April 15, 2008
United States Policy on Sudan
Related Factsheets: U.S. Sanctions on Sudan | U.S. Response to the Situation in Darfur
Previous Version - July 2007
Sudan is one of the Bush administration’s highest foreign policy priorities. The United States is committed to ending the violence in Darfur through an inclusive political settlement, providing humanitarian assistance to vulnerable populations, enabling the rapid deployment of the United Nations – African Union hybrid mission in Darfur (UNAMID) and promoting democracy in Sudan. President Bush named Richard S. Williamson as Special Envoy to Sudan on December 21, 2007.
The United States is pushing for full implementation of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA), which was signed in January 2005 and ended 21 years of civil war between the North and the South. The United States also supports the implementation of the Darfur Peace Agreement (DPA), signed between the Government of Sudan and some Darfur movements in May 2006. Together, the CPA and the DPA provide a framework for development of a peaceful, unified, and democratic Sudan. Democratic elections, to be held at the national, regional, and state levels in 2009, are a key component of the CPA that the United States strongly supports.
The U.S. has imposed economic sanctions on a total of seven individuals and more than 160 companies owned or controlled by the Government of Sudan or linked to militia. Among other things, the sanctions are intended to increase pressure on all parties to end the violence in Darfur.
Political Process in Darfur
The United States supports the joint effort by the United Nations and the African Union to renew negotiations between the Government of Sudan and Darfur rebel movements to reach an inclusive peace agreement. The 2006 DPA provides one structure for a political solution that can allow Darfuris to reconstruct their lives, including through compensation for the victims of the conflict, political representation at the federal level in Khartoum, disarmament and demobilization of the militias, and the creation of the Transitional Darfur Regional Authority to oversee the implementation of this agreement.
The United States is the largest single donor to Sudan, including Darfur, where more than 2.5 million people live in camps for Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs). The United States has provided over $4 billion in humanitarian, peacekeeping and development assistance to the people of Sudan and Eastern Chad since 2005. In FY 2007, the United States gave more than $1 billion in assistance to the people of Sudan. President Bush has requested a similar level of funding in FY 2008. Additionally, the United States has provided more than 80 percent of the World Food Program’s food aid in Sudan to date, serving up to 6.6 million people through Sudan and eastern Chad. In Darfur, the United States provides life-saving assistance to people affected by conflict, and in Southern Sudan and the Three Areas, integrated programs support Sudan’s transition to peace and stability. Nearly 40 U.S. partners implement programs countrywide in civil society, media, democratic governance, infrastructure, education, health, nutrition, food security, agriculture, shelter, protection, relief supplies, income generation, and water, sanitation, and hygiene services.
The United States supports the rapid deployment of 26,000 peacekeepers to Darfur under UNAMID as authorized by United Nations Security Council Resolution 1769 on July 31, 2007. UNAMID subsumed elements of the smaller African Union Mission in Sudan (AMIS), which had been in Darfur since 2004. During that time, the United States through NATO airlifted 11,400 peacekeepers to and from Darfur, trained and equipped these troops, and maintained a staff presence at AMIS. Over the past 3 years, the United States spent over $450 million to build, operate and maintain 34 AMIS base camps and also provide troops with vehicles and communication equipment. The United States contributes approximately 25% of UNAMID’s budget. In addition, in February 2008, President Bush announced that the U.S. Government would provide at least $100 million to train and equip African battalions headed for Darfur.