Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons
April 23, 2007
U.S. Government Anti-Trafficking in Persons FY 2006 Project Obligations: Questions and Answers (Q & A)
In FY 2006, the U.S. Government obligated approximately $74 million to 154 international anti-trafficking in persons (TIP) projects in 70 countries and $28.5 million to 70 domestic anti-TIP projects. These projects are working to ensure human trafficking is prevented, the survivors are protected, and the traffickers are put in jail. They are funded through the coordinated efforts and program funds of the Departments of State, Justice, Labor, Health and Human Services, and USAID. See the corresponding fact sheet at http://www.state.gov/g/tip/rls/fs/07/83371.htm for a visual overview of the FY 2006 TIP project obligations. The Questions and Answers compiled below further clarify the information on that fact sheet.
Q: What are the results of these funds? What statistics are there to prove that this is taxpayer money well spent?
A: The 2006 Trafficking in Persons Report issued by the Department of State's Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons noted that there were over 1700 more TIP-related convictions around the world in 2005 than in 2004, and in 2005 41 countries enacted new or amended legislation outlawing TIP. Thousands of survivors have received services from NGOs, both in the United States and abroad.
Q: Which countries received the most funds? Have the most programs?
A: Specific dollar amounts for countries are difficult to quantify, but can be done when regional projects are not counted.
The following countries, excluding the United States, had the highest number of projects supported by U.S. Government funds obligated in FY 2006:
India - 14
India, Mexico, and Cambodia are part of the President's $50 Million Anti-Trafficking in Persons Initiative, and are major source and destination countries for trafficking victims.
Q: How do the projects vary by dollar amount?
A: FY 2006 project funding ranged from $2,137 to $5,000,000. A majority of international projects are funded within the range of $10,000 to $500,000. A distribution of projects by dollar scale is shown below.
Q: From which source(s) were the percentages obtained in the pie charts on the corresponding fact sheet at http://www.state.gov/g/tip/rls/fs/07/83371.htm?
A: The Department of State (DOS) TIP office works through the Senior Policy Operating Group (SPOG) to compile information from each department or agency that conducts projects to fight modern-day slavery. The percentages in the pie charts are obtained from this information.
Q: How is overlap avoided among the agencies that have anti-trafficking in persons projects?
A: The Senior Policy Operating Group meets quarterly. The SPOG is composed of members from all U.S. Government agencies that play a role in combating human trafficking or assisting victims. All U.S. Government funds for anti-trafficking activities go through a SPOG peer-review process to avoid duplication and ensure coordination. This regular communication helps prevent overlap in programming.
Q: What types of projects does the "both" category incorporate?
A: The "both" category is composed of projects that have components to deal with trafficking for the purpose of forced labor and sexual exploitation. Sexual exploitation is the largest category of transnational human trafficking. Domestic servitude, a form of forced labor, is the second most prevalent type of trafficking, followed by other forms of forced labor. Projects that encompass both sexual exploitation and forced labor are crucial.
Q: Do all the project commitments come from the Trafficking Victims Protection Act (TVPA) and its reauthorizations?
A: While many project commitments stem from the TVPA, each department or agency typically receives its own general programs appropriations which may be used for anti-trafficking projects.
Q: What is the main focus of each agency's trafficking in persons projects?
A: Department of State (DOS) funds international programs to prevent trafficking, protect victims, and prosecute traffickers. DOS also funds international return and reintegration programs for victims.
USAID's funds focus on international projects that prevent trafficking, protect and assist victims, and support prosecutions through training for officials in judicial systems.
Department of Labor (DOL) funds international projects that focus on providing direct assistance to children in the worst forms of child labor and on preventing trafficking for the purpose of labor or commercial sexual exploitation through support for policy and legislative reform, awareness-raising on the dangers of forced labor and trafficking, and capacity building for local partners and governments. The majority of DOL's anti-TIP programs focus on children who are at risk of, or who have been trafficked into exploitive labor.
Department of Health and Human Services' (HHS) funds focus on TIP awareness and TIP victim assistance typically within the U.S.
Department of Justice (DOJ) funds domestic law enforcement activities, such as the Human Trafficking Task Forces within the U.S. and assistance to TIP victims prior to official certification as trafficking victims. DOJ also provides international law enforcement training, like the Department of Homeland Security, but it is funded by other agencies such as Department of State.
The Department of Homeland Security (DHS) has not been appropriated money for specific human trafficking projects, but implements various projects funded by other agencies and utilizes its own agency resources to assist in the identification of trafficking victims and to vigorously pursue subjects who profit from the exploitation of men, women, and children.
Q: Are there any agencies that only provide money for domestic anti-trafficking in persons projects? Only international projects?
A: Yes, while DOJ conducts training projects overseas with funding from other departments, DOJ funds are used to fight domestic TIP and support services to pre-certified victims in the United States. Additionally, HHS funds mainly focus on raising awareness and assisting trafficking survivors within the U.S. DOS, DOL, and USAID fund international anti-human trafficking projects. DHS has not been appropriated money for specific human trafficking projects, but implements various projects funded by other agencies and utilizes its own agency resources to assist in the identification of trafficking victims and to vigorously pursue subjects who profit from the exploitation of men, women, and children.
Q: Are there any types of projects or groups which you cannot fund?
A: The U.S. Government opposes prostitution because it is inherently harmful and dehumanizing to men, women and children and because prostitution and related activities, including pimping, pandering, and maintaining brothels, contributes to the demand for victims of human trafficking (National Security Presidential Directive 22).
Funds awarded for activities to combat trafficking in persons may not be used "to promote, support, or advocate the legalization or practice of prostitution." An organization may not receive funds for programs that target victims of severe forms of trafficking in persons involving sexual exploitation without stating "in either a grant application, a grant agreement, or both, that it does not promote, support, or advocate the legalization or practice of prostitution" (Sec. 7 of the Trafficking Victims Protection Reauthorization Act of 2003, Public Law 108-193).