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 You are in: Under Secretary for Political Affairs > From the Under Secretary > Remarks > 2002 Under Secretary for Political Affairs Remarks

Global Trends for the Coming Decade and the Formulation of U.S. Foreign Policy

Marc Grossman, Under Secretary for Political Affairs
Remarks to the National Newspaper Association
Washington, DC
March 21, 2002

Thank you Mr. Rhodes for that kind introduction.

It’s an honor to be here and to speak with members of the largest newspaper association in the United States. As I was reading your website, I was particularly struck by one statement. "The informed individual is the most elemental building block of our democracy." You have a tremendous responsibility to your readership. I salute you in your work "to inform, educate, and entertain."

The events of the last six months have blurred the line between local and international news. As you work to cover aspects of the War on Terrorism that affect your communities, I hope you’ll take advantage of the resources available to you through the Department of State. Our office of Media Outreach has distributed to you a reference guide explaining their services, as well as a Passport to American Diplomacy which explains the mission of the State Department, and the services we provide.

Since our job is to represent America, we want to know America. Last year, we sent 120 diplomats back to their hometowns across the United States. These diplomats did a variety of public events ranging from speaking to their high schools and colleges, to doing interviews with local papers and radio stations. This year, we have over 125 hometown diplomats signed up to go out and speak. I hope you will invite one of them to your paper.

I am sure it will come as no surprise to you that the events of 911 will figure prominently in my talk. But, I don’t want to recount the latest battle in War on Terrorism. I would like to focus on broader themes that preoccupy us and what they mean in regions around the world and in the diplomatic profession.

The world changed on September 11. The comfortable insulation that Americans felt was shattered.

That said, what now? What do we make of these events and the campaign that has followed?

Since the end of the Cold War, we have been searching for a way to understand the world in which we live. Think of the name we gave the period—"The Post Cold War Era." We described our environment not for what it was, but for what it wasn’t.

The attacks on September 11 may have marked the end of the "Post Cold War Era." Last November, while I was at the UN General Assembly in New York, I went to Ground Zero. As I stared at the mass of twisted metal and rubble that entombed nearly three thousand people, I knew that the period of uncertainty had ended. We have our new Berlin Wall. We have a purpose. As President Bush said last week on the 6 month anniversary of the attacks, "Every nation should know that, for America, the war on terror is not just a policy, it’s a pledge."

Since the 11th of September, I have kept a list on my desk of all the things that could change for the better for the United States in this world if we make the right decisions today. As President Bush said last week, " When the terrorists are disrupted and scattered, and discredited, many old conflicts will appear in a new light. … We will see then that the old and the serious disputes can be settled within the bounds of reason, and goodwill, and mutual security. I see a word beyond the war on terror, and with courage and unity, we are building that world together."

Don’t get me wrong, I wish as much as anyone else that the events of September 11 never occurred, but they did. As we fight to win this campaign—and we will win--- we need to consider what kind of monument we want to build after the murders at the World Trade Center, the Pentagon, and a field in Pennsylvania.

So we focus today on the opportunities for the future. If we make the right decisions today, we could change the world for the better. But how do we decide what choices to make? What large themes guide our vision?

So let me propose seven themes that shape our world.

First is The War on Terrorism ---

We are fighting a new kind of war. My friend Deputy Defense Secretary Paul Wolfowitz captured this last week in a speech: "This war is a unique war. It’s unique in the way in which it began, with the largest attack on this country in our nation’s history. It’s unique in that we continue to fight abroad while there’s a continuing threat of attack at home…. It’s unique in that it’s much more subtle and complex than a conventional war. It’s unique in the speed with which it came together…. it’s unique in the fact this is a war that has to be fought by many means other than just military."

Just last week President Bush articulated the second phase of the war. He said, "America encourages and expects governments everywhere to help remove the terrorist parasites that threaten their own countries and peace of the world. If governments need training or resources to meet this commitment, America will help."

We have deployed American soldiers to the Philippines to train the Philippine military to combat the terrorist group, Abu Sayyaf, that holds Americans hostage and has wrought havoc there for several years.

We are also preparing to deploy military trainers to places like Yemen and Georgia in order to train local forces to combat terrorism themselves.

We are not only helping militarily. We are providing other types of assistance as well. United Nations resolution 1373 requires all countries to freeze terrorist financing. Although an extremely powerful tool in combating terrorism, not all countries have the expertise to comply. In concert with the UN, the US is assisting countries who have asked for help in accomplishing this critical task.

In support of the effort to block terrorist assets, 142 countries have issued orders to freezing the assets of suspected terrorists and terrorist organizations; accounts totaling $104.8 million have been blocked --$34.2 million in the US and $70.6 million abroad.

The second theme that defines our world is Globalization . Six months ago most Americans would have considered the basic tenets of globalization positives for the US and the world. Every year more benefited from speedier long distance travel, email, cell phones, faxes, and the unprecedented flow of trade, investment and information.

But globalization has always had its underside. Al Qaida twisted the benefits and conveniences of our world to serve its world. Globalization’s challenges extend beyond international terrorism. The current failure of the Argentine economy, the self enforced isolation of some countries such as North Korea and the deepening digital divide all tell us we have to do a better job integrating the world into a contemporary economic and political system.

I am not afraid to say that globalization is good for the US and the world. We must ensure that countries realize the benefits to them and their citizens and overcome policies that condemn countries and peoples to chaos and poverty.

The third theme is Democratization. If we look back at today and see that this was the "high water mark" of democracy, we’ve failed. We must press forward as advocates of democracy, good governance and the rule of law in places like China, the Balkans, Central Asia, and Africa. We must strengthen civil society, help countries maintain and strengthen democratic programs and work to prevent economic, political and civil catastrophes that can cause countries and elites to withdraw from the process.

Democracy, individual freedom and winning the war on terrorism are intertwined. As Secretary Powell said this month during the rollout of the Human Rights Report, " The United States welcomes the help of any country… that is genuinely prepared to work with us to eradicate terrorism. At the same time, we will not relax our commitment to advancing the cause of human rights and democracy. For a world in which men and women of every continent, culture, creed, of every race, religion and region, can exercise their fundamental freedoms is a world in which terrorism cannot thrive."

Journalists play a critical role in promoting democracy. We call it free speech and a free press for a reason. But today, if you defame the President of Mozambique, truth is not a defense. In the Congo, press reports that "demoralize the nation" are punishable by death. In Zimbabwe, you can be thrown in jail if your article was shown to cause "despondency" among your readers.

Last year, 37 journalists were killed on assignment. Most of these were not killed covering combat. According to the Committee to Protect Journalists, "They were murdered in reprisal for their reporting on corruption and crime." The murder of Daniel Pearl is the most horrifying recent example of the dangers journalists face as they pursue the truth.

The Fourth theme is Alliances --- President Bush came into office saying we want to strengthen our alliances: NATO, the Philippines, Japan, Thailand. We cannot take these alliances for granted, we must strengthen them and renew them where necessary.

Nowhere has the value of enduring alliances been more clear than in Europe. The first use of Article V of the NATO Treaty has been invoked in defense of the United States. NATO AWACS have logged over 2600 hours patrolling the skies above American cities. All NATO allies have provided blanket overflight rights, access to ports and bases, and refueling assistance and stepped up intelligence efforts.

The European Community has been cooperating to a degree we never thought possible on justice and financial issues related to the Campaign Against Terrorism.

NATO allies have committed forces to serving alongside us in Operation Enduring Freedom, while others are leading and manning the International Security Assistance Force on the ground today. NATO countries have contributed more than 90% of the troops that comprise ISAF. All but one of the fifteen countries participating in ISAF are either NATO members or PFP partners.

As we look to the future of NATO, we should be led by President Bush’s statement in Warsaw earlier this year "We should not calculate how little we can get away with, but how much we can do to expand the cause of freedom." As we look ahead to the Prague NATO Summit in November, what do we see?

--New capabilities for NATO

--New Members for NATO

--A new relationship with Russia for NATO

This brings me to my fifth theme, which is New Partners and Allies --- The coalition against Terrorism has not only given the United States the opportunity to strengthen existing relationships. It has also given us the opportunity to develop new ones.

Just as September 11 has refocused U.S. – European relations, it is possible that it could prove a turning point in our relationship with Russia.

Last November at Crawford, President Bush explained that "The United States and Russia are in the midst of a transformation of a relationship that will yield peace and progress. We’re transforming our relationship from one of hostility and suspicion to one based on cooperation and trust that will enhance opportunities for peace and progress for our citizens and for people all around the world."

We also see potential new partners in South Asia. Since the beginning of War on Terrorism, we have cooperated closely with Pakistan and renewed the bonds between our two countries.

The Interim authority in Afghanistan is also cooperating closely with the US and coalition forces. We must ensure that we continue to support our new partner as it faces the enormous challenge of providing political stability and security essential for reconstruction and growth.

India is another country in which we are engaged in a dynamic new relationship. The Bush Administration came in saying we need to do more with India and we do. As the world’s largest democracy and a nuclear power, we must ensure that the US and India develop close and cordial ties in the years to come.

We have also strengthened and renewed bonds in our own hemisphere. This week, President Bush is visiting Mexico, Peru and El Salvador cementing ties in the war against terrorism. We are also working closely with the democratic government of Colombia in its struggle against narco-terrorists. Our engagement in Colombia predates September 11. President Pastrana’s decision to end the despeje will no doubt mean the beginning of a long and costly conflict. Colombia needs our support now more than ever, and we are moving to provide it.

Sixth is Weapons of Mass Destruction --- September 11 has given new momentum to the need to eliminate weapons of mass destruction --- chemical, biological and nuclear --- as threats to the United States and its allies.

Last month I traveled to Vancouver to attend a G8 meeting. One of the things I brought with me to the meeting was an unclassified version of a National Intelligence Estimate on nuclear weapons. It described ballistic missile developments and new threats facing the United States and our allies through 2015. Let me share some examples from the report.

  • Most intelligence community agencies project that before 2015, the United States most likely will face ICBM threats from North Korea, and Iran and possibly from Iraq.
  • North Korea’s multiple stage Taepodong 2, which is capable of reaching the United States with a nuclear weapon sized payload, may be ready for flight testing today.
  • Iran’s missile inventory is among the largest in the Middle East and includes some 1300 missiles. The intelligence community feels Tehran’s longstanding commitment to ballistic missile development – for deterrence and warfighting- is unlikely to diminish.

The Final Theme I would like to talk about is Free Markets, Prosperity and Development:

Advancing development and prosperity is a central commitment of U.S. foreign policy. To help in this cause, President Bush recently announced $5 billion in development aid. In this announcement President Bush said "As a nation founded on the dignity and value of every life, America’s heart breaks because of the suffering and senseless death we see in the world. We work for prosperity and opportunity because they are right. … We also work for prosperity and opportunity because they help defeat terror."

There is a connection between peace, freedom, democracy, and economic development. More prosperity and economic development will help root out the inequities that help give rise to terrorism.

Development also depends on getting the mix of aid, financing and trade right. Last week, President Bush explained, "Most funds for development do not come from international aid—they come from domestic capital, from foreign investment and especially from trade. America buys over $450 billion in products from the developing world every year -- $450 billion of purchases every single year. That is more than eight times the amount developing countries receive in aid from all sources. Trade is the engine of development. And by promoting it, we will help the needs of the poor."

Countries that live by three principles; good governance, investment in people and economic freedom have the best chance of climbing out of poverty. As US Trade Representive Robert Zoellick has explained, "The future is with those countries that embrace the modern, decentralized wired world- by keeping markets open, taxation low, and currencies sound. Our future lies with our people and our goal should be to create national and international frameworks in which our peoples can achieve their full potential."

Some have asked whether the United States will continue to be the world leader in promotion of free trade and free markets. We will.

The United States imports well over $1 trillion in goods each year. Our $427 billion trade deficit last year suggests that much of the rest of the world is relying on our open markets.

President Bush has maintained his commitment to free trade. We have promoted trade liberalization on all fronts: global, regional and bilateral.

Last year, we completed action on a free trade agreement with Jordan and a bilateral trade agreement with Vietnam. We also completed China’s and Taiwan’s accession to the WTO. In Quebec City we began negotiations on the Free Trade Area of the Americas.

This year we expect to complete free trade agreements with Chile and Singapore and launch news ones, including with Central America. We have also been working to bring Sub-Saharan Africa into the world trading system by pursuing the African Growth and Opportunity Act.

All of these measures will help lead the United States and the world to a trading system that promotes prosperity and sustainable development for everyone.

Let me talk to you for a minute about my profession. Secretary Powell has charged us at the State Department to create a diplomacy for the 21st Century. He wants us to have a vision of diplomatic service to our country, which will guide us not only through this campaign against terrorism, but beyond.

Like many of you, I would imagine, I have been reading David McCullough’s magnificent biography of John Adams. McCullough describes Adams’ first years as Minister to England after our revolution; received coolly by the Crown, ostracized by British society, vilified by the Loyalists.

One particular critic wrote of Adams, who along with Franklin and Jefferson, were America’s first diplomats, that he is "not qualified by nature or education to shine in courts. His abilities are undoubtedly equal to the mechanical parts of his business as Ambassador; but this is not enough. He cannot dance, drink, flatter, promise, dress, swear with the gentlemen, and small talk and flirt with the ladies; in short, he has none of the essential art or ornament which constitute the courtier."


Adams did not meet those atavistic standards of diplomacy, because he set out in London to represent a new country and a new ideal in a new way.

The country Adams represented is now the most powerful nation on Earth. Our diplomacy has also changed to reflect that reality.

The State Department is changing from an organization whose main job it was to observe and report into an organization that tells America’s story, promotes America’s interests, and confronts new dangers to our democracy.

 Here’s my job description for a 21st century diplomat:

  • A 21st Century Diplomat must not only be proficient in languages, but in intercultural communication.
  • They must understand the global issues.
  • They must understand the important role that public diplomacy plays in our dealings with the established and emerging democracies around the world.
  • They must have the negotiating skills to deal effectively with governments, congress, the media, NGOs and the private sector.
  • They must understand preventive diplomacy and international peace operations.
  • And they must be comfortable with the latest technologies, which will be changing in ways we cannot even imagine today.

I cannot conceive of a successful America in the 21st century without a successful diplomacy for the 21st century. Diplomacy matters more than ever.

To change the way we do business requires resources. From his first day at State, Secretary Powell has been committed to getting the International Affairs resources required for our national security.

International Affairs funding is a critical investment in the future of the United States. At the end of the day, it benefits the American people, whether in accounts that support the operations of the State Department and the Agency for International Development, or in accounts that supply vital assistance to our friends and allies.

International Affairs resources are spent to promote freedom of the press world wide. Let me give you some examples:

Kazakhstan is an ally in the War on Terrorism. It is also a country where the government has harassed and monitored the independent and opposition media. Two weeks ago, the license of TAN-TV, one of the few independent stations in the country was suspended for trivial reasons. The United States in conjunction with other embassies, protested the suspension to the government. Five days later, the government lifted the suspension.

Some of you have undoubtedly heard our own press spokesperson, Richard Boucher condemn the closing of independent broadcast media in Russia; last year, the State Department spent $4 million to support the non-state television and print outlets still operating across the country.

Independent media is under increasing attack in Venezuela. This year we will begin, through the National Endowment for Democracy to support those outlets. We are also planning to support a program to bring professionals from Vietnam and China to the US to discuss issues of governance and independent media, beginning with the issue of ending corruption.

I’d like to end with a quote from Secretary Powell, "Democracy and free markets work, and the world knows it. And there is no finer example of this than America and her allies, who together comprise the strongest economy in the world, helping to reshape the entire world by willing to trade openly and encourage others to do likewise. And there should be no question in any world leader’s mind that the first and most essential ingredient for success in the 21st century is a free people and a government that derives its right to govern from the consent of such people."

That was our goal on September 10 and it remains our goal today.

Thank you.











Released on March 26, 2002

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