology, including biotechnology that generates improvements in production systems (crop, livestock, farm, forest, and fisheries), value-added products, and management practices leading to sustainable productivity gains, mitigation of risk, and income growth. It also supports dissemination and adoption of productivity-enhancing and post harvest technologies, value-added products, and management practices in these areas by reducing the barriers that may constrain male or female producers, processors, and manufacturers.
Sub-Element 4.5.2.2: Land and Water Management
Definition: Develop and invest in the quantity and quality of land and water resources, including irrigation and soil fertility, riparian and range management, and water resources to improve and sustainably increase agricultural productivity and incomes. This includes related land and water administration systems.
Sub-Element 4.5.2.3: Rural and Agricultural Finance
Definition: Increase equitable access to financial services by male and female farmers in rural areas and for agricultural enterprises to purchase necessary inputs; introduce new technologies; expand productive capacity; and finance storage, transport, and marketing costs. Also includes access to mechanisms and products that reduce seasonal income and consumption variability, protect and build assets, and mitigate price and weather risk. (Link to Microfinance 7.1.2 and Financial Services 3.2, as appropriate.)
Sub-Element 4.5.2.4: Agribusiness and Producer Organizations
Definition: Support the growth of small and medium agro-enterprises, including producer organizations/associations, which are engaged in producing, marketing, or adding value (e.g. processing and quality enhancement) to crop, livestock, forestry, and fishery products. Support addresses the needs and capacities of both men and women producers and includes such areas as adoption of technology and technical processes, businesses and human resources management, environmental regulatory compliance, and organizational governance.
Sub-Element 4.5.2.5: Markets and Trade Capacity
Definition: Build capacity to link small-scale producers (men and women), pastoralists, and small to medium enterprises to the economic opportunities of commercial markets. This includes both input and output markets at the local, regional, and international levels. Interventions include areas such as the development of risk management strategies; warehouse receipt, agricultural commodity trading and accessible market information systems; meeting market standards; and public and private investments that support efficient agricultural marketing such as storage facilities, cold storage, packaging facilities, and agricultural processing facilities.
Sub-Element 4.5.2.6: Emerging Agricultural Threats
Definition: Strengthen plant and animal disease surveillance and the control of emerging agricultural pests and diseases (e.g. Wheat Stem Rust) to mitigate productivity losses, allow access to international markets, reduce risks to human health, improve food safety, and reduce the risk of introduction of diseases into the U.S.
Sub-Element 4.5.2.7: Agricultural Livelihood Services and Safety Nets
Definition: Support risk management and economic diversification, transfer and adaptation of proven technologies and human organization innovations to increase market access, food or cash transfers in exchange for public works; and resource transfers and/or agricultural inputs (e.g. seeds, tools, and livestock) which enable male and female producers to try new technologies and production methods that would otherwise not be available to them.
Program Element 4.5.3: Program Support
Definition: This is a special element that is used to support: 1) activities that strengthen the ability of host country institutions and the USG to use strategic information for decision-making, program performance assessment, and learning; and 2) the staffing and tools needed by the USG for program management and oversight under this area.
Sub-Element 4.5.3.1: Host Country Strategic Information Capacity
Definition: Establish and/or strengthen host country institutions’ management information systems (MIS) and their development and use of tools and models to collect, analyze and disseminate a variety of information related to the program area. These may include, but are not limited to MIS for government ministries or other host country institutions, needs assessments, baseline studies, censuses and surveys, targeted evaluations, special studies, routine surveillance, data quality assessments, and operational research. This sub-element may also include developing and disseminating best practices and lessons learned and testing demonstration and/or pilot models. Related training, supplies, equipment, and non-USG personnel are included.
Sub-Element 4.5.3.2: Program Design and Learning
Definition: Develop and conduct needs assessments, baseline studies, targeted evaluations, special studies or other information-gathering efforts specifically for the design, monitoring and evaluation of USG-funded programs. This sub-element may also include developing and disseminating best practices and lessons learned, testing demonstration and/or pilot models, or the preparation of strategic plans and other short-term programming tasks. Note: All such activities that are carried out by partners as an integral part of their monitoring and evaluation efforts for programs funded under other sub-elements should be included within those sub-elements.
Sub-Element 4.5.3.3: Personnel
Definition: Provide staff to help manage, administer and support programs in this area including related salaries, travel, housing, office space, equipment, training, and other personnel-related expenses (e.g. ICASS costs).
Program Area 4.6: Private Sector Competitiveness
Improve policies, laws, regulations, and administrative practices affecting the private sector’s ability to compete nationally and internationally. All the elements include not only the adoption and implementation of policies, but also their oversight by elected officials, NGOs, and the private sector.
Program Element 4.6.1: Business Enabling Environment
Definition: Improve policies, laws, regulations, and administrative practices affecting the private sector. Includes reducing barriers to competition and unwarranted distortions to market prices; reducing policy and regulatory barriers to establishing, operating, and closing businesses; strengthening the legal framework surrounding property rights that is fair to both men and women, contract enforcement, and dispute resolution, along with the administration of those laws; reducing incentives for corruption and promoting transparent business practices; strengthening the legal framework surrounding intellectual property rights; and improving laws and regulations affecting the creation, dissemination, and use of technology. It also includes improving policies and regulations affecting technology choices and production behaviors with environmental impacts; and improving policies, laws, and regulations affecting hiring and firing of workers, wages, working conditions, and collective bargaining. Includes support for specific improvements as well as efforts to strengthen the institutions that contribute to designing and implementing further improvements.
Sub-Element 4.6.1.1: Property Rights
Definition: Facilitate the creation, perfection and observance of secure and equitable property rights in land and improvements (rural and urban), movable property, intangible property, and intellectual property. Create new institutions or bolster existing institutions to resolve disputes and enforce property rights. Provide training and technical support, including awareness of barriers that deny women their rights, to build capacity in the institutions charged with implementing and enforcing property rights systems. Provide hardware and software in order to improve property registration systems and facilitate market transactions (e.g., land title registries, secured transactions registries, copyright and patent systems). Legally empower poor and disadvantaged persons and groups, including women, to have their property rights recognized through formal and informal (i.e., customary) legal channels. Programs designed under this element may include all groups, including poor and disadvantaged, but programs specifically targeting poor and disadvantaged groups should be captured under Element 7.4. Agricultural resource property rights should be captured under 5.1.1.
Sub-Element 4.6.1.2: Business and organizations
Definition: Facilitate the adoption of streamlined and inexpensive licensing, registration, and inspection regimes for different categories of businesses, including SMEs, joint-stock companies, and partnerships. Provide hardware and software to improve registration and licensing systems. Protect investor and shareholder rights through transparent systems of corporate governance based on company law and corporate governance practices. Encourage the adoption, implementation and oversight of law, regulation and enforcement practices that support compliance with internationally recognized labor standards and contracts. Provide training, technical support and hardware where required to the courts, labor ministries, trade unions, NGOs focused on labor issues that may affect men and women differently, business and professional associations and firms to assist all these bodies in developing implementation and enforcement practices that support enforcement of law and regulation regarding labor standards and contracts. Within this framework, support the creation of flexible labor practices with regard to such topics as workforce development, hiring and firing, elimination of any biases in the treatment of male and female workers, benefits and hours to assure competitiveness at the enterprise level.
Sub-Element 4.6.1.3: Transactions
Definition: Encourage the adoption, implementation and oversight of fundamental commercial laws that support market-oriented economic transactions (including sales, leases, procurement, and contracts) and development of the regulations and institutions needed to implement, support and sustain such changes. Assist public and private male and female stakeholders to develop capacity to establish and engage in transparent and responsive processes for drafting and amending legislation and regulations that include active participation of the business community and other stakeholders. Assist the development of consumer protection policies, product standards and trade rules to facilitate competition and integration into the world economy. Improve analytical and advocacy skills for a wide range of interested public and private stakeholder institutions to support ongoing improvements in the commercial environment that provide equitable opportunities to men and women.
Sub-Element 4.6.1.4: Competitiveness
Definition: Promote policies that make the economic/commercial system run better. Promote a fair, speedy, and efficient commercial and labor law adjudication system that protects property rights and contract rights. In addition to government-sponsored courts, alternate dispute resolution, arbitration, and mediation may be employed in order to resolve the widest range of business and labor disputes. Assist in the development of competition policy, privatization and regulation of natural monopolies.
Program Element 4.6.2: Private Sector Productivity
Definition: Improve the capacity of businesses to integrate into domestic and international markets through increases in productivity and improvements in corporate governance and the development and application of modern technology and marketing practices. Enhance the capacity of businesses and business associations in terms of their corporate governance capabilities and their application of best practices and technologies to achieve increased production and marketing of products and services. It includes adoption of efficient production processes, improved labor productivity, environmentally-sound management of natural resources and the development of accounting and management systems that can help the company and industry group implement business, labor, product and process standards that enhance business competitiveness. Business capacity development programs may include activities that help men- and women-owned firms and associations respond to these international markets and create regional alliances.
Sub-Element 4.6.2.1: Business management, marketing and governance practices
Definition: Professional, market-orientated business management and transparent corporate governance practices are foundations of firm level competitiveness. Involves efforts to strengthen the capacity of the private sector in such areas as finance and accounting; equitable treatment of male and female workers; strategic planning; supply-chain management/operations; market knowledge; meeting business, labor and environment standards; marketing and sound corporate governance.
Sub-Element 4.6.2.2: Sector supply and value chains
Definition: Enhance the capacity of business, industry trade associations, universities, institutes and local government to develop strategies collectively to create supply and value chains for products and services that will compete nationally and internationally; facilitate linkages among all components of chain members; and provide training and capacity building among male and female personnel within academic faculty, trade associations, and business centers so they will be able to guide further development of supply and value chains.
Sub-Element 4.6.2.3: Research and technology development and application
Definition: Facilitate and support the development of indigenous technology capacity, including for women producers; strengthen the ability of men- and women-owned firms to access both cutting edge and appropriate technology; support the application of existing technology to new environments and purposes; and work with industry clusters to introduce new technology.
Sub-Element 4.6.2.4: Business, trade unions and professional association development
Definition: Establish a framework for business, trade unions and professional associations to organize and offer services to their male and female membership, with particular emphasis on training, greater inclusion of women in leadership roles, and providing information on competitiveness, analytical capacity to examine constraints on growth and introduce or advocate changes, and work with media to improve reporting on competitiveness issues and commercial information. Support competition and profusion of private associations to reduce likelihood and incidence of vested business interests having disproportionate, non-competitive influence on competitiveness reforms. Promote research, training, advocacy, technology transfer roles and public-private dialogue.
Program Element 4.6.3: Workforce Development
Definition: Assist youth and adults in acquiring knowledge and developing skills, attitudes, and behaviors to find legitimate jobs, establish viable self-employment ventures, and stay employed and productive in a changing economy. Create policies, programs, and systems that respond to labor market demands in the formal and informal sectors.
Sub-Element 4.6.3.1: Systemic Reform
Definition: Promote policies and strengthen systemic capacity to provide quality, demand-driven formal and non-formal workforce development opportunities, with special consideration to gender issues and access to workforce education programs for male and female youth. These activities will strengthen workforce development governance, resource management, and incentive systems; sex and age-disaggregated data collection for strategic decision-making; and institutional capacity for service delivery.
Sub-Element 4.6.3.2: Partnership Development
Definition: Increase participation and establish networks among public and private civil society stakeholders to identify work force needs and coordinate efforts to create and sustain equitable, effective workforce development programs, especially for youth. This will be accomplished by building collaborative dialogue and action groups among stakeholders such as business and industry, government, public and private education providers, labor associations, youth groups, and NGOs to plan, design and implement workforce development programs.
Sub-Element 4.6.3.3: Workforce Readiness
Definition: Create and sustain pre-employment and employability programs for male and female youth and men and women in formal and non-formal settings. These programs develop foundational (pre-requisite or threshold) skills that are adaptable and necessary for entrance into the labor force, vocational training programs, and career-oriented higher education; skills such as critical thinking, teamwork, and communication. Workforce readiness programs may target out-of-school and marginalized youth and adults, or students in general education systems. Programs include labor market and social support services, and linkages with further technical skills development and career opportunities for both young men and women.
Sub-Element 4.6.3.4: Technical/Vocational Training for Employment
Definition: Create and sustain career-enhancing education and training programs that are responsive to the current and future labor needs of local, regional, and international employers, both formal and nonformal. Generally, these programs certify competence of male and female learners in accordance with industry standards and provide labor market and social support services. In contexts where the private sector is weak, technical/vocational training may be oriented towards self-employment.
Program Element 4.6.4: Program Support
Definition: This is a special element that is used to support: 1) activities that strengthen the ability of host country institutions and the USG to use strategic information for decision-making, program performance assessment, and learning; and 2) the staffing and tools needed by the USG for program management and oversight under this area.
Sub-Element 4.6.4.1: Host Country Strategic Information Capacity
Definition: Establish and/or strengthen host country institutions’ management information systems (MIS) and their development and use of tools and models to collect, analyze and disseminate a variety of information related to the program area. These may include, but are not limited to MIS for government ministries or other host country institutions, needs assessments, baseline studies, censuses and surveys, targeted evaluations, special studies, routine surveillance, data quality assessments, and operational research. This sub-element may also include developing and disseminating best practices and lessons learned and testing demonstration and/or pilot models. Related training, supplies, equipment, and non-USG personnel are included.
Sub-Element 4.6.4.2: Program Design and Learning
Definition: Develop and conduct needs assessments, baseline studies, targeted evaluations, special studies or other information-gathering efforts specifically for the design, monitoring and evaluation of USG-funded programs. This sub-element may also include developing and disseminating best practices and lessons learned, testing demonstration and/or pilot models, or the preparation of strategic plans and other short-term programming tasks. Note: All such activities that are carried out by partners as an integral part of their monitoring and evaluation efforts for programs funded under other sub-elements should be included within those sub-elements.
Sub-Element 4.6.4.3: Personnel
Definition: Provide staff to help manage, administer and support programs in this area including related salaries, travel, housing, office space, equipment, training, and other personnel-related expenses (e.g. ICASS costs).
Program Area 4.7: Economic Opportunity
Efforts aimed at helping poor households (especially female-headed household as they are often the most disadvantaged) connect to the economic opportunities created by growth. It includes both efforts to enhance the current income-earning prospects of poor households, as well as efforts to ensure that they can accumulate and protect productive assets.
Program Element 4.7.1: Inclusive Financial Markets
Definition: Support equitable access to essential financial services (credit, savings, insurance, leasing, remittances and payment services) of diverse providers (including banks, credit unions, NGOs, non-bank financial institutions, buyers, and suppliers) to low-incomes families and female and male-owned micro-scale enterprises/activities.
Sub-Element 4.7.1.1: Policy Environment for Microfinance
Definition: Improve the policy and regulatory environment affecting the establishment, growth, and operations of microfinance institutions.
Sub-Element 4.7.1.2: Investments in Microfinance
Definition: Provide financial and technical support for start-up, expansion, new product development, and other forms of capacity-building of retail microfinance institutions, as well as investments in the market infrastructure (e.g., credit information bureaus, ratings agencies, accountants and specialized service providers, credit enhancements, and other capital access mechanisms) that increase access to financial services for those women and men currently excluded.
Program Element 4.7.2: Policy Environment for Micro and Small Enterprises
Definition: Reduce national and local barriers to registering and operating micro and small enterprises by improving the policies, laws, regulations, and institutions affecting these enterprises.
Sub-Element 4.7.2.1: Reduce Barriers to Registering Micro and Small Enterprises
Definition: Reduce the complexity and cost of national and local procedures used to register micro and small enterprises.
Sub-Element 4.7.2.2: Reduce Regulatory Burden on Micro and Small Enterprises
Definition: Reduce the complexity and cost of complying with national and local regulations affecting the operations of existing micro and small enterprises.
Program Element 4.7.3: Strengthen Microenterprise Productivity
Definition: Support the start-up and expansion of self-employment and micro and small enterprises owned and operated by low-income people.
Sub-Element 4.7.3.1: Microenterprise Business Development Services
Definition: Increase the accessibility, availability, relevance, and sustainability of business services, training and extension, inputs, equipment, and technologies that equitably respond to the needs and capacities of female and male-owned micro-scale firms. Improve laws, regulations, and policies that limit the availability of business services for women- and men-owned micro and small enterprises.
Sub-Element 4.7.3.2: Value Chains for Micro and Small Enterprises
Definition: Help microbusinesses and small-scale producers take advantage of and meet the requirements of higher-value end markets (domestic, regional, or international), usually by partnering with larger-scale firms.
Sub-Element 4.7.3.3: Entrepreneurship Development
Definition: Promote effective entrepreneurship development and support models for adults, youth, and specially disadvantaged populations.
Program Element 4.7.4: Inclusive Economic Law and Property Rights
Definition: Ensure that poor people, women, and other disadvantaged groups have equal legal rights and protection in economic matters.
Sub-Element 4.7.4.1: Equal Economic Rights for Women and Other Disadvantaged Groups
Definition: Eliminate sources of legal discrimination against women, ethnic and religious minorities, and other disadvantaged groups in economic matters. Includes de facto, as well as, de jure discrimination. Includes efforts to ensure equal rights for women in key economic areas such as land ownership and inheritance.
Sub-Element 4.7.4.2: Property Rights for the Poor
Definition: Strengthen and protect property rights of poor households, including titling of urban and rural land held under informal or traditional ownership; and registration of property to allow it to be pledged as collateral.
Program Element 4.7.5: Program Support
Definition: This is a special element that is used to support: 1) activities that strengthen the ability of host country institutions and the USG to use strategic information for decision-making, program performance assessment, and learning; and 2) the staffing and tools needed by the USG for program management and oversight under this area.
Sub-Element 4.7.5.1: Host Country Strategic Information Capacity
Definition: Establish and/or strengthen host country institutions’ management information systems (MIS) and their development and use of tools and models to collect, analyze and disseminate a variety of information related to the program area. These may include, but are not limited to MIS for government ministries or other host country institutions, needs assessments, baseline studies, censuses and surveys, targeted evaluations, special studies, routine surveillance, data quality assessments, and operational research. This sub-element may also include developing and disseminating best practices and lessons learned and testing demonstration and/or pilot models. Related training, supplies, equipment, and non-USG personnel are included.
Sub-Element 4.7.5.2: Program Design and Learning
Definition: Develop and conduct needs assessments, baseline studies, targeted evaluations, special studies or other information-gathering efforts specifically for the design, monitoring and evaluation of USG-funded programs. This sub-element may also include developing and disseminating best practices and lessons learned, testing demonstration and/or pilot models, or the preparation of strategic plans and other short-term programming tasks. Note: All such activities that are carried out by partners as an integral part of their monitoring and evaluation efforts for programs funded under other sub-elements should be included within those sub-elements.
Sub-Element 4.7.5.3: Personnel
Definition: Provide staff to help manage, administer and support programs in this area including related salaries, travel, housing, office space, equipment, training, and other personnel-related expenses (e.g. ICASS costs).
Program Area 4.8: Environment
Ensure that the environment and the natural resources upon which human lives and livelihoods depend are managed in ways that sustain productivity and growth as well as a healthy population.
Program Element 4.8.1: Natural Resources and Biodiversity
Definition: Conserve biodiversity and manage natural resources in ways that maintain their long-term viability and preserve their potential to meet the needs of present and future generations. Activities include combating illegal and corrupt exploitation of natural resources and the control of invasive species. Programs in this element should be integrated with the Agriculture Area under Economic Growth and Conflict Mitigation and Reconciliation Area under the Peace and Security Objective, when applicable and appropriate.
Sub-Element 4.8.1.1: Natural Resources Policy and Governance
Definition: Promote participatory, equitable and transparent governance structures, policies, laws, regulations, and administrative practices impacting the conservation and sustainable management of natural resources services, including combating illegal and corrupt exploitation of such resources.
Sub-Element 4.8.1.2: Sustainable Natural Resources Management and Production
Definition: Promote and improve sustainable management of natural resources. Incorporate sustainable natural resource management practices and technologies into economically productive sectors. Increase sustainable production, marketing, and trade of natural resource-based products and services.
Sub-Element 4.8.1.3: Biodiversity Policy and Governance
Definition: Promote participatory, equitable and transparent governance structures, policies, laws, regulations, and administrative practices impacting the conservation and sustainable management of biodiversity services, including combating illegal and corrupt exploitation of such resources.
Sub-Element 4.8.1.4: Biodiversity Conservation
Definition: Improve biodiversity conservation, enhance management effectiveness, and expand/maintain natural ecosystems and habitats managed primarily to protect and conserve biodiversity and associated ecosystem services. Control the spread of invasive species.
Sub-Element 4.8.1.5: International Cooperation
Definition: Improve the extent to which international and regional organizations, agreements, and institutions reflect the natural resources management, ecosystem services, and biodiversity conservation objectives of U.S. foreign policy and assistance, and are in turn reflected in national, regional, and global policies and action.
Sub-Element 4.8.1.6: Science, Technology and Information
Definition: Build the scientific, technological, and information capacity necessary for science-based measurement, monitoring and decision-making in natural resources, ecosystem services and biodiversity-related sectors.
Program Element 4.8.2: Clean Productive Environment
Definition: Improve sustainability of a productive and clean environment by reducing risks to the health of the workforce and the population in general, communities, and ecosystems from environmental pollution and other environmental risks associated with industrial and agricultural production, urbanization, energy use, transport, and other human activity.
Sub-Element 4.8.2.1: Clean Productive Environment Policy and Governance
Definition: Strengthen legal, policy, and institutional frameworks to improve implementation, enforcement, and compliance with national environmental laws and international commitments; strengthen access to information, public participation, and access to justice in environmental decision-making.
Sub-Element 4.8.2.2: Clean Production
Definition: Promote environmentally sound technologies and cleaner production practices that reduce raw material, water and energy inputs in production processes. It includes programs to reduce, prevent and mitigate water pollution to reduce human health risks from water and to enhance beneficial uses of water.
Sub-Element 4.8.2.3: Clean Energy
Definition: Promote environmentally sound and efficient energy production technologies and practices that reduce energy production inputs and reduce levels of pollution. Linkages should be made to program sub-element 4.1.6 Energy Efficiency under the Economic Growth Objective.
Sub-Element 4.8.2.4: Climate Change
Definition: Climate change includes the modifications to the earth’s surface temperature, especially global warming, caused by human activities. Activities to address this include: reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, increases in carbon sequestration, and reduction of vulnerability of countries by improving their adaptive capacity to handle the impacts of climate change. Some forestry programs in the Agriculture Area may also contribute to carbon sequestration and should indicate this under “Climate Change” in the “key issues” of the Foreign Assistance Coordination and Tracking System.
Sub-Element 4.8.2.5: Air Quality
Definition: Decrease emissions or air pollutants to reduce their impact on local health, regional and hemispheric health and ecosystem risks from long-range transport, and global environmental impacts.
Sub-Element 4.8.2.6: Sound Management of Waste
Definition: Improve management of solid waste, including promoting product reuse and recycling and environmentally sound waste transport, treatment, and disposal practices, to reduce risks to human health, the environment and future growth.
Sub-Element 4.8.2.7: Toxic Substances
Definition: Improve the management of, and reduce risks posed by, Persistent Bioaccumulative Toxics (PBTs), heavy metals, Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs), and other hazardous, toxic, and infectious substances.
Sub-Element 4.8.2.8: Science and Technology as a Tool for Environmental Decision-Making
Definition: Build international scientific, technological, and information capacity to understand, communicate, and solve environmental problems.
Program Element 4.8.3: Program Support
Definition: This is a special element that is used to support: 1) activities that strengthen the ability of host country institutions and the USG to use strategic information for decision-making, program performance assessment, and learning; and 2) the staffing and tools needed by the USG for program management and oversight under this area.
Sub-Element 4.8.3.1: Host Country Strategic Information Capacity
Definition: Establish and/or strengthen host country institutions’ management information systems (MIS) and their development and use of tools and models to collect, analyze and disseminate a variety of information related to the program area. These may include, but are not limited to MIS for government ministries or other host country institutions, needs assessments, baseline studies, censuses and surveys, targeted evaluations, special studies, routine surveillance, data quality assessments, and operational research. This sub-element may also include developing and disseminating best practices and lessons learned and testing demonstration and/or pilot models. Related training, supplies, equipment, and non-USG personnel are included.
Sub-Element 4.8.3.2: Program Design and Learning
Definition: Develop and conduct needs assessments, baseline studies, targeted evaluations, special studies or other information-gathering efforts specifically for the design, monitoring and evaluation of USG-funded programs. This sub-element may also include developing and disseminating best practices and lessons learned, testing demonstration and/or pilot models, or the preparation of strategic plans and other short-term programming tasks. Note: All such activities that are carried out by partners as an integral part of their monitoring and evaluation efforts for programs funded under other sub-elements should be included within those sub-elements.
Sub-Element 4.8.3.3: Personnel
Definition: Provide staff to help manage, administer and support programs in this area including related salaries, travel, housing, office space, equipment, training, and other personnel-related expenses (e.g. ICASS costs).

Humanitarian Assistance: To save lives, alleviate suffering, and minimize the economic costs of conflict, disasters and displacement. Humanitarian assistance is provided on the basis of need according to principles of universality, impartiality and human dignity. It is often organized by sectors, but requires an integrated, coordinated and/or multi-sectoral approach to be most effective. Emergency operations will foster the transition from relief, through recovery, to development, but they cannot and will not replace the development investments necessary to reduce chronic poverty or establish just social services.
Summary


Program Area 5.1: Protection, Assistance and Solutions
Program Element 5.1.1: Protection and Solutions
Sub-Element 5.1.1.1: International Laws and Principles
Sub-Element 5.1.1.2: Protection of Vulnerable Populations
Sub-Element 5.1.1.3: Durable Solutions
Program Element 5.1.2: Assistance and Recovery
Sub-Element 5.1.2.1: First Response and Immediate Interventions
Sub-Element 5.1.2.2: Water and Sanitation Commodities and Services
Sub-Element 5.1.2.3: Health, Food, and Nutrition Commodities and Services
Sub-Element 5.1.2.4: Shelter and Camp Management Commodities and Services
Sub-Element 5.1.2.5: Livelihood Support, Infrastructure Rehabilitation and Services
Program Element 5.1.3: Program Support
Sub-Element 5.1.3.1: Host Country and Partner Strategic Information Capacity
Sub-Element 5.1.3.2: Program Design and Learning
Sub-Element 5.1.3.3: Personnel
Program Area 5.2: Disaster Readiness
Program Element 5.2.1: Capacity Building, Preparedness, and Planning
Sub-Element 5.2.1.1: Planning and Preparedness
Program Element 5.2.2: Mitigation
Sub-Element 5.2.2.1: Protective Infrastructure
Sub-Element 5.2.2.2: Enhanced Coping Mechanisms
Program Element 5.2.3: Program Support
Sub-Element 5.2.3.1: Host Country and Partner Strategic Information Capacity
Sub-Element 5.2.3.2: Program Design and Learning
Sub-Element 5.2.3.3: Personnel
Program Area 5.3: Migration Management
Program Element 5.3.1: Protection and Assistance
Sub-Element 5.3.1.1: Protection of vulnerable migrants
Sub-Element 5.3.1.2: Return, Reintegration and Relocation
Program Element 5.3.2: Institutional Support and Capacity-building
Sub-Element 5.3.2.1: Humane and Orderly Migration Systems
Sub-Element 5.3.2.2: Institutional Support to IOM
Sub-Element 5.3.2.3: Regional Consultative Processes
Program Element 5.3.3: Program Support
Sub-Element 5.3.3.1: Host Country and Partner Strategic Information Capacity
Sub-Element 5.3.3.2: Program Design and Learning
Sub-Element 5.3.3.3: Personnel

Definitions:
Program Area 6.1: Protection, Assistance and Solutions


The provision of effective protection, assistance, and durable solutions for refugees, internally displaced persons (IDPs), and other victims of conflict and disasters.
Program Element 5.1.1: Protection and Solutions
Definition: Ensure full respect for the rights of the individual and communities in accordance with the letter and the spirit of the relevant bodies of law (international humanitarian, human rights, and refugee law). This involves both legal and practical approaches for implementation in humanitarian situations, including efforts to ensure humanitarian access, incorporate protection strategies in assistance programming and other measures to reduce vulnerability and uphold human dignity for all victims of conflict and disasters. Activities included herein should be linked to relevant GJD/Human Rights elements.
Sub-Element 5.1.1.1: International Laws and Principles
Definition: Comply with international humanitarian, human rights and refugee laws and principles, including codes of conduct prohibiting exploitation and abuse. Includes monitoring of compliance with international laws and codes by UN and other organizations; and support for national efforts to adopt laws and systems to protect and manage refugees and displaced persons.
Sub-Element 5.1.1.2: Protection of Vulnerable Populations
Definition: Protect vulnerable populations, including refugees, IDPs, host populations, women, children, elderly persons, persons with disabilities, minorities, and other at-risk populations during all phases of humanitarian response based on impartial assessment and unimpeded access. This includes legal protection, but for Physical Security, this must be combined with Peace and Security.
Sub-Element 5.1.1.3: Durable Solutions
Definition: Support the voluntary return and reintegration, local integration, and resettlement for refugees and IDPs. Follow-up support for reintegration should be funded under the appropriate elements of the various sectors in Economic Growth and/or Investing in People. Refugees in need of resettlement to a third country are admitted to the United States as a durable solution to their plight. The number of refugees admitted annually to the U.S. is determined by the President. Activities include the identification/referral of refugees in need of resettlement, the provision of security, anti-fraud, and medical screening, as well as the provision of cultural orientation. Refugees are transported to the U.S. and provided initial services to help them begin the process of becoming self-sufficient, fully integrated members of U.S.
Program Element 5.1.2: Assistance and Recovery
Definition: Provide goods, personnel, services and assistance to meet basic human needs in order to foster transition from relief according to principles of universality, impartiality and human dignity. This element should be done, when possible, as part of an integrated, coordinated and/or multi-sectoral approach.
Sub-Element 5.1.2.1: First Response and Immediate Interventions
Definition: Deploy/activate personnel; Disaster Assistance Response Teams; Response Management Teams; assessment teams; search and rescue; medical responders; release of funds to a disaster; local purchase and/or stockpiling and pre-positioning of material, equipment, supplies/food; technical know-how and expertise.
Sub-Element 5.1.2.2: Water and Sanitation Commodities and Services
Definition: Procure goods and services; rehabilitate/reconstruct infrastructure; hygiene promotion; training and education; proper preservation, storage, and use of potable water; basic sanitation standards and practices; irrigation; and waste disposal. Activities included herein should be linked to relevant IIP/Health, EG/Environment, and/or EG/Infrastructure activities for surrounding communities.
Sub-Element 5.1.2.3: Health, Food, and Nutrition Commodities and Services
Definition: Procure goods and services; distribute food; and support food-based market assistance, nutrition surveillance, primary health care, reproductive health, health surveillance, mobile clinics, supplementary feeding, community- and center-based therapeutic care, and educational services. Activities included herein should be linked to relevant IIP/Health, EG/Environment, and/or EG/Infrastructure activities for surrounding communities.
Sub-Element 5.1.2.4: Shelter and Camp Management Commodities and Services
Definition: Procure goods and services, construct and manage camps/shelter, support host-families, rehabilitate/reconstruct shelter facilitates (family and community), provide appropriate lighting and services, and other protection activities.
Sub-Element 5.1.2.5: Livelihood Support, Infrastructure Rehabilitation and Services
Definition: Support quick impact livelihood rehabilitation and restoration activities; provision of goods, services, productive infrastructure, income generation and micro-enterprise initiatives; cash-for-work, food-for-work and other works programs; productive input provisions (seeds, tools, livestock); training, equipping and education. Activities included herein should be linked to the appropriate sector in IIP/Social Services and/or EG, above.
Program Element 5.1.3: Program Support
Definition: This is a special element that is used to support: 1) activities that strengthen the ability of host country institutions, partners, and the USG to use strategic information for decision-making, program performance assessment, and learning; and 2) the staffing and tools needed by the USG for program management and oversight under this area.
Sub-Element 5.1.3.1: Host Country and Partner Strategic Information Capacity
Definition: Establish and/or strengthen host country institutions’ and partners’ management information systems (MIS) and their development and use of tools and models to collect, analyze and disseminate a variety of information related to the program area. These may include, but are not limited to MIS for government ministries or other host country institutions, needs assessments, baseline studies, censuses and surveys, targeted evaluations, special studies, routine surveillance, data quality assessments, and operational research. This sub-element may also include developing and disseminating best practices and lessons learned and testing demonstration and/or pilot models. Related training, supplies, equipment, and non-USG personnel are included.
Sub-Element 5.1.3.2: Program Design and Learning
Definition: Develop and conduct needs assessments, baseline studies, targeted evaluations, special studies or other information-gathering efforts specifically for the design, monitoring and evaluation of USG-funded programs. This sub-element may also include developing and disseminating best practices and lessons learned, testing demonstration and/or pilot models, or the preparation of strategic plans and other short-term programming tasks. Note: All such activities that are carried out by partners as an integral part of their monitoring and evaluation efforts for programs funded under other sub-elements should be included within those sub-elements.
Sub-Element 5.1.3.3: Personnel
Definition: Provide staff to help manage, administer and support programs in this area including related salaries, travel, housing, office space, equipment, training, and other personnel-related expenses (e.g. ICASS costs).
Program Area 6.2: Disaster Readiness
Improvement of the capacity of the USG, host countries and the international community to reduce vulnerabilities to disasters and respond better to humanitarian emergencies.
Program Element 5.2.1: Capacity Building, Preparedness, and Planning
Definition: Improve the ability of the USG, host countries and other partners to prepare for and mitigate the effects of disasters, including both natural disasters and complex emergencies, taking into account the differences in men and women’s freedom of movement and access to information. Activities under this component include any efforts to enhance the capacities of the USG (in Washington and in the field), humanitarian assistance providers, national host-country authorities, and local communities to engage in disaster reduction and response activities. Activities consist of standardized and coordinated assessments, monitoring, information sharing, data and situational analysis, joint planning; enhancement of coping mechanisms, including the capacity to address adaptation to constantly changing situations on the ground including climate variability and climate change.
Sub-Element 5.2.1.1: Planning and Preparedness
Definition: Improve the ability of countries to respond to humanitarian crisis through better advanced planning & preparedness (by USG, international partners, host country governments, NGOs & communities). This could include support for guidelines and policies, disaster response plans, coordination plans, and attention to the constraints that may limit the ability to respond quickly and effectively to emergencies.
Program Element 5.2.2: Mitigation
Definition: Reduce the likelihood that a shock will occur, limit the damage caused by a shock, and increase the affected population’s ability to cope with and recover from the effects of a shock. Focus is on disaster-prone countries and communities.
Sub-Element 5.2.2.1: Protective Infrastructure
Definition: Strengthen community infrastructure to reduce and buffer shocks--flood proofing of settlements, sustainable water interventions, earthquake resistant housing, public buildings and cyclone shelters.
Sub-Element 5.2.2.2: Enhanced Coping Mechanisms
Definition: Support short-term interventions to increase community resiliency enabling individuals/communities to meet minimum food and water consumptions during times of stress. Equitable access to seeds and tools, buffer stocks and grain banks.
Program Element 5.2.3: Program Support
Definition: This is a special element that is used to support: 1) activities that strengthen the ability of host country institutions, partners’, and the USG to use strategic information for decision-making, program performance assessment, and learning; and 2) the staffing and tools needed by the USG for program management and oversight under this area.
Sub-Element 5.2.3.1: Host Country and Partners’ Strategic Information Capacity
Definition: Establish and/or strengthen host country institutions’ and partners’ management information systems (MIS) and their development and use of tools and models to collect, analyze and disseminate a variety of information related to the program area. These may include, but are not limited to MIS for government ministries or other host country institutions, needs assessments, baseline studies, censuses and surveys, targeted evaluations, special studies, routine surveillance, data quality assessments, and operational research. This sub-element may also include developing and disseminating best practices and lessons learned and testing demonstration and/or pilot models. Related training, supplies, equipment, and non-USG personnel are included.
Sub-Element 5.2.3.2: Program Design and Learning
Definition: Develop and conduct needs assessments, baseline studies, targeted evaluations, special studies or other information-gathering efforts specifically for the design, monitoring and evaluation of USG-funded programs. This sub-element may also include developing and disseminating best practices and lessons learned, testing demonstration and/or pilot models, or the preparation of strategic plans and other short-term programming tasks. Note: All such activities that are carried out by partners as an integral part of their monitoring and evaluation efforts for programs funded under other sub-elements should be included within those sub-elements.
Sub-Element 5.2.3.3: Personnel
Definition: Provide staff to help manage, administer and support programs in this area including related salaries, travel, housing, office space, equipment, training, and other personnel-related expenses (e.g. ICASS costs).
Program Area 6.3: Migration Management
Build the capacity of governments and civil society for effective, orderly, and humane migration management policies and systems at the national and regional levels, including programs and activities to protect and assist vulnerable migrants. This includes support to the United Israel Appeal, under which the U.S. government provides assistance for the resettlement in Israel of humanitarian migrants from the former Soviet Union, countries in Eastern Europe, Africa and the Near East, and other countries of distress. Jews who face anti-Semitism and risks to their safety are resettled to an environment where their religion and ethnicity are in the majority, with assistance to achieve self-sufficiency and integrate into Israeli society.
Program Element 5.3.1: Migrant Protection and Assistance
Definition: Ensure full respect for the human rights of migrants in accordance with law, as well as the provision of goods, personnel support, and services to meet basic needs of vulnerable migrants.
Sub-Element 5.3.1.1: Protection of Vulnerable Migrants
Definition: Support prevention programs and protection (legal and physical) for vulnerable migrants.
Sub-Element 5.3.1.2: Return, Reintegration and Relocation
Definition: Provide small-scale cash and material assistance to reintegrate returning vulnerable migrants. For migrants to Israel, support is provided for care, processing en route, transport, transitional housing, and vocational and Hebrew language training.
Program Element 5.3.2: Institutional Support and Capacity-Building
Definition: Strengthen national and regional capacities to manage migration effectively. Also includes the U.S. Government’s institutional relationship with the International Organization for Migration (IOM) including formulation and coordination of U.S. policy positions related to the organization’s administrative budget, management and operations, and participation in IOM governing bodies.
Sub-Element 5.3.2.1: Promotion of Humane and Orderly Migration Systems
Definition: Promote better managed migration systems, including access to asylum and other protection mechanisms, respect for human rights, adherence to other applicable international legal instruments. Security and border control linked to migrants is included under P&S 2.6.1 and those to trafficking and migrant smuggling under P&S 5.3.2
Sub-Element 5.3.2.2: Institutional Support to IOM
Definition: Provide the IOM assessed contribution as mandated by statute and tax reimbursement, other voluntary contributions, and U.S. secondees to the organization in support of IOM programming of priority interest to the U.S.
Sub-Element 5.3.2.3: Regional Consultative Processes
Definition: Provide technical and financial support to groups of governments and relevant international and non-governmental organizations, which share best practices and strengthen national capacities to effectively manage migration, including, inter alia, the Regional Conference on Migration, the Intergovernmental Consultations on Asylum, Refugee, and Migration Policies, the Migration Dialogue for Southern Africa.
Program Element 5.3.3: Program Support
Definition: This is a special element that is used to support: 1) activities that strengthen the ability of host country institutions, key partners, and the USG to use strategic information for decision-making, program performance assessment, and learning; and 2) the staffing and tools needed by the USG for program management and oversight under this area.
Sub-Element 5.3.3.1: Host Country and Partner Strategic Information Capacity
Definition: Establish and/or strengthen host country institutions’ and partners’ management information systems (MIS) and their development and use of tools and models to collect, analyze and disseminate a variety of information related to the program area. These may include, but are not limited to MIS for government ministries or other host country institutions, needs assessments, baseline studies, censuses and surveys, targeted evaluations, special studies, routine surveillance, data quality assessments, and operational research. This sub-element may also include developing and disseminating best practices and lessons learned and testing demonstration and/or pilot models. Related training, supplies, equipment, and non-USG personnel are included.
Sub-Element 5.3.3.2: Program Design and Learning
Definition: Develop and conduct needs assessments, baseline studies, targeted evaluations, special studies or other information-gathering efforts specifically for the design, monitoring and evaluation of USG-funded programs. This sub-element may also include developing and disseminating best practices and lessons learned, testing demonstration and/or pilot models, or the preparation of strategic plans and other short-term programming tasks. Note: All such activities that are carried out by partners as an integral part of their monitoring and evaluation efforts for programs funded under other sub-elements should be included within those sub-elements.
Sub-Element 5.3.3.3: Personnel
Definition: Provide staff to help manage, administer and support programs in this area including related salaries, travel, housing, office space, equipment, training, and other personnel-related expenses (e.g. ICASS costs).


 

 

 



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