Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons
July 23, 2008
U.S. Government Anti-Trafficking in Persons FY 2007 Project Obligations: Questions and Answers (Q & A)
In FY 2007, the U.S. Government obligated approximately $79 million to 180 international anti-trafficking in persons (TIP) projects benefiting over 90 countries and approximately $23 million to 64 domestic anti-TIP projects. These projects work to ensure the survivors are protected, the traffickers are put in jail and human trafficking is prevented. They are funded through the coordinated efforts and program funds of the Departments of State, Justice, Labor, Health and Human Services, and USAID. See the corresponding fact sheet for a visual overview of the FY 2007 TIP project obligations. The Questions and Answers compiled below further clarify the information on that fact sheet.
Q: Which countries received the most funds? Which have the most programs?
A: Specific dollar amounts for countries can be difficult to quantify given relation project. Regional projects are not counted in the information below.
The following countries, excluding the United States itself, had the highest number of projects supported by U.S. Government funds obligated in FY 2007:
Russia – 11
India, Cambodia, and Indonesia are part of the President's $50 Million Anti-Trafficking in Persons Initiative, and are major source and destination countries for trafficking victims.
Q: How do the projects vary by dollar amount?
A: FY 2007 project funding ranged from $2,000 to $5,000,000. A majority of international projects are funded within the range of $10,000 to $500,000. A distribution of projects by dollar scale is shown below.
Q: From which source(s) were the percentages obtained in the pie charts on the corresponding fact sheet?
A: The Department of State’s (DOS) Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons works through the Senior Policy Operating Group (SPOG) to compile information from each department or agency that conducts projects to fight modern-day slavery. The percentages in the pie charts are obtained from this information.
Q: How is overlap avoided among the agencies that have anti-trafficking in persons projects?
A: The Senior Policy Operating Group (SPOG) is composed of members from all U.S. Government agencies that play a role in combating human trafficking or assisting victims. The group meets quarterly, and all U.S. Government funds for anti-trafficking activities go through a SPOG peer-review process to avoid duplication and ensure coordination. This regular communication helps prevent overlap in programming.
Additionally, this year the SPOG created a Global Trafficking in Persons Subcommittee to enhance the coordination and prioritization of limited anti-trafficking funds from the beginning of the planning process.
Q: What types of projects does the "both" category incorporate?
A: The "both" category is composed of projects that have components to deal with trafficking for the purpose of forced labor and of sexual exploitation.
Q: Do all the project commitments come from the Trafficking Victims Protection Act (TVPA) and its reauthorizations?
A: While many project commitments stem from the TVPA, each department or agency typically receives its own general programs appropriations which may be used for anti-trafficking projects.
Q: What is the main focus of each agency's trafficking in persons projects?
A: Department of State (DOS) funds international programs to prosecute traffickers, protect victims, and prevent trafficking. Implementers and partners are typically nongovernmental organizations and international organizations. DOS also funds international return and reintegration programs for victims.
U.S. Agency for International Development’s (USAID) experience with development programs informs and supports its approach to anti-trafficking activities. USAID funds prevention programs that include awareness raising and education, employment, and income generation. Protection programs include training and support for local providers of victim services as well as direct support for shelters. To improve prosecution of traffickers, USAID provides anti-trafficking training for law enforcement and the judiciary of the governments.
Department of Labor (DOL) funds international projects that focus on providing direct assistance to children engaged in or at risk of entering the worst forms of child labor, and that prevent exploitation through support for policy and legislative reform, awareness-raising, or capacity building for local partners and governments. Through such projects, DOL may focus on children who are at risk of, or who have been trafficked into, exploitive labor or commercial sexual exploitation.
Department of Health and Human Services' (HHS) funds focus on TIP public awareness and support a network of 24 grassroots Rescue and Restore anti-TIP coalitions around the country, which bring together hundreds of community-based ethnic, faith-based, social service, and law enforcement groups for outreach and the development of community responses to the needs of TIP victims. HHS funds victim identification initiatives in the United States, and supports services for TIP victims through a network of over 120 service provider sites offering case management to TIP victims identified in the United States.
Department of Justice (DOJ) funds domestic law enforcement activities, such as the Human Trafficking Task Forces within the U.S. and assistance to TIP victims prior to official certification as trafficking victims. DOJ also provides international law enforcement training, like the Department of Homeland Security, but it is funded by other agencies such as Department of State.
The Department of Homeland Security (DHS) has not been appropriated money for specific human trafficking projects, but implements various projects funded by other agencies and utilizes its own agency resources to raise awareness, assist in the identification of trafficking victims, and vigorously pursue suspects who profit from the exploitation of men, women and children.
Q: Are there any agencies that only provide money for domestic anti-trafficking in persons projects? Only international projects?
A: Yes, while DOJ conducts training projects overseas with funding from other departments, DOJ funds are used to fight domestic human trafficking and provide support services to pre-certified victims in the United States. Additionally, HHS funds mainly focus on raising awareness and assisting trafficking survivors within the U.S. DOS, DOL, and USAID fund international anti-human trafficking projects. DHS has not been appropriated money for specific human trafficking projects, but in the United States and abroad implements various projects funded by other agencies and utilizes its own resources for public awareness, victim identification and pursuit of their exploiters.
Q: Are there any types of projects or groups which you cannot fund?
A: The U.S. Government opposes prostitution because it is inherently harmful and dehumanizing to men, women and children, and because prostitution and related activities, including pimping, pandering, and maintaining brothels, contributes to the demand for victims of human trafficking (National Security Presidential Directive 22).
Funds awarded for activities to combat trafficking in persons may not be used "to promote, support, or advocate the legalization or practice of prostitution." An organization may not receive funds for programs that target victims of severe forms of trafficking in persons involving sexual exploitation without stating "in either a grant application, a grant agreement, or both, that it does not promote, support, or advocate the legalization or practice of prostitution" (Sec. 7 of the Trafficking Victims Protection Reauthorization Act of 2003, Public Law 108-193).