Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons
April 24, 2006
U.S. Government Anti-Trafficking In Persons FY 2005 Project Obligations: Questions and Answers
In FY2005, the U.S. Government obligated approximately $95 million to 266 international anti-trafficking in persons (TIP) projects in 101 countries, up from approximately $82 million in FY2004. These projects are working to ensure human trafficking is prevented, the survivors are protected, and the traffickers are put in jail. They are sponsored through the coordinated efforts of the Departments of State, Justice, Labor, Health and Human Services, and USAID. See the fact sheet at http://www.state.gov/g/tip/rls/fs/2006/63816.htm for an explanation of the FY2005 TIP project obligations. The Questions and Answers (Q and A) compiled below further clarify the information on this fact sheet.
Q: What are the results of these funds? What statistics are there to prove that this is taxpayer money well spent?
A: Arrests and prosecutions of perpetrators of trafficking are going up every year. Governments that either had little knowledge of TIP or who had less capacity to address the problem have now confronted the issue. There were over 200 more TIP-related convictions around the world in 2004 than in 2003, and in 2004 thirty-nine countries enacted new legislation dealing with TIP. Thousands of survivors have received services from NGOs, both in the United States and abroad.
Q: Which countries received the most funds? Have the most programs?
A: Specific dollar amounts for countries are difficult to quantify, but can be done when regional projects are not counted.
The following countries had the highest number of projects obligated in FY 2005:
India, Mexico, and Brazil are part of the Presidentís $50 Million Anti-Trafficking in Persons Initiative, and are major source and destination countries for trafficking victims.
Q: How do the projects vary by dollar amount?
A: FY 2005 project funding ranged from $3,320 to $6,000,000. A majority of international projects are funded within the range of $10,000 to $500,000. A distribution of projects by dollar scale is shown below.
Q: Which source(s) were the percentages obtained from?
A: The State Departmentís TIP office works through the Senior Policy Operating Group to collect information from each department or agency that conducts projects to fight modern-day slavery. The TIP office then compiles this information into a large spreadsheet. The percentages in the pie charts are obtained from this information.
Q: How is overlap avoided among the agencies that have anti-trafficking in persons projects?
A: The Senior Policy Operating Group (SPOG) meets quarterly. The SPOG is composed of members from all U.S. Government agencies that have components to fight human trafficking or assist victims. All U.S. Government funds for anti-trafficking activities go through a SPOG peer-review process to avoid duplication and ensure coordination. This regular communication helps prevent overlap in programming.
Q: Why is the Department of Labor slice of the pie so large?
A: Department of Labor projects may not carry TIP as the only focus. DOLís TIP projects either have TIP as a central focus, one component of a larger project linked to TIP, or as an issue within the overall context of the project.
Q: What types of projects does the "both" category incorporate?
A: The "both" category is composed of projects that have components to deal with trafficking for forced labor and sexual exploitation. Sexual exploitation is the largest category of transnational human trafficking. Domestic servitude, a form of forced labor, is the second most prevalent type of trafficking, with other forms of forced labor following. Projects that encompass both sexual exploitation and forced labor are crucial.
Q: Why is there a significantly higher amount that goes to anti-TIP projects with sexual exploitation as the sole focus, as compared to forced labor?
A: The most prevalent type of transnational trafficking is for sexual exploitation. However, nearly twice as much money was spent on projects that combine the two areas. The TVPRA of 2005 calls for the GTIP office to further scrutinize the prevalence of forced labor within countries when compiling the annual Trafficking in Persons Report. Forced labor is a concern of ours, and projects to combat forced labor will continue to be funded by the U.S. Government.
Q: Do all the project commitments come from the TVPA and its reauthorizations?
A: While many project commitments stem from the authorizing legislation, each department or agency typically receives its own general programs appropriations which may be used for anti-trafficking projects.
Q: How are the President's Initiative funds distributed? Are these funds separate from the other USG funds?
A: Yes, the Presidentís $50 Million Initiative to Combat Trafficking in Persons was coordinated directly through the Senior Policy Operating Group. It is separate from other U.S. Government funds, which go directly to their respective agencies. It is focused on eight countries to maximize impact. These countries were selected based on one or more factors, such as: the scope and magnitude of the problem; anticipated host government commitment to combat human trafficking; the capacity of U.S. embassies to help monitor the projects; the capacity of potential funding recipients to manage U.S. Government funds; and, the ability to make an impact. The countries being funded through the Presidentís Initiative are: Brazil, Cambodia, India, Indonesia, Mexico, Moldova, Sierra Leone, and Tanzania.
Q: What is the main focus of each agencyís trafficking in persons (TIP) projects?
A: DOL funds international projects that focus on preventing trafficking for the purposes of labor or commercial sexual exploitation, and providing services to victims.
USAID funds focus on international projects that prevent trafficking, protect and assist victims, and support prosecutions through training for officials in judicial systems.
DOS funds international programs to prevent trafficking, protect victims, and prosecute traffickers. DOS also funds victim return and reintegration.
DOJ funds domestic law enforcement activities, such as anti-trafficking Task Forces within the U.S. and assisting TIP victims prior to certification. DOJ also provides international law enforcement training, like DHS, but it is done with funds from other agencies such as Department of State.
HHS funds focus on TIP awareness and TIP victim assistance.
Q: Are there any agencies that only provide money for domestic anti-trafficking in persons projects? Only international projects?
A: Yes, while DOJ conducts training projects overseas with funding from other departments, DOJ funds are used to fight domestic TIP and support services to pre-certified victims in the United States. Additionally, HHS funds mainly focus on raising awareness and assisting certified trafficking survivors within the United States. Department of State, Department of Labor, and USAID fund international anti-trafficking projects. The Department of Homeland Security has not been appropriated money for specific projects, but implements various projects funded by other agencies.
Q: Are there any types of projects or groups which you cannot fund?
A: The U.S. Government opposes prostitution because it is inherently harmful and dehumanizing to men, women and children and because prostitution and related activities, including pimping, pandering, and maintaining brothels, contributes to the demand for victims of human trafficking (National Security Presidential Directive 22).
Funds awarded for activities to combat trafficking in persons may not be used "to promote, support, or advocate the legalization or practice of prostitution." An organization may not receive funds for programs that target victims of severe forms of trafficking in persons involving sexual exploitation without stating "in either a grant application, a grant agreement, or both, that it does not promote, support, or advocate the legalization or practice of prostitution" (Sec. 7 of the Trafficking Victims Protection Reauthorization Act of 2003, Public Law 108-193).