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 You are in: Under Secretary for Public Diplomacy and Public Affairs > Bureau of Public Affairs > Bureau of Public Affairs: Office of the Historian > Foreign Relations of the United States > Johnson Administration > Volume V
Foreign Relations, 1964-1968, Volume V, Vietnam 1967
Released by the Office of the Historian

Index

Note: The numbers in this index refer to document numbers.

Abrams, Gen. Creighton W., 94, 119, 131, 171, 236, 325, 347, 416, 445
Acheson, Dean G., 376, 377, 382, 393, 433
Adams, Samuel, 314, 325
Aiken, George, 19
Akalovsky, Alexander, 8, 18, 33, 36, 40, 81, 117, 127
Albert, Carl, 96, 364
Algard, Ole, 201, 276, 287, 330
All-Vietnam Bloc, 242, 281
Allen, George W., 235, 257
Alsop, Joseph, 55, 354
Ambassadorship in Vietnam. See U.S. Mission in Vietnam.
Anh Ba, 452
Anti-war movement. See under U.S. domestic situation.
ANZUS Council, 142
Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN) (see also Thieu-Ky presidential candidacy conflict), 24

Abrams' assignment to, 171
Civil Operations and Revolutionary Development program, 6, 30, 103, 135
Corruption problem, 295
Co's removal, 12, 31
Effectiveness of, 192, 400
Humphrey's assessment of, 390
I Corps situation, 144
Incompetence problem, 195
Leadership changes, 328
Local populations, relations with, 103, 104
Maximum use of manpower, 236, 237, 255, 270, 347, 395
Mission reorientation, 200
Mobilization for, 210, 238, 419
Popular Forces and Regional Forces, 197, 236, 237
Press coverage, 256
Reorganization of, 21, 45, 131, 238

Ashmore, Harry S., 20, 23, 214, 333, 353
Asian Development Bank, 331
Au Truong Thanh, 21, 237, 243, 246, 249
Aubrac, Raymond, 263, 272, 286, 293, 310, 329, 334, 341, 349, 357, 359, 360, 362, 420
Australia, 197, 269, 270, 317, 341, 442
Ayub Khan, Mohammad, 411

Baggs, William, 20, 34, 214, 333, 353
Ball, George, 270, 376, 377, 382, 393
Bao Dai, 93
Bates, William, 364, 390
Bebler, Ales, 434
Beech, Keyes, 167
Black, Eugene, 331
Blaufarb, Douglas S., 211
"Blueprint for Vietnam" study, 296, 317
Bo. See Mai Van Bo.
Bogdan, Corneliu, 411
Bohlen, Charles E., 310, 315, 321, 324, 326, 329, 333, 334, 340, 359, 360, 363
Bombing of DRV (see also Ceasefires for 1967-68 holidays and Stabilization and bombing stand down proposal under Military program in Vietnam):

Administration briefings for Congressional leadership, 95, 364
Advisers for Johnson re, 22
McGeorge Bundy's views on, 157, 354, 377, 393
William Bundy's analysis of targets, 170
Cessation of, consequences of, 351
Cessation of, terms for, 90
Cessation of in exchange for halt in Soviet military deliveries to DRV, proposed, 268, 275
Chinese border buffer zone, 270, 278, 283
Chinese policy re, 153
Civilian casualties, 84, 372, 393, 409
Clifford-Taylor proposal for escalation, 269, 270
Congressional investigations re, 287
Effectiveness of, 26, 30, 153, 172, 180, 234, 236, 238, 273, 298, 341, 345

CIA reports on, 181
JASON report on, 439

Eisenhower's views on, 130
Expanded strikes of April, 139
Goldberg's de-escalation proposal, 35
Guam Conference discussions, 116
Hanoi area restrictions, 4, 17, 290, 363
Hanoi power station, 173, 174, 175, 176
Impediment to peace efforts, 105, 137
Implacable infliction of pain concept, 172
International considerations, 154
Limitation to areas below 20th parallel, 22, 153, 156, 187, 231, 364

CIA analysis, 180
McNamara's position, 169, 186, 194
Rostow's position, 162, 167, 203
Soviets informed of, 173, 174, 175, 176, 179

Logistical base, 175, 194, 345, 372
Mortar attacks, retaliation for, 261
NSC discussions, 43
Objectives of, 84, 194
Pause in bombing for Tet, 34, 47, 54, 56, 57, 58, 59, 61, 62, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78
Pennsylvania peace initiative and, 290, 292, 310, 322, 323, 324, 327, 336, 337, 339
Phuc Yen airfield, 287, 294, 312, 336, 355, 363
Port facilities, 305, 312, 317, 323
Public attitude toward, 247
Rostow's recommendations for changes, 245
Salisbury's report on, 3
Scenario to mollify U.S. officials, 176
Soviet ships damaged by, 188
Target selection, 25, 83, 84, 154, 156, 247, 287, 305, 317, 346
U.S. aircraft losses, 331, 355, 409
Wise Men's views, 376, 377, 393

Booh Viens, Gen., 163
Booton, Bernard, 124
Bowles, Chester, 4
Bradley, Gen. Omar, 157, 376, 377, 382, 384
Brezhnev, Leonid, 64, 330, 425
Brown, George, 15, 34, 39, 41, 46, 49, 58, 63, 137, 154, 173, 174, 363, 427, 428
Brown, Harold, 187, 194, 231, 261
Bruce, David K. E., 15, 39, 41, 46, 49, 51, 56, 57, 58, 59, 63, 64, 72, 173
Bruce, R. L., 109
Brzezinski, Zbigniew, 393
Bui Diem, 104, 115, 143, 144, 146, 182, 183, 190, 196, 217, 236, 243, 246, 287, 332, 373, 435

Presidential election in RVN, 266, 342
Report on visit to Saigon, 195
Thieu-Ky government, 260
Thieu-Ky presidential candidacy conflict, 192, 195, 213

Bunche, Ralph, 123
Bundy, McGeorge, 96, 157, 193, 209

Bombing of DRV, 157, 354, 377, 393
Military program in Vietnam, 385, 393
Negotiation issue, 377, 393
Troop augmentation by U.S., 157, 354
U.S. domestic situation, 157
U.S. information programs, 354, 377, 393
U.S. Mission in Vietnam:

Lodge's successor, selection of, 13, 94, 97
Personnel for, 354

Withdrawal option, 393
Wise Men meetings, 376, 377, 382, 393

Bundy, William P., 3, 8, 9, 14, 17, 32, 40, 47, 50, 52, 57, 59, 60, 61, 68, 76, 81, 85, 91, 99, 103, 104, 153, 162, 177, 196, 213, 214, 224, 241, 242, 259, 276, 288, 301, 306, 318, 323, 327, 361, 367, 371, 395, 399, 402, 417, 421, 424, 435, 447

Army of the Republic of Vietnam, 195
Bombing of DRV:

Chinese border buffer zone, 270, 278
Civilian casualties, 372
Expanded strikes of April, 139
Hanoi power station, 174, 175
International considerations, 154
Limitation to areas below 20th parallel, 156, 174, 175
Logistical base, 175, 372
Pennsylvania peace initiative and, 339
Target selection, 154, 156, 170

Buttercup peace initiative, 405, 423
Chinese-DRV relations, 248
Clifford-Taylor mission, 253
Diplomatic efforts toward settlement in Vietnam:

Canadian peace proposal, 204, 227, 339
Cooper-Bundy settlement model, 184
Japanese-DRV discussions, 7
Marigold peace initiative, 15
NLF-U.S. contacts, 7
Quintanilla and Baggs-Ashmore initiatives, 20
Soviet-U.S. discussions, 117
UN resolutions, 156
UN Security Council initiative, proposed, 373

Free World forces in Vietnam, 253
Military program in Vietnam:

Cambodia, proposed incursions into, 154
Ceasefires for 1967-68 holidays, 396
Ground action against DRV option, 154
Haiphong mining option, 154
JCS and State Department recommendations, comparison of, 408
Laos, proposed incursions into, 154
120 Day Program proposal, 426
Reserves call-up issue, 154

Negotiation issue, 154, 227, 248
Pennsylvania peace initiative, 272, 277, 339
Presidential election in RVN, 211
Soviet assistance to DRV, 133
Thieu-Ky presidential candidacy conflict, 195, 211
Troop augmentation by U.S., 154
U.S. policy on Vietnam, assessment of, 154
Wise Men, 377

Bunker, Ellsworth, 255, 302

Army of the Republic of Vietnam:

Abrams' assignment to, 171
Corruption problem, 295
Effectiveness of, 192, 400
Maximum use of manpower, 237
Mission reorientation, 200
Mobilization for, 419
Popular Forces and Regional Forces, 237
Press coverage, 256

Buttercup peace initiative, 389, 409, 438, 452

Press leaks, 429
Prisoner exchanges, 383, 389, 405, 414, 429, 432, 437, 438
Thieu informed of, 371, 383, 389
U.S. messages to NLF, 432, 438

Civil Operations and Revolutionary Development program:

Infrastructure Intelligence Coordination and Exploitation Program, 199, 446
Komer's relationship with Westmoreland, 119
Province Chiefs' role, 237
RVN's lead officer, 342
Takeoff program, 215, 280
Unified management of integrated civil/military effort, 167, 171, 192

Clifford-Taylor mission, 256
Communist insurgency, order of battle estimates, 297, 325, 370
Congressional testimony, 400
Diplomatic efforts toward settlement in Vietnam:

DRV-RVN contacts, 243, 356, 361, 365, 367, 379, 419
NLF-U.S. contacts, 435, 436
UN Security Council initiative, proposed, 373, 392, 419, 435

Eisenhower's views on, 130
First 6 months in Saigon, letter on, 377
Guam Conference, 115
Humphrey's Vietnam visit, 390
Johnson's attitude toward, 384
Johnson-Thieu meeting, December, 442, 446
McNamara mission to Vietnam, 233, 236, 237
Military program in Vietnam:

Acceleration of activities, 400
Anti-infiltration initiatives, 215
Body counts, 409
Cambodia, proposed incursions into, 428, 436
Ceasefires for 1967-68 holidays, 391, 396, 419, 436, 445, 446, 448
Johnson's visit with troops, 442
Laos, proposed incursions into, 215, 237, 409
Progress in, 192, 256
Stabilization and bombing stand down proposal, 410

Pennsylvania peace initiative, 365
Presidential election in RVN, 190, 192, 205, 256, 281, 303

Campaigning by candidates, 264
Censorship concerns, 192, 198, 256
Certification of candidates, 246
Civilian candidates, 229, 237
Bunker, Ellsworth-Continued
Presidential election in RVN-Continued
Demonstrations and protests, 264
Fairness and honesty concerns, 186, 237, 265, 320
Favorable effects, 299
Government harassment of opposition candidates, 205, 280, 295
International observers, 243, 256
Ky-Huong cooperation, 186
Ky's prediction for outcome, 295
Laws re, 129, 158, 192
Loan's involvement on Ky's behalf, 198, 205, 209, 218
Loan's removal, proposal for, 205, 209, 213
Military-civilian balance among candidates, 171, 182
Military's non-participation, 163, 166, 171, 205, 210, 223
Minh's possible candidacy, 223, 226, 237, 243
Minh's support for Huong, 264
NLF reaction, 264
Press coverage, 256, 274
Public relations re, 280
Scheduling of, 192
Thanh's possible candidacy, 237
30 "introductions" requirement, 192
U.S. covert financial support for, 251, 281, 282, 289
U.S. involvement in partisan political trips, 191
Validation of results, 320, 332, 338, 342

Republic of Vietnam:

Buddhist dissidents, 342
Constitution-making, 21
Corruption in government, 338, 342
Dzu's arrest, 332
Economic situation, 391
Elections for House, 335, 342
Elections for local offices, 158, 256
Foreign exchange issue, 114
Land reform, 419
Military's role in government, 264, 279
Montagnard policy, 264
National Reconciliation program, 264
National unity government, proposed, 205
NLF participation in government, 306
Political offensive against NLF, 299
Political situation, 171, 391
Provincial administration, restructuring of, 419
U.S. support for political groups, 288

Thieu-Ky campaign, 237, 303

Certification of, 246, 251
Senate lists, affiliation with, 264
U.S. covert financial support, proposed, 242, 282, 289
U.S. covert role of guidance and advice, 235, 241, 289

Thieu-Ky government:

Addresses to Vietnamese people, U.S. preparation of, 342
Cabinet appointments, 332, 338, 342
Civilian participation, 229, 230, 235, 320
Inauguration of, 366, 379
Ky's authority in, 232, 237, 243, 251, 260, 320
1968 legislative program, 446
Prime Minister appointment, 320, 332, 338, 342
U.S. advisory role, 320, 342

Thieu-Ky presidential candidacy conflict, 138

Civilian candidates' exploitation of, 182
Generals' attitude toward, 178, 223, 226, 230
Ky's declaration of candidacy, 163, 166, 171
Resolution of conflict, U.S. demands for, 178, 182, 200, 202, 219, 222, 223, 225
Thieu-Ky alliance, decision on, 226, 229, 230, 243
Thieu-Ky talks re, 186, 192, 195, 198, 200
Thieu's declaration of candidacy, 178, 202
Thieu's resentment at Ky's aggressiveness, 202
Thieu's withdrawal, proposed U.S. effort re, 209, 213, 218
Unity of armed forces and, 163, 182, 186, 198
U.S. covert support for Ky, proposed, 209, 213, 218, 224, 288
U.S. intervention, possible, 182

Thieu-Ky relationship, 332
Troop augmentation by U.S., 159, 210
UN talks on Vietnam, NLF participation in, 435
U.S. Mission in Vietnam:

Bunker's appointment as Ambassador, 97
Congressional visits, 436
Embassy Chancery dedication, 342
Lodge's successor, selection of, 13, 94, 97
Personnel for Bunker's team, 119, 150

U.S. policy on Vietnam:

"Blueprint for Vietnam" study, 296
Bunker's mid-year assessment, 220
Bunker-Westmoreland public relations tour, 352
Leverage on newly-elected RVN government, program for exercise of, 301, 366
Political party development, funding for, 398, 417
Postwar development planning, 220, 430

Washington trip, 395, 400, 409
Weekly reports, 158, 171, 182, 186, 192, 200, 215, 220, 237, 256, 264, 280, 291, 299, 320, 338, 342, 379, 391, 419, 426, 446

Burchett, Wilfred, 29, 362, 364, 365
Burke, John R., 211
Burns, James MacGregor, 348
Buttercup peace initiative, 336, 378, 380, 452

Administration discussions, 341, 409, 420
CIA review of developments, 449
Congressional briefings, 432
Debriefing of Sau Ha, 413
Madame Vang's talks with U.S. officials, 449
Negotiations, NLF terms for, 369, 394
Political aspects, 389, 422, 423
Press leaks re, 422, 423, 429
Prisoner exchanges, 341, 369, 383, 386, 389, 394, 405, 406, 413, 414, 429, 432, 437, 438
Propaganda-related risks for U.S., 406, 438
Buttercup peace initiative-Continued
Thieu informed of, 371, 383, 389
U.S. messages to NLF, 432, 438

Byrd, Robert, 262, 364

Calhoun, Arch, 178, 190, 232, 243, 258, 260, 274, 284, 302, 398
Califano, Joseph, 152, 364
Cambodia, 130

Sanctuary for Communist insurgency, 409
U.S.-RVN incursions into, proposed, 149, 154, 347, 403, 404, 408, 428, 436
Canadian peace proposal, 133, 140, 204, 227, 339

Cannon, Howard D., 287
Cao Van Vien, Gen., 21, 115, 119, 145, 163, 166, 171, 186, 195, 210, 223, 226, 236, 237, 266, 295, 328, 332, 342, 406, 412, 413, 432, 438
Carmichael, Stokely, 124
Carver, George A., Jr., 115, 116, 136, 196, 204, 213, 218, 224, 242, 257, 282, 289, 314, 325, 335, 376
Case, Clifford P., 178, 336, 344
Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), 2, 12, 93, 209, 218, 224, 250, 335

Bombing of DRV:

Cessation of, consequences of, 351
Cessation of in exchange for halt in Soviet military deliveries to DRV, proposed, 268, 275
Effectiveness of, 180, 181
Limitation to areas below 20th parallel, 180
Logistical base, 345

Buttercup peace initiative:

CIA review of developments, 449
Negotiations, NLF terms for, 394

Civil Operations and Revolutionary Development program:

Communist organization, attack on, 254, 257
Infrastructure Intelligence Coordination and Exploitation Program, 254
Progress in, 91
Training program, 254

Communist insurgency:

Desertions of DRV regulars, 252
Losses during infiltration, 273
1968 winter-spring campaigning plans, U.S. analyses of, 440
Order of battle estimates, 297, 314, 325

Military program in Vietnam, 381, 409
Presidential election in RVN, 136, 209, 213, 271, 281, 282
Saigon Station, activities of, 254
Thieu-Ky government, 237
U.S. support for Vietnamese political groups, 288, 417

Chang. See Le Chang.
Chen Yi, 165
Chernyakov, Yuri N., 140
Cheslaw, Irving, 427
Chieu Hoi amnesty program, 44, 197
China, People's Republic of, 49, 55, 85, 113, 117, 216, 451

Bombing of DRV and, 153, 162
Cultural Revolution, 153, 154
DRV, relations with, 123, 248
Intervention in Vietnam, possible, 165, 177, 278
U.S.-Chinese discussions re settlement in Vietnam, proposed, 151, 152

Chinh. See Pham Truong Chinh, Brig. Gen.
Chong Il-Kwon, 107
Christian, George, 19, 24, 48, 79, 88, 149, 156, 174, 176, 209, 239, 240, 270, 283, 287, 300, 305, 317, 331, 336, 341, 346, 353, 355, 363, 377, 386, 409, 420, 428, 442
Christopher, Warren, 341
Churchill, Winston, 401
Citizens Committee for Peace with Freedom in Vietnam, 377
Civil Operations and Revolutionary Development program, 446

Agent Penetration Operations, 257
Anti-corruption program, 258, 395
ARVN involvement, 6, 30, 103, 135
Census Grievance Program, 257
Chieu Hoi amnesty program, 44, 197
Communist organization, attack on, 254, 257
Eisenhower's views on, 130
Expansion of RD teams, 135
Guam Conference discussions, 116
Hamlet Evaluation System, 135
Hamlet Informant Program, 257
Humphrey's assessment of, 390
Infrastructure Intelligence Coordination and Exploitation Program, 199, 254, 257, 409, 446
Interrogation techniques, 413
Komer's assignment to, 94, 97
Komer's relationship with Westmoreland, 119
Military's involvement, 197
Office of Civil Operations, 30
Personnel requirements, 135, 409
Phoenix program. See Infrastructure Intelligence Coordination and Exploitation Program above.
Police forces, 135
Presidential election in RVN and, 215
Progress in, 30, 91, 197, 234
Province Chiefs' role, 237
Province Interrogation Centers, 257
Province Reconnaissance Units, 257
RVN's lead officer, 186, 342
Security for RD teams, 135
Takeoff program, 199, 215, 280
Thieu's chain of command, 302
Training program, 197, 254
Unified management of integrated civil/military effort, 150, 167, 171, 192
U.S. ground forces' involvement, 1, 30
Wise Men's views, 377

Clark, Joseph, 23, 94
Clifford, Clark M. (see also Clifford-Taylor mission), 96, 193, 204, 433

Bombing of DRV, 22, 269, 270
Diplomatic efforts toward settlement in Vietnam, 156
Free World forces in Vietnam, augmentation of, 244, 269, 270
Lodge's successor, selection of, 13
Military program in Vietnam, 238, 388, 428
Pennsylvania peace initiative, 357
Presidential election in RVN, 256
Wise Men meetings, 376, 377, 382

Clifford-Taylor mission, 238, 240, 247

Johnson's appointment of, 244
Message to U.S. Embassies re, 253
Reports re, 269, 270, 285
Thieu and Ky, meetings with, 255, 256

Co. See Nguyen Huu Co, Gen.
Colby, William E., 7, 133, 22, 2544, 350, 371, 409, 424

Communist insurgency, 110
Cambodian sanctuaries, 409
Desertions of DRV regulars, 252
Economic and political warfare, 2
Guam Conference discussions, 116
Infiltration rate, 30
Intelligence information on, 104
Losses during infiltration, 273
Mining of Saigon channel, 83
1968 winter-spring campaigning plans, U.S. analyses of, 440, 443
Order of battle estimates, 208, 234, 297, 314, 325, 370, 397, 399
RD teams targeted by, 135
Status at beginning of 1967, 2
Strategy of, 2, 6, 347, 368
Success in "small war," 177
Terrorism and assassinations, 103
Volunteers from outside Southeast Asia, 165

Congress, U.S.:

Bombing of DRV, 95, 287, 364
Bunker's testimony, 400
Buttercup peace initiative, 432
Debates and hearings on U.S. policy, 355, 336, 341, 431
Diplomatic efforts toward settlement in Vietnam, 96, 364, 373, 421
Free World forces in Vietnam, 346
Funding, 26, 94
Ky's letter to, 291
Negotiation issue, 23
Resolution on U.S. policy, 94
Rusk's refusal to testify, 431
Sunflower peace initiative, 19
U.S. policy on Vietnam:
Wavering of support for U.S. policy, 262, 344

Cooper, Charles, 119, 150
Cooper, Chester L., 7, 14, 15, 34, 140, 173, 216, 259, 362

Diplomatic efforts toward settlement in Vietnam, 98, 133, 184, 204
Pennsylvania peace initiative, 263, 267, 272, 293
Soviet-U.K. effort to facilitate U.S.-DRV talks (Sunflower), 39, 41, 46, 49, 51, 53, 56, 58, 59, 63, 64, 80, 137

Cooper, John Sherman, 341

Dam Van Quy, Col., 338, 342
Dan Duc Khoi, 266
Dang. See Tran Bach Dang.
Dang Van Quang, Lt. Gen., 328
Davidson, Daniel I., 272, 361, 367
Davidson, Gen. Phillip, 208, 314, 325, 347
Davis, Nathaniel, 427
Davis, Richard, 411
De Gaulle, Charles, 7
Dean, Arthur, 376, 377, 382
Dean, John, 38, 407
Dean, Sir Patrick, 15, 137, 427
Defense Communications Planning Group, 121
Democratic Republic of Vietnam (DRV) (see also Bombing of DRV; Communist insurgency; Pennsylvania peace initiative; Sunflower peace initiative):

China, relations with, 123, 248
Diplomatic efforts toward settlement in Vietnam:

Canadian peace proposal, 140
DRV-RVN contacts, 236, 243, 304, 356, 361, 365, 367, 379, 402, 415, 419, 442
French-DRV discussions, 248
Indian-DRV discussions, 4
Italian-DRV discussions, 27
Japanese-DRV discussions, 7, 259
Kennedy peace proposal, 38
Norwegian-DRV discussions (Ohio initiative), 201, 276, 287, 330
Romanian-DRV discussions (Packers initiative), 411
Thant peace proposal, 98, 117, 123
U.S. proposals to DRV for talks, 127, 395

Negotiation issue:

DRV attitude toward negotiations, 177
DRV conditions for talks, 29, 35, 82, 201, 214, 216, 248, 329, 451
DRV reassessment of policy, possible, 227, 248, 252

Presidential election in RVN and, 92, 146
Salisbury's visit, 3
Soviet Union, relations with, 128, 133, 177, 425
Thant, attitude toward, 201
U.S. operations within, 350

DePuy, Maj. Gen. W. E., 135, 147, 309
Diem. See Bui Diem.
Diep Van Hung, 237
Dillon, Douglas, 376, 377, 382
Diplomatic efforts toward settlement in Vietnam (see also Buttercup peace initiative; Pennsylvania peace initiative; Sunflower peace initiative), 30

Administration briefing for Congressional leadership, 364
Bebler's initiative, 434
Canadian peace proposal, 133, 140, 204, 227, 339
Chinese-U.S. discussions, proposed, 151, 152
Cooper-Bundy settlement model, 184
Counter-productive nature of post-Sunflower initiatives, 137
DRV-RVN contacts, 236, 243, 304, 356, 361, 365, 367, 379, 415, 419, 442
U.S. text for message from Thieu to Ho Chi Minh, 402
Eastern European initiatives, 357
French-DRV discussions, 248
ICC initiative, 4, 14
Indian-DRV discussions, 4
Indonesian initiative, 227
Italian-DRV discussions, 27
Japanese-DRV discussions, 7, 259
JCS cease-fire plan, 184
Johnson's recapitulation of, 96
Kennedy peace proposal, 38, 83, 96, 101, 105
Khanh's initiative with NLF, 407
Marigold peace initiative, 4, 7, 15, 117, 317
NLF-U.S. contacts, 7, 435, 436
Norwegian-DRV discussions (Ohio initiative), 201, 276, 287, 330
Pell-Bo contacts, 214
Phase A-Phase B formula, 9
Polish-U.S. discussions, 9
Pope's appeal for negotiations, 42
Primrose peace initiative, 14
Publicity re secret initiatives, 420
Quintanilla and Baggs-Ashmore initiatives, 20
Romanian-DRV discussions (Packers initiative), 411
RVN-NLF contacts, 133, 185, 330, 395, 401
Shah of Iran's initiative, 341, 411
Soviet-U.K. discussions, 173
Soviet-U.S. discussions, 4, 7, 85, 117, 133, 341

Johnson-Kosygin Summit, 206, 207, 216, 217

Soviet-U.S. initiatives, U.S. strategy for, 193
Soviet-U.S. joint guarantee of settlement, 165
Thant peace proposal, 98, 101, 107, 108, 111, 112, 117, 123
UN resolutions, 151, 152, 156
UN Security Council initiative, proposed, 311, 317, 319, 373, 377, 392, 419, 421, 427, 428, 435
U.S. proposals to DRV for talks, 127, 395
U.S. reassessment of policy following failure of Sunflower, 83
Verification issue, 90

Dirksen, Everett M., 19, 96, 336, 341, 344, 346, 348, 364
Do. See Tran Van Do.
Do Nhu Cong, 413
Do Phat Quang, 259
Dobrynin, Anatoliy F., 4, 7, 17, 34, 46, 85, 96, 117, 127, 137, 140, 154, 175, 206, 268
Don. See Tran Van Don, Gen.
Donald, Richard, 278
Dong. See Pham Van Dong.
Donovan, Hedley, 353, 386
Douglas, Paul H., 377
Dow, John G., 195
Draft Presidential Memorandum. See under Military program in Vietnam
Dunlap, Thomas, 258
Duong Van Minh, Gen., 21, 132, 223, 226, 237, 243, 246, 264
Duzer, Roger, 3
Dzu. See Truong Dinh Dzu.

Eban, Abba, 336
Eisenhower, Dwight D., 130, 217, 252, 268, 275, 384, 409, 426
Ellsberg, Daniel, 131
Enthoven, Alain, 155, 233
Estabrook, Robert, 36

Fanfani, Amintore, 27
Fedorenko, Nikolai, 123
Findley, Paul, 101
Fleming, Arthur, 287
Flowerree, Charles, 116
Fomin, Alexandr, 357
Fortas, Abe, 96, 355, 357, 377, 382, 387, 433
Fowler, George, 314
Fowler, Henry, 193
France, 7, 38, 248
Frankel, Max, 244
Freeman, Fulton, 20
Free World forces in Vietnam, 110, 409, 436

Augmentation of, 159, 238, 239, 240, 244, 253, 269, 270, 317, 341
Congressional resolution on, 346
Governments' views concerning war, 269, 270
McPherson's report on, 197
Summit of troop-contributing nations, proposed, 142, 247, 353
U.S. mission to ally governments. See Clifford-Taylor mission.

Fulbright, J. William, 19, 23, 44, 96, 124, 157, 197, 207, 262, 287, 331, 341, 355, 377, 390, 431

Galbraith, John Kenneth, 124, 377
Gandhi, Indira, 421
Garthoff, Raymond, 193
Gaud, William, 119, 238
Gavin, James, 377
Geneva Conference, proposed reconvening of. See Soviet-U.K. effort to facilitate U.S.-DRV talks under Sunflower peace initiative.
Giap. See Vo Nguyen Giap, Gen.
Ginsburgh, Col. Robert N., 98, 261, 268, 296, 309
Glassboro Summit, 206, 207, 216, 217
Gleysteen, Culver, 392
Goldberg, Arthur J., 5, 23, 80, 162, 331, 353, 377, 392

Bombing of DRV, 35
Diplomatic efforts toward settlement in Vietnam:
Thant peace proposal, 98, 107, 108, 112, 123
UN resolutions, 152, 156
UN Security Council initiative, proposed, 311, 319, 373, 419, 421, 428, 435
UN talks on Vietnam, NLF participation in, 435

Goldwater, Barry, 23
Goodpaster, Lt. Gen. Andrew J., 130, 135, 268, 275, 309, 384
Gore, Albert, 431
Gore-Booth, Paul, 46
Graham, Billy, 287
Greene, Frederick, 3, 204, 267, 276
Greene, Gen. Wallace M., Jr., 309, 313
Gromyko, Andrei, 133, 341
Gronouski, John A., 4, 9
Guam Conference, 106, 109, 115, 116, 117, 119, 123
Guevara, Che, 2
Guthrie, John, 8, 16, 18, 29, 32, 33, 36, 40, 81

Ha. See Sau Ha.
Ha Thuc Ky, 190, 237, 295, 320
Ha Van Lau, Col., 98, 248
Habib, Philip C., 195, 196, 204, 211, 224, 241, 259, 267, 269, 272, 301, 356, 392, 395, 396, 402, 405, 417, 423, 447
Hagerty, Jim, 400
Haines, Gen. Ralph, 404
Halls, Michael, 63
Hanh. See Nguyen Huu Hanh.
Harkins, Gen. Paul D., 197
Harriman, W. Averell, 7, 14, 15, 41, 49, 50, 85, 108, 115, 174, 205, 237, 259, 272, 318, 367, 395, 402

Bombing of DRV:

Hanoi-area restrictions, 17
Limitation to areas below 20th parallel, Soviets informed of, 174, 179
Pause for Tet, 34
Pennsylvania peace initiative and, 292

Buttercup peace initiative, 380, 414
Diplomatic efforts toward settlement in Vietnam:

Canadian peace proposal, 140
Quintanilla and Baggs-Ashmore initiatives, 20
Romanian-DRV discussions (Packers initiative), 411
RVN-NLF contacts, 330
Shah of Iran's initiative, 411
Soviet-U.S. discussions, 133, 206, 217

Military program in Vietnam, 330, 433
NLF surrender issue, 330
Negotiation issue, 228, 380, 393, 433
Pennsylvania peace initiative, 263, 267, 292
Republic of Vietnam, NLF participation in government, 292
Soviet-DRV relations, 133, 425
Sunflower peace initiative, 46
Thieu-Ky government, 228
Wise Men meetings, 377, 380

Hart, John L., 91, 213, 218, 224, 232, 289, 302
Hart, Philip A., 195
Hartke, R. Vance, 22
Harvey, James, 354
Hayden, Carl, 364, 390
Hayden, Thomas, 406, 414
Heckler, Margaret, 287
Heineman, Ben, 157
Helms, Richard M., 20, 91, 136, 162, 170, 174, 175, 177, 193, 194, 204, 209, 238, 250, 283, 305, 351, 355, 364, 395, 422, 424

Bombing of DRV:

Cessation of in exchange for halt in Soviet military deliveries to DRV, proposed, 268
Effectiveness of, 180, 298, 341, 345
Limitation to areas below 20th parallel, 180
Pennsylvania peace initiative and, 336

Buttercup peace initiative, 369, 383, 389, 394, 406, 409, 413, 420, 429, 432, 437, 438, 449, 452
Cambodia, proposed incursions into, 428
CIA Saigon Station, activities of, 254
Communist insurgency, order of battle estimates, 314, 325, 397, 399
Intelligence collection activities in Vietnam, 350
Pennsylvania peace initiative, 308, 336, 341, 353, 362, 363
Unfavorable outcome of the war, implications of, 316
U.S. domestic situation, 386
U.S. information programs, 336
Wise Men, 377

Hertz, Gustav, 414
Hickenlooper, Bourke B., 19, 364
Hoang Co Binh, 320
Hoang Man'Tu, 8, 18, 33, 36, 81, 117, 127
Hoang Tung, 20
Hoang Xuan Lam, Gen., 145, 163, 328, 332
Ho Chi Minh, 6, 227, 248, 329

Diplomatic efforts toward settlement in Vietnam:

Pope's appeal for negotiations, 42
Quintanilla and Baggs-Ashmore initiatives, 20
Romanian-DRV discussions (Packers initiative), 411
U.S. proposals to DRV for talks, 127

Johnson's correspondence with, 40, 82, 117, 127
Negotiation issue, 82
Pennsylvania peace initiative, 263
Pope's correspondence with, 42
Prisoners of war, 450
Sunflower peace initiative, 40, 82, 117

Hollings, Ernest F., 262
Holt, Harold, 154, 193, 244, 270, 317, 442
Holyoake, Keith, 270
Hoopes, Townsend, 25
Hoyt, Palmer, 386
Huan, Col., 432, 438
Hughes, Thomas L., 224, 248, 252, 259, 276, 278, 279, 287, 350
Humphrey, Hubert H., 76, 113, 174, 249, 291, 364, 390, 422, 428
Humphreys, Gen., 116
Huong. See Tran Van Huong.
Hutchinson, Brig. Gen., 116
Hyland, William, 314, 325

Iliescu, Marin, 411
India, 4
Indonesia, 113, 227, 390
Infrastructure Intelligence Coordination and Exploitation Program (ICEX), 199, 254, 257, 409, 446
Institute of Defense Analysis, 439
International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC), 450
International Control Commission (ICC), 4, 14, 90
Isham, Heyward, 109, 272, 361, 362, 396, 402
Italy, 27

Jackson, Henry, 95, 355
Jacobson, George, 232, 302
Japan, 7, 154, 259, 356, 367, 402, 419
JASON report on bombing of DRV, 439
Javits, Jacob, 84
Jernegan, John D., 14
Jessup, Peter, 417, 424
Johnson, Gen. Harold K., 294, 305, 309, 317, 404
Johnson, Lyndon B., 1, 6, 13, 21, 24, 30, 31, 34, 41, 44, 51, 61, 91, 118, 133, 135, 158, 163, 171, 174, 178, 185, 186, 192, 202, 205, 209, 212, 218, 223, 226, 229, 230, 237, 254, 256, 264, 265, 266, 280, 291, 295, 299, 309, 320, 334, 342, 351, 359, 360, 361, 365, 366, 379, 391, 394, 415, 419, 426, 446, 452

Acheson's relationship with, 433
Army of the Republic of Vietnam, 200, 400
Asian Development Bank, 331
Bombing of DRV:

Administration briefings for Congressional leadership, 95, 364
Advisers for Johnson re, 22
McGeorge Bundy's assessment of, 157, 354
Cessation of in exchange for halt in Soviet military deliveries to DRV, proposed, 268
Chinese border buffer zone, 270, 283
Civilian casualties, 84, 409
Effectiveness of, 172, 180, 181, 298, 341, 345
Expanded strikes of April, 139
Goldberg's de-escalation proposal, 35
Hanoi-area restrictions, 363
Hanoi power station, 173
Limitation to areas below 20th parallel, 22, 162, 167, 169, 180, 194, 203
Mortar attacks, retaliation for, 261
NSC discussions, 43
Pause in bombing for Tet, 47, 54, 57, 73, 74, 76, 77, 78
Pennsylvania peace initiative and, 336
Phuc Yen airfield, 294, 312, 336, 355, 363
Port facilities, 305, 312, 317
Public attitude toward, 247
Rostow's recommendations for changes, 245
Scenario to mollify all U.S. officials, 176
Target selection, 25, 83, 84, 287, 305, 317, 346
U.S. aircraft losses, 355, 409
Wise Men's views, 377

Bunker, attitude toward, 384
Buttercup peace initiative:

Administration discussions, 409
Negotiations, NLF terms for, 369
Political aspects, 422
Press leaks re, 422
Prisoner exchanges, 369, 386, 405, 438

Civil Operations and Revolutionary Development program, 94, 97, 150, 167, 215, 409
Clifford-Taylor mission, 238, 240, 247

Johnson's appointment of, 244
Message to U.S. Embassies re, 253
Reports, 269, 270, 285
Thieu and Ky, meetings with, 255

Communist insurgency:

Cambodian sanctuaries, 409
Guam Conference discussions, 116
Losses during infiltration, 273
Mining of Saigon channel, 83
1968 winter-spring campaigning plans, U.S. analyses of, 440
Order of battle estimates, 397, 399
Strategy of, 368

Diplomatic efforts toward settlement in Vietnam:

Administration briefing for Congressional leadership, 364
Canadian peace proposal, 140
Chinese-U.S. discussions, proposed, 151, 152
DRV-RVN contacts, 442
Johnson's recapitulation of, 96
Kennedy peace proposal, 38, 83, 96, 101, 105
Marigold peace initiative, 4, 15, 317
Pell-Bo contacts, 214
Pope's appeal for negotiations, 42
Publicity re secret initiatives, 420
Shah of Iran's initiative, 341
Soviet-U.S. discussions, 206, 207, 216, 217
Soviet-U.S. initiatives, U.S. strategy for, 193
Thant peace proposal, 101, 111, 112, 123
UN resolutions, 151, 152, 156
UN Security Council initiative, proposed, 311, 317, 319, 373, 421, 428
U.S. proposals to DRV for talks, 127, 395
U.S. reassessment of policy following failure of Sunflower, 83

Eisenhower's conversation with, 384
Free World forces in Vietnam, 409

Augmentation of, 159, 238, 239, 240, 244, 253, 269, 270, 317, 341
Congressional resolution on, 346
Summit of troop-contributing nations, proposed, 247, 353

Guam Conference, 106, 115, 116, 119
Ho Chi Minh's correspondence with, 40, 82, 117, 127
Humphrey's Vietnam visit, 390
International trip in December, 442, 446
Kennedy's conflict with, 124
Kosygin's correspondence with, 175, 179
Kosygin's meetings with, 206, 207, 216, 217
Mansfield's relationship with, 151
McNamara mission to Vietnam, 238
McNamara's departure from Defense Department, 375
Military program in Vietnam:

Acceleration of activities, 83, 84, 347, 357, 400
Air support for ground troops, 305
Anti-infiltration initiatives, 121, 313
Body counts, 400, 409
Cambodia, proposed incursions into, 428
Ceasefires for 1967-68 holidays, 409
DMZ redeployment, 341, 344
Draft Presidential Memorandum, 177, 194
Haiphong mining option, 83
Johnson's visible command of campaign, proposed, 393
Johnson's visit with troops, 442
Laos, military overflights of, 420
Laos, proposed incursions into, 317, 409, 428
Johnson, Lyndon B.-Continued
Military program in Vietnam-Continued
McNamara's criticism of Westmoreland's management, 239
Operation Shenandoah, 355
Progress in, 234, 287
Reserves call-up issue, 363
Stabilization and bombing stand down proposal, 375, 378, 381, 385, 387, 403, 404, 410, 441
"Stalemate" issue, 287
"Stick-it-out" scenario, 381
"War that can't be won" issue, 238
Westmoreland's vision for 1967, 28

Negotiation issue:

Administration discussions with Congressional leaders, 23
DRV reassessment of policy, possible, 252
Forms of negotiation, U.S. internal debate re, 87
Troop augmentation by U.S. and, 221
U.S. public relations re, 111, 113

Pennsylvania peace initiative, 326

Administration discussions, 317, 336, 341, 346, 348, 353, 355, 357, 363
Bombing of DRV and, 336
DRV conditions for talks, 315
Intelligence reports on, 308
Katzenbach's assessment of, 337

San Antonio formula for peace, 340, 348
Termination of, 362
U.S. messages to DRV, 321, 348, 349
U.S. public statements re, 355, 363
Pope's correspondence with, 42
Presidential election in RVN:

Fairness and honesty concerns, 236
Fraud allegations, 336
Guam Conference discussions, 115, 116
International implications, 285
International observers, 283, 287, 294, 303, 305
Johnson's letter to Thieu and Ky re, 284
Press coverage, 287
Results of, 303
Summit of Vietnam allies and, 247
U.S. covert financial support for, 250

Prisoners of war, 450
Re-election bid, 341

Republic of Vietnam:
Constitution-making, 115, 120
Land reform, 115, 116
Military's role in government, 100, 279
National Reconciliation program, 115
NLF participation in government issue, 305, 444

Rusk's refusal to testify before Congress, 431
Soviet-DRV relations, 425
State of the Union speech, 11
Sunflower peace initiative:

Arrangements for talks, 16
Collapse of, 77, 79, 82
DRV response to U.S. proposal, 29
Johnson's correspondence with Ho Chi Minh, 40, 82
Johnson's discussions with Congressional leaders re, 19
Johnson's recapitulation of, 96
Kennedy's criticism of U.S. handling of, 122, 124
Publication of Johnson-Ho correspondence, 117

Soviet-U.K. effort to facilitate U.S.-DRV talks, 39, 46, 48, 55, 57, 58, 64, 65, 66, 67, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 76, 79, 137, 207
U.S. contingency planning, 54
U.S. proposal for secret talks, 5

Thieu and Ky, communications with, 144, 284, 285, 303, 405
Thieu and Ky, meetings with, 115, 442, 446
Thieu-Ky campaign, 303
Thieu-Ky government, inauguration of, 331, 341
Thieu-Ky presidential candidacy conflict:

Resolution of conflict, U.S. demands for, 143, 178, 219, 222, 225
Unity of armed forces and, 144
U.S. intervention issue, 189

Troop augmentation by U.S.:

Deployments of troops, 287, 409
Johnson's decision re, 238, 240
Negotiation issue and, 221
Publicity re, 244, 248
Vietnamese manpower utilization and, 159
Westmoreland's defense of his request, 149

U.S. domestic situation:

Anti-war movement, 341, 363
Communist takeover concerns, 386
U.S. information programs, 336, 341, 346, 348, 352, 386

U.S. Mission in Vietnam:

Bunker's appointment as Ambassador, 97
Lodge's resignation as Ambassador, 86
Lodge's successor, selection of, 23, 37, 83, 94, 97

U.S. policy on Vietnam, 88

"Blueprint for Vietnam" study, 296, 317
McGeorge Bundy's assessment of, 157
Bunker's mid-year assessment, 220
Congressional debates and hearings, 336, 355, 341, 431
Congressional resolution on, 94
Congressional support, wavering of, 262, 344
Funding for, 11, 26, 94
McPherson's report on Vietnam visit, 197
Objective of policy, proposed change in, 401
Planning for 1968, 395
Postwar development planning, 115
Unfavorable outcome, implications of, 316
Wise Men's consideration of, 376, 377
Withdrawal option, 377

Wilson's correspondence with, 64, 65, 66, 67, 70, 74
Wise Men meetings, 376, 377, 382, 393

Johnson, Tom, 76, 238, 239, 240, 244, 270, 300, 364, 390, 420, 428
Johnson, U. Alexis, 100, 407
Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS), 30, 110

Bombing of DRV:

McGeorge Bundy's assessment of, 157
Cessation of bombing, terms for, 90
Effectiveness of, 439
Limitation to areas below 20th parallel, 187
Logistical base, 194, 372
Objectives of, 194
Pause in bombing for Tet, 47
Target selection, 25, 317

Diplomatic efforts toward settlement in Vietnam, 90, 184, 227
JASON report on bombing of DRV, 439
Military program in Vietnam:

Acceleration of activities, 357
Anti-infiltration initiatives, 121, 313
Ceasefires for 1967-68 holidays, 396, 404, 418, 436
Defeat-related concerns, 309
Draft Presidential Memorandum, 187
JCS and State Department recommendations, comparison of, 408
Laos, proposed incursions into, 409
120 Day Program proposal, 418
Operation York II, 418

Negotiation issue, 90
Troop augmentation by U.S.:
JCS position, 141, 177, 186
Westmoreland's defense of his request, 149

Jones, James "Jim," 124, 205, 225, 226, 287, 305, 317, 377, 386
Jorden, William J., 14, 106, 144, 164, 185, 197, 212, 266, 272, 295, 296, 300, 304, 350, 356

Kaiser, Philip, 80
Kaplan, Harold, 300, 348
Katzenbach, Nicholas deB. (see also McNamara mission to Vietnam), 8, 20, 38, 47, 57, 76, 81, 83, 147, 149, 154, 156, 162, 170, 193, 205, 209, 213, 214, 216, 222, 241, 253, 269, 270, 278, 301, 318, 327, 335, 367, 372, 396, 405, 421, 423, 447

Bombing of DRV:

McGeorge Bundy's recommendations, 354
Katzenbach, Nicholas deB.-Continued
Bombing of DRV-Continued
Cessation of bombing in exchange for halt in Soviet military deliveries to DRV, proposed, 268
Effectiveness of, 236
Expanded strikes of April, 139
Pennsylvania peace initiative and, 336, 337

Buttercup peace initiative, 414, 432
Civil Operations and Revolutionary Development program, 395
Diplomatic efforts toward settlement in Vietnam, 152, 184, 319, 395, 401
Free World forces in Vietnam, augmentation of, 244
Lodge's successor, selection of, 37
Pennsylvania peace initiative, 277, 333, 336, 337, 357

Presidential election in RVN:

Fairness and honesty concerns, 236
Run-off issue, 148
Thanh's possible candidacy, 249
Validation of results, 242

Press coverage of Vietnam, 238
Republic of Vietnam economic situation, 395
Sunflower peace initiative, 333
Thieu-Ky government, inauguration of, 331
Thieu-Ky presidential candidacy conflict:

Dual candidacies, consequences of, 196
Resolution of conflict, U.S. demands for, 219, 225
U.S. covert support for Ky, proposed, 224

U.S. information programs, 336
U.S. policy on Vietnam:

Objective of policy, proposed change in, 401
Planning for 1968, 395
"Prognosis for Vietnam" report, 374
RVN's increased responsibility, 401
Wise Men, 377

Kaul, T. N., 4, 14
Kennan, George, 377
Kennedy, Edward M., 341
Kennedy, Jacqueline, 292, 414
Kennedy, Robert F., 7, 38, 44, 55, 83, 96, 101, 105, 122, 124
Khang. See Le Nguyen Khang, Gen.
Khanh. See Nguyen Khanh.
Kieu. See Nguyen Van Kieu.
Kilpatrick, James J., 287
Kinh, Amb., 8
Kirbow, Charles, 287
Kissinger, Henry A., 227

Administration assessments of, 317
Pennsylvania peace initiative:

Administration discussions, 267, 346, 357
Bombing of DRV and, 290, 310, 322, 324, 327
DRV conditions for talks, 315
DRV messages to U.S., 343
Instructions for Kissinger, 272, 277, 307, 318, 323, 333, 358
Katzenbach's assessment of, 337
Kissinger-Bo meeting, proposed, 307, 310, 322, 324, 326, 329, 334, 340, 349
Kissinger's meetings with Marcovich and Aubrac, 286, 359, 360, 362
Marcovich-Aubrac meetings with DRV officials, 263, 293, 310, 324, 326, 329, 334, 341, 349
Re-opening of contacts, possible, 420
Secrecy concerns, 315, 333, 420
Termination of, 362
U.S. messages to DRV, 318, 321, 322, 329, 349

Kistiakowsky, George, 313
Knight, John, 317
Kohler, Foy D., 8, 34, 46, 76, 85, 121, 133, 170, 174, 259, 335, 417, 424
Komer, Robert W., 6, 100, 149, 171, 190, 230, 232, 238, 302, 328

Army of the Republic of Vietnam, 131
Bombing of DRV, 234
Civil Operations and Revolutionary Development program:

Anti-corruption program, 258
Infrastructure Intelligence Coordination and Exploitation Program, 199, 254, 409, 446
Komer's assignment to, 94, 97
Komer's relationship with Westmoreland, 119
Personnel requirements, 409
Progress in, 234
RVN's lead officer, 342
Security for RD teams, 135
Takeoff program, 199, 280
Unified management of integrated civil/military effort, 150, 167, 192

Communist insurgency:
Order of battle estimates, 208, 234, 297, 314, 325, 370
Strategy of, 347
Guam Conference, 115, 116, 119

Military program in Vietnam:

Acceleration of activities, 347
Cambodia, proposed incursions into, 347
Ceasefires for 1967-68 holidays, 409
Laos, proposed incursions into, 234, 347
NLF, proposed focus on, 147
Progress in, 91, 208, 234, 347
Westmoreland's replacement with Abrams, consideration of, 347

Presidential election in RVN, 30, 274
Republic of Vietnam:

Foreign exchange issue, 114
Land reform, 116
Thieu-Ky presidential candidacy conflict, 143, 189
Troop augmentation by U.S., 147, 159, 189

U.S. Mission in Vietnam:

Lodge's resignation as Ambassador, 86
Lodge's successor, selection of, 13, 37
Personnel for Bunker's team, 119, 150
U.S. policy on Vietnam, 24, 91
Visit to Vietnam (Feb.), 91

Korea, Republic of, 197, 269, 270
Koren, Henry L. T., 135
Kosygin, Alexei N., 15, 34, 128, 137, 236, 364, 420, 425

Johnson's correspondence with, 175, 179
Soviet-U.S. discussions re Vietnam, 85
Johnson-Kosygin Summit, 206, 207, 216, 217
Sunflower peace initiative, 85
Soviet-U.K. effort to facilitate U.S.-DRV talks, 39, 40, 41, 46, 48, 49, 50, 51, 53, 55, 58, 59, 64, 65, 68, 80

Kraft, Joseph, 313, 355
Kramer, Barry, 422
Kraslow, David, 420
Krimer, William D., 216
Krulak, Lt. Gen. Victor H., 6
Kuchel, Thomas, 341
Ky. See Nguyen Cao Ky, Air Vice Marshal.

La Pira, Giorgio, 27
Laise, Carol, 138
Lam (RVN), 445, 448
Lam, Gen. See Hoang Xuan Lam, Gen.
Lam, Maj., 132
Lansdale, Edward G., 12, 119, 138, 232, 258, 302, 320
Laos, 49, 51, 130

U.S. military overflights, 420
U.S.-RVN incursions into, proposed, 149, 154, 215, 234, 237, 317, 347, 403, 404, 408, 409, 428

Lapham, 398
Larmon, Sigard, 386
Larson, Gen., 192, 287, 317
Le Chang, 8, 16, 18, 29, 33, 36, 40, 81
Le Nguyen Khang, Gen., 145, 196, 332, 342
Le Phuoc Sang, 192, 338, 342
Le Quang Liem, 338
Le Tung Son, 98
Lee Kuan Yew, 355
LeMay, Gen. Curtis, 157
Leonhart, William, 159, 167, 238, 301, 374, 409
Lewandowsky, Januscz, 7
Lilienthal, David, 91, 92, 115, 430
Lincoln, Abraham, 127
Linh Quang Vien, Gen., 145, 338
Lippmann, Walter, 157, 354
Loan. See Ngo Minh Loan; Nguyen Ngoc Loan, Gen.
Loc. See Nguyen Van Loc; Vinh Loc, Gen.
Locke, Eugene, 97, 115, 158, 166, 189, 190, 192, 197, 209, 210, 223, 232, 234, 238, 274, 296, 302, 317, 342, 389, 398, 406, 412, 413, 415
Lodge, Henry Cabot, 27, 100

Army of the Republic of Vietnam, 45, 103, 104
Bombing of DRV, 75
Civil Operations and Revolutionary Development program, 30, 103, 377
Communist insurgency, 103, 104
Diplomatic efforts toward settlement in Vietnam, 7, 112, 133
Farewell call on Ky, 146
Guam Conference, 106, 115, 116
Military program in Vietnam, 44, 121, 377, 393
National Liberation Front, recruitment by, 104
Postwar planning, 92
Presidential election in RVN, 294, 305

"American candidate" issue, 132
DRV, effect on, 92
Guam Conference discussions, 116
Laws re, 129
Major presidential slates, 21
Military-civilian balance among candidates, 125, 126, 129
Minh's possible candidacy, 132
Organization by candidates, importance of, 134
Scheduling of, 104
Security for candidates, 129, 132
U.S. involvement issue, 92
U.S. objectives re, 99

Republic of Vietnam:

Civil-military coupling in government, 44
Constitution-making, 21, 45, 92, 116, 120, 129
Demonstrations against "false peace," 93
Elections for local offices, 92
Foreign exchange issue, 114
Military's role in government, 92, 102
National Reconciliation program, 92
Negotiations, position on, 109
NLF participation in government issue, 44, 92

Sunflower peace initiative, 52, 75
Thieu-Ky presidential candidacy conflict:

Coup, potential for, 145
Generals' attitude toward, 138, 145
Ky's views, 118
Resolution of conflict, U.S. demands for, 138, 143

U.S. information programs, 377
U.S. Mission in Vietnam:

Lodge's resignation as Ambassador, 86
Lodge's successor, selection of, 13
Personnel for Bunker's team, 119

U.S. policy on Vietnam, 13, 86
Wise Men meetings, 377, 382

Long, Russell, 364
Loory, Stuart, 420
Lucet, Charles E., 317
Lucey, Archbishop, 287
Lyng, John, 201

MacDonald, Donald, 116, 288
Macovescu, Gheorghe, 411
Mahon, George, 364, 390
Mai Thi Vang, 429, 432, 437, 438, 449, 452
Mai Tho Truyen, 256
Mai Van Bo, 3, 7, 14, 20, 227

Diplomatic efforts toward settlement in Vietnam, 38, 214, 248
Pennsylvania peace initiative:

Bombing of DRV and, 324
DRV conditions for talks, 315
DRV messages to U.S., 343
Katzenbach's assessment of, 337
Kissinger-Bo meeting, proposed, 307, 310, 322, 324, 326, 329, 334, 340, 349
Marcovich-Aubrac meetings with DRV officials, 263, 293, 310, 324, 326, 329, 334, 341, 343, 349, 357, 362
U.S. messages to DRV, 322, 329, 349

Thieu, attitude toward, 329

Malaysia, 113, 390
Male, Ray, 159
Manac'h, Etienne, 38, 83, 248
Manatos, Mike, 364
Mankiewicz, Frank, 124
Mansfield, Mike, 96, 273, 331, 341, 442

Bombing of DRV, 364
Congressional debates, 336, 341
Congressional hearings, Rusk's refusal to testify at, 431
Congressional resolution, 94
Diplomatic efforts toward settlement in Vietnam:

Chinese-U.S. discussions, proposed, 151, 152
UN resolutions, 151, 152
UN Security Council initiative, proposed, 311, 319, 373

Humphrey's Vietnam visit, 390
Johnson's relationship with, 151
Lodge's successor, selection of, 94
Military's anti-infiltration initiatives, 151
Sunflower peace initiative, 19

Mantle, Mickey, 111
Mao Tse Tung, 2, 153
Marcovich, Herbert, 263, 286, 293, 310, 315, 322, 324, 326, 329, 333, 334, 337, 341, 343, 349, 357, 359, 360, 362, 420
Marigold peace initiative, 4, 7, 15, 117, 317
Marks, Leonard, 119, 240, 287
Marshall, Gen. George C., 130, 377
Martin, Everett, 342
Martin, Paul J., 4, 133, 204, 227, 339, 377, 421, 434
Matthews, H. Freeman, 269
Maurer, Ion Gheorghe, 357, 380, 411
McCarthy, Eugene, 355
McCarthy, Richard, 346
McChristian, Maj. Gen. Joseph A., 325
McCloskey, Robert, 7
McCloy, John, 433
McConnell, Gen. John P., 294, 309, 313, 317, 420
McCormack, John, 291
McCormack, Thomas, 364
McCullough, Frank, 132
McEwen, John, 442
McGee, Gale, 377, 428
McGrory, Mary, 83
McMahon, William, 341
McNamara, Robert S. (see also McNamara mission to Vietnam), 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 19, 24, 37, 87, 88, 90, 96, 108, 115, 147, 149, 154, 156, 157, 174, 180, 189, 193, 203, 209, 225, 244, 253, 262, 269, 318, 384, 386, 400

Army of the Republic of Vietnam, 236
Bombing of DRV:

Administration briefings for Congressional leadership, 364
Chinese border buffer zone, 283
Civilian casualties, 84, 409
Congressional investigations re, 287
Effectiveness of, 26, 181, 236, 238, 341, 439
Hanoi power station, 173
Impediment to peace efforts, 105
Limitation to areas below 20th parallel, 169, 186, 194, 231
Logistical base, 175, 194
NSC discussions, 43
Objectives of, 84, 194
Pause in bombing for Tet, 47, 54, 62, 77, 78
Pennsylvania peace initiative and, 290, 292
Phuc Yen airfield, 294, 336, 355, 363
Port facilities, 305, 317
Scenario to mollify all U.S. officials, 176
Target selection, 25, 83, 84, 247, 287, 305, 317, 346
U.S. aircraft losses, 331, 355, 409

Buttercup peace initiative, 383, 389, 406, 409, 413, 420, 429, 432, 437, 438, 449, 452
Cambodian sanctuaries, 409
Civil Operations and Revolutionary Development program:

Communist organization, attack on, 257
COMUSMACV charged with responsibility for, 167
Infrastructure Intelligence Coordination and Exploitation Program, 409
Personnel requirements, 409

Diplomatic efforts toward settlement in Vietnam:

DRV-RVN contacts, 236
Kennedy peace proposal, 105
Publicity re secret initiatives, 420
RVN-NLF contacts, 330
UN Security Council initiative, proposed, 319, 428

Free World forces in Vietnam, 409

Augmentation of, 238, 240, 317, 341
Congressional resolution on, 346
Summit of troop-contributing nations, proposed, 353

Humphrey's Vietnam visit, 390
JASON report on bombing of DRV, 439
Johnson re-election bid issue, 341
Military program in Vietnam:

Acceleration of activities, 357
Air support for ground troops, 305
Anti-infiltration initiatives, 121, 313, 331, 377
Body counts, 409
Cambodia, proposed incursions into, 428
DMZ redeployment, 341
Draft Presidential Memorandum, 161, 177, 194
Equipment situation, 409
Haiphong mining option, 84, 105, 330
Laos, proposed incursions into, 428
McNamara's criticism of Westmoreland's management, 239
120 Day Program proposal, 418
Reserves call-up issue, 177, 186, 363
Stabilization and bombing stand down proposal, 375
"Stalemate" issue, 275
"War that can't be won" issue, 238

National Liberation Front surrender issue, 330
Negotiations between NLF and RVN, necessity of, 228
Pennsylvania peace initiative, 317, 336, 346, 353, 357

Bombing of DRV and, 290, 292
Instructions for Kissinger, 307
McNamara's assessment of, 330
U.S. messages to DRV, 348
U.S. public statements re, 355
Presidential election in RVN, 236, 287
Press coverage of Vietnam, 238, 240

Republic of Vietnam:

Foreign exchange issue, 236
NLF participation in government, 292, 305
U.S. support for political groups, 288

Resignation, 375
Rusk's position on Vietnam, criticism of, 228
Sunflower peace initiative, 57, 71, 76, 77, 79
Thieu-Ky government, 228
Thieu-Ky presidential candidacy conflict, 143
Troop augmentation by U.S.:

Ceiling on deployments, agreement re, 233
Enthoven's position, 155
JCS position, 141, 177, 186
Johnson's decision re, 240
McNamara's recommendation for smaller increase, 161, 186, 238
Publicity re, 240, 248
Vietnamese manpower utilization and, 160
Westmoreland-Sharp request, 177

U.S. domestic situation, 177, 341, 363
U.S. information programs, 240
U.S. Mission in Vietnam, 13, 97, 119
U.S. policy in Vietnam:

"Blueprint for Vietnam" study, 296
Credibility problems of U.S. officials, 352
Ending war in 1967, McNamara's focus on, 105
Funding for, 26

Wise Men, 376, 377

McNamara mission to Vietnam, 210, 213, 220

Briefing for Johnson, 238
Meetings in Vietnam, 233, 236, 237

McNaughton, John T., 7, 20, 115, 121, 131, 133, 161, 162, 169, 177, 227
McPherson, Harry C., Jr., 185, 189, 192, 197, 238, 291, 352, 364, 431
Meehan, Francis J., 285
Meeker, Leonard, 188
Menzies, Sir Robert, 336, 341
Michalowski, Jerzy, 9
Middle East crisis, 195
Military program in Vietnam (see also Bombing of DRV; Free World forces in Vietnam; Prisoners of war; Troop augmentation by U.S.):

Acceleration of activities, 83, 84, 347, 357, 400
Acheson's views, 433
Air support for ground troops, 305, 409
Anti-infiltration initiatives, 115, 116, 121, 151, 215, 313, 331, 377
Body counts, 197, 400, 409
Cambodia, proposed incursions into, 149, 154, 347, 403, 404, 408, 428, 436
Military program in Vietnam-Continued
Ceasefires for 1967-68 holidays, 391, 396, 404, 409, 412, 415, 418, 419, 436, 442, 445, 446, 447, 448
Civilian casualties, 44, 116
Dak To fighting, 400
Defeat-related concerns, 309
DMZ redeployment, 341, 344
Draft Presidential Memorandum, 161, 187, 194, 177
Eisenhower's views on, 130
Equipment situation, 238, 409
Ground action against DRV option, 154
Guam Conference discussions, 116
Haiphong mining option, 83, 84, 105, 154, 330
In-place teams, 350
Intelligence collection activities, 350
JCS and State Department recommendations, comparison of, 408
Johnson's visible command of campaign, proposed, 393
Johnson's visit with troops, 442
Laos, military overflights of, 420
Laos, proposed incursions into, 149, 154, 215, 234, 237, 317, 347, 403, 404, 408, 409, 428
Low manpower programs, emphasis on, 6
McNamara's criticism of Westmoreland's management, 239
Naval operations, 350
NLF, proposed focus on, 147
120 Day Program proposal, 418, 426
Operation Hickory, 176
Operation Junction City, 104, 116, 130
Operation Shenandoah, 355
Operation York II, 418
Order of battle estimates re Communist insurgency. See under Communist insurgency.
Press coverage of combat missions, 386
Progress in, 30, 91, 116, 177, 192, 208, 234, 238, 256, 287, 347
Reserves call-up issue, 154, 177, 186, 363
Stabilization and bombing stand down proposal:

McGeorge Bundy's position, 385
Bunker's position, 410
Clifford's position, 388
Fortas' position, 387
Johnson's decision re, 441
McNamara's draft for Johnson, 375
Rostow's position, 378
Rusk's position, 403
Taylor's position, 381
Westmoreland's position, 404

"Stalemate" issue, 275, 287
"Stick-it-out" scenario, 381
Vietnamese attitude toward U.S. presence, 44
"War that can't be won" issue, 238
"War zone" tactic, 197
Westmoreland's concept of, 416
Westmoreland's replacement by Abrams, consideration of, 347
Westmoreland's vision for 1967, 28
Wise Men's views, 377

Miller, Jack, 287
Miller, Robert H., 21, 99, 196, 300, 301, 402
Minh. See Duong Van Minh, Gen.
Minh, Gen., 332
Momyer, Gen. William H., 116, 275, 287
Monnet, Jean, 430
Montagnards, 158, 264
Montague, Robert, 342
Moor, Dean, 325
Moorer, Adm. Thomas H., 309
Morse, Wayne, 96, 152, 373, 431
Morton, Thruston B., 344
Moss, John, 364
Moyers, Bill, 274
Murphy, Robert, 83, 376, 377, 382, 393
Murray, Don, 41, 46, 49, 63
Murtopo, Col. Ali, 227
Muskie, Edmund, 124, 336

Nakayama, Amb., 419
Narasimhan, 123
National Liberation Front (NLF) (see also Buttercup peace initiative; Communist insurgency):

Appeal for Vietnamese peasants, 197
Bunker fortifications, 197
Defections from, 197
Diplomatic efforts toward settlement in Vietnam:

Khanh's initiative with NLF, 407
NLF-U.S. contacts, 7, 435, 436
RVN-NLF contacts, 133, 185, 330, 395, 401

Elections, pledge re, 299
Military program in Vietnam, NLF as focus of, 147
Negotiation issue:

NLF-RVN negotiations, necessity of, 228
Soviet insistence on NLF participation, 364

Presidential election in RVN, reaction to, 264
Recruitment by, 104, 197
RVN government, NLF participation issue, 44, 92, 292, 305, 306, 444
Surrender issue, 330
UN talks on Vietnam, NLF participation in, 435

National Security Action Memoranda:

No. 328, 89
No. 362, 167

National Security Council (NSC):

568th meeting, 43
575th meeting, 319
578th meeting, 390
Special Committee, 193

Ne Win, 5, 377
Negotiation issue (see also Diplomatic efforts toward settlement in Vietnam):

Acheson's views, 433
Administration discussions with Congressional leaders, 23
McGeorge Bundy's position, 393
William Bundy's position, 154
Cessation of bombing, consequences of, 351
DRV attitude toward negotiations, 177
DRV conditions for talks, 29, 35, 82, 201, 214, 216, 248, 329, 451
DRV reassessment of policy, possible, 227, 248, 252
Forms of negotiation, U.S. internal debate re, 87
Guam Conference discussions, 109
Military operations during negotiations, 90
Negotiation issue-Continued
NLF-RVN negotiations, necessity of, 228
RVN position, 109
Soviet insistence on NLF participation, 364
Soviet perspective on U.S. policy re negotiations, 85
Troop augmentation by U.S. and, 221
U.S. allies' role in negotiations, 90
U.S. public relations re, 1, 90, 111, 113
Wise Men's views, 377, 380, 393

Negotiations Committee, 34, 133, 267, 272
New Zealand, 269, 270
Ngo Dinh Nhu, 302
Ngo Minh Loan, 201, 276, 287, 330
Nguyen Bao Tri, Gen., 163, 195, 232, 266, 332, 342
Nguyen Be, Maj., 197
Nguyen Cao Ky, Air Vice Marshal (see also Thieu-Ky campaign; Thieu-Ky government; Thieu-Ky presidential candidacy conflict), 44, 100, 158

Army of the Republic of Vietnam:

Corruption problem, 295
Co's removal, 12
I Corps situation, 144
Incompetence problem, 195
Leadership changes, 328
Local populations, relations with, 104
Maximum use of manpower, 255
Mobilization for, 210
Popular Forces and Regional Forces, 237

Bombing pause for Tet, 75
Buttercup peace initiative, 437
Ceasefires for 1967-68 holidays, 391, 396
Civil Operations and Revolutionary Development program:

Province Chiefs' role, 237
Takeoff program, 280

Clifford-Taylor mission, 255, 256, 270
Communist insurgency, intelligence information on, 104
Congress (U.S.), letter to, 291
Diplomatic efforts toward settlement in Vietnam:

DRV-RVN contacts, 243, 361, 365
RVN-NLF contacts, 185

Guam Conference, 106, 115
Johnson's communications with, 144, 284
Johnson's meetings with, 115
Lodge's farewell call, 146
McNamara mission to Vietnam, 236
McPherson's assessment of, 197
National Liberation Front, recruitment by, 104
Presidential election in RVN:

Censorship concerns, 192, 195, 198
Demonstrations and protests, 264
DRV, effect on, 92, 146
Fairness and honesty concerns, 186
Fraud allegations, 320
Government harassment of opposition candidates, 205, 212, 213, 295
Guam Conference discussions, 115, 116
International observers, 243
Johnson's letter to Thieu and Ky re, 284
Ky-Huong cooperation, 186, 195, 197, 198
Ky's defense of electoral process to U.S. critics, 291
Ky's prediction for outcome, 295
Laws re, 129
Loan's involvement on Ky's behalf, 195, 197, 198, 209, 211, 218
Loan's removal, proposal for, 213
Military-civilian balance among candidates, 129, 171
Military president, need for, 12
Military's non-participation, 210
Organization by candidates, importance of, 134
Public relations re, 280
Run-off issue, 195
Scheduling of, 104, 195
Security for candidates, 129
30 "introductions" requirement, 192, 195
Validation of results, 320, 338, 342

Republic of Vietnam:

Constitution-making, 12, 115, 120, 129
Corruption in government, 104, 185, 197
Demonstrations against "false peace," 93
Directorate-Assembly conflict, 195
Economic situation, 391
Elections for local offices, 92
Foreign exchange issue, 114
Land reform, 115
Military's role in government, 279

Sunflower peace initiative, 52, 75
Suu, assessment of, 134
Thieu's relationship with, 232, 235, 241, 260, 302, 328, 332

Nguyen Chi Thanh, 2, 248
Nguyen Duc Thang, Gen., 103, 119, 132, 138, 145, 163, 186, 195, 197, 202, 226, 230, 232, 266, 280, 302, 328, 332, 342, 446
Nguyen Duy Trinh, 29, 36, 227, 362, 411, 451
Nguyen Hoa Hiep, 320
Nguyen Huu Co, Gen., 12, 31
Nguyen Huu Hanh, 114, 115, 119, 338, 391
Nguyen Huu Tho, 93
Nguyen Khanh, 100, 407
Nguyen Luu Vien, 100, 304, 338
Nguyen Ngoc Loan, Gen., 31, 129, 145, 164, 166, 232, 251, 266, 288

Buttercup peace initiative, 383, 389, 406, 413, 422, 423, 429, 432, 437
Presidential election in RVN:

Involvement of on Ky's behalf, 195, 197, 198, 202, 205, 209, 211, 218
Removal of, proposal for, 205, 209, 211, 212, 213

Thieu-Ky campaign, 237
Thieu-Ky presidential candidacy conflict, 178

Nguyen Thien Nhon, 338
Nguyen Van Huong, 422
Nguyen Van Kieu, 190, 192, 195, 302, 398
Nguyen Van Loc, 222, 320, 332, 338, 342, 391, 415, 432, 436
Nguyen Van Thieu, Lt. Gen. (see also Thieu-Ky campaign; Thieu-Ky government; Thieu-Ky presidential candidacy conflict), 42, 100, 158

Army of the Republic of Vietnam:

Civil Operations and Revolutionary Development program, 103
Local populations, relations with, 103
Maximum use of manpower, 255
Mobilization for, 210, 419
Reorganization of, 21

Bo's attitude toward, 329
Buttercup peace initiative:

Political aspects, 389
Press leaks re, 429
Prisoner exchanges, 383, 405, 406, 429, 432, 437
Thieu informed of, 371, 383, 389

Civil Operations and Revolutionary Development program:

ARVN involvement, 103
Infrastructure Intelligence Coordination and Exploitation Program, 446
Takeoff program, 280
Thieu's chain of command, 302

Clifford-Taylor mission, 255, 256, 270, 285
Communist terrorism and assassinations, 103
Diplomatic efforts toward settlement in Vietnam:

DRV-RVN contacts, 236, 304, 356, 361, 365, 367, 379, 402, 415, 419, 442
NLF-U.S. contacts, 435
UN Security Council initiative, proposed, 392, 419, 435

Free World forces in Vietnam, 436
Guam Conference, 106, 115
Johnson's communications with, 284, 285, 303, 405
Johnson's meetings with, 115, 442, 446
Ky's relationship with, 232, 235, 241, 260, 302, 328, 332
McNamara mission to Vietnam, 236
Military program in Vietnam:

Cambodia, proposed incursions into, 436
Ceasefires for 1967-68 holidays, 396, 412, 415, 419, 445, 448
Civilian casualties, 44
Vietnamese attitude toward U.S. presence, 44

Negotiation issue, 109, 451
Pennsylvania peace initiative, 365
Presidential election in RVN, 197

"American candidate" issue, 132
Censorship concerns, 192
Demonstrations and protests, 264
Fairness and honesty concerns, 236, 256
Government harassment of opposition candidates, 302
Johnson's letter to Thieu and Ky re, 284
Loan's involvement on Ky's behalf, 202, 209
Loan's removal, proposal for, 213
Major presidential slates, 21
Military's non-participation, 210
Minh's possible candidacy, 132
Public relations re, 280
Scheduling of, 192
Security for candidates, 132
30 "introductions" requirement, 192
Validation of results, 338, 342

Republic of Vietnam:

Buddhist dissidents, 302
Civil-military coupling in government, 44
Constitution-making, 21, 45, 120
Corruption in government, 338
Elections for House, 342
Land reform, 419
Military's role in government, 92
Montagnard policy, 264
National Reconciliation program, 92, 264
NLF participation in government issue, 44
Provincial administration, restructuring of, 419

UN talks on Vietnam, NLF participation in, 435
U.S. Embassy Chancery dedication, 342
U.S. funding for political groups, 288, 398

Nguyen Van Tuong, 338
Nguyen Van Vy, Gen., 332, 412, 436
Nhuyen Dinh Dhuong, 33
Nikezic, Marko, 357
Nitze, Paul, 154, 187, 194, 262, 268, 270, 294, 395, 424, 447
Nixon, Richard M., 134, 409
Norstad, Gen. Lauris, 157, 377
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), 113
Norway, 201, 276, 287, 330
Noyes, Crosby, 83

O'Brien, Lawrence, 124
Oehlert, Benjamin, 411
Ohio peace initiative, 201, 276, 287, 330
Olds, Col. Robin, 377
O'Neill, Thomas P., Jr., 341
Operations, military. See under Military program in Vietnam.
Order of battle estimates. See under Communist insurgency.

Pace, Frank, 83
Pacem in Terris conference, 20, 174, 214
Pacification program. See Civil Operations and Revolutionary Development program.
Packers peace initiative, 411
Palliser, Michael, 41
Park, Chung Hee, 270
Paul VI, Pope, 4, 27, 42, 140, 442, 445, 447, 448
Peace Corps, 157
Peace initiatives. See Diplomatic efforts toward settlement in Vietnam.
Pearson, Lester, 140
Pederson, Richard, 123
Pell, Claiborne, 214, 227
Pennsylvania peace initiative:

Administration discussions, 267, 317, 336, 341, 346, 348, 353, 355, 357, 363
Bombing of DRV and, 290, 292, 310, 322, 323, 324, 327, 336, 337, 339
DRV conditions for talks, 315
DRV messages to U.S., 343, 346, 357
Instructions for Kissinger, 272, 277, 307, 318, 323, 333, 358
Intelligence reports on, 276, 308
Katzenbach's assessment of, 337
Kissinger-Bo meeting, proposed, 307, 310, 322, 324, 326, 329, 334, 340, 349
Kissinger's meetings with Marcovich and Aubrac, 286, 359, 360, 362
Lessons of, 363
Marcovich-Aubrac meetings with DRV officials, 263, 293, 310, 324, 326, 329, 334, 341, 343, 349, 357, 362
McNamara's assessment of, 330
Re-opening of contacts, possible, 420
Pennsylvania peace initiative-Continued
San Antonio formula for peace, 340, 348
Secrecy concerns, 315, 333, 420
Termination of, 362
Thieu informed of, 365
U.S. messages to DRV, 318, 321, 322, 329, 348, 349
U.S. public statements re, 355, 363

Percy, Charles, 346, 436
Pham Binh, 227
Pham Thi Yen, 341
Pham Truong Chinh, Brig. Gen., 195, 328
Pham Van Dong, 3, 5, 14, 216, 329, 362, 364

Pennsylvania peace initiative, 263, 277
Romanian-DRV discussions (Packers initiative), 411

Pham Van Lieu, Col., 302
Phan Khac Suu, 21, 45, 116, 126, 129, 182, 185, 237, 256, 264, 303, 320, 332

Ky's assessment of, 134

Phan Quang Dan, 21, 256, 304
Phan Quang Don, 116
Philippine Civic Action Group, 197
Philippines, 113
Phoenix program. See Infrastructure Intelligence Coordination and Exploitation Program.
Poats, Rutherford, 114
Poland, 9
Porter, William J., 12, 13, 30, 94, 119, 131, 158
Presidential election in RVN (see also Thieu-Ky campaign; Thieu-Ky presidential candidacy conflict):

"American candidate" issue, 132
Campaigning by candidates, 264
Censorship concerns, 192, 195, 198, 256
Certification of candidates, 246
Civilian candidates, 229, 237
Civil Operations and Revolutionary Development program and, 215
Common declaration of intent by candidates, 190
Demonstrations and protests, 264
Diem's assessment of, 266
DRV, effect on, 92, 146
Dzu's candidacy, 305
Presidential election in RVN-Continued
Fairness and honesty concerns, 186, 236, 237, 256, 265
Favorable effects, 299
Fraud allegations, 320, 336
Government harassment of opposition candidates, 205, 212, 213, 274, 280, 295, 302
Guam Conference discussions, 115, 116
Intelligence reports on, 136, 271
International implications, 285
International observers, 190, 243, 256, 283, 287, 294, 303, 305
Johnson's letter to Thieu and Ky re, 284
Jorden's views on U.S. role, 212
Ky-Huong cooperation, 186, 195, 197, 198
Ky's defense of electoral process to U.S. critics, 291
Ky's prediction for outcome, 295
Laws re, 129, 148, 158, 192
Loan's involvement on Ky's behalf, 195, 197, 198, 202, 205, 209, 211, 218
Loan's removal, proposal for, 205, 209, 211, 212, 213
Major presidential slates, 21, 256
McPherson's assessment of, 197
Military-civilian balance among candidates, 125, 126, 129, 171, 182
Military president, need for, 12
Military's non-participation, 163, 164, 166, 171, 205, 210, 223
Minh's possible candidacy, 132, 223, 226, 237, 243, 246
Minh's support for Huong, 264
NLF reaction, 264
Organization by candidates, importance of, 134
Press coverage, 256, 274, 287, 305, 320
Public relations re, 280
Results of, 303
Run-off issue, 148, 195
Scheduling of, 104, 120, 192, 195
Security for candidates, 129, 132
Summit of Vietnam allies and, 247
Thanh's possible candidacy, 237, 246, 249
30 "introductions" requirement, 192, 195
U.S. covert financial support for Huong, proposed, 281, 282, 289
U.S. covert involvement, 242, 281, 282
U.S. inadvertent involvement in partisan political trips, 191
U.S. involvement issue, 21, 30, 92
U.S. objectives re, 99, 205
Validation of results, 320, 332, 338, 342

President's Foreign Intelligence Advisory Board (PFIAB), 204
Press coverage of Vietnam, 238, 240

Army of the Republic of Vietnam, 256
Body counts, 409
Buddhist dissidents, 342
Buttercup peace initiative, 422, 423, 429
Combat missions, 386
Presidential election in RVN, 256, 274, 287, 305, 320

Primrose peace initiative, 14
Prisoners of war (see also Prisoner exchanges under Buttercup peace initiative), 201, 281, 406, 450
Puritano, Vincent, 135

Quintanilla, Luis, 20

Rapacki, Adam, 4, 7
Read, Benjamin H., 7, 8, 14, 17, 32, 40, 50, 53, 56, 57, 59, 60, 61, 69, 106, 107, 108, 127, 133, 143, 188, 214, 218, 224, 235, 241, 242, 259, 265, 267, 269, 282, 289, 307, 318, 323, 327, 335, 337, 341, 343, 349, 357, 358, 367, 396, 447
Ready, Adm., 314
Reagan, Ronald, 329, 354
Reinhardt, G. Frederick, 27
Republic of Vietnam (RVN) (see also Army of the Republic of Vietnam; Buttercup peace initiative; Presidential election in RVN; Thieu-Ky government):

Buddhist dissidents, 302, 342
Civil-military coupling in government, 44
Constitution-making, 12, 21, 45, 92, 115, 116, 120, 129
Corruption in government, 104, 185, 197, 258, 338, 342
Demonstrations against "false peace," 93, 106
Diplomatic efforts toward settlement in Vietnam:

DRV-RVN contacts, 236, 243, 304, 356, 361, 365, 367, 379, 402, 415, 419, 442
NLF-U.S. contacts, 435, 436
RVN-NLF contacts, 133, 185, 330, 395, 401
Thant peace proposal, 112

Directorate-Assembly conflict, 195
Dzu's arrest, 332
Economic situation, 30, 391, 395
Elections for House, 342
U.S. covert involvement, 335
Elections for local offices, 92, 158, 256
Electoral laws, 129
Foreign exchange issue, 114, 236
Government-in-exile, 93
Land reform, 115, 116, 419
Military's role in government, 92, 100, 102, 264, 279
Montagnard policy, 158, 264
National Reconciliation program, 92, 115, 264
National unity government, proposed, 205
Negotiation issue, 109, 228
NLF participation in government issue, 44, 92, 292, 305, 306, 444
Political manipulation by U.S., 254
Political offensive against NLF, 299
Political situation, 30, 171, 197, 391
Provincial administration, restructuring of, 419
Security problem, 197
U.S. support for labor, veterans, students, media, 89, 288

Republic of Vietnam Armed Forces (RVNAF). See Army of the Republic of Vietnam.
Resnick, 287
Reston, James "Scotty," 346, 355, 377
Rhodes, 287
Ribicoff, Abraham, 124
Rice, Edward, 153, 169
Riesle, Victor, 341
Ritchie, C. S. A., 4
Rivers, L. Mendel, 239, 348, 354
Roberts, Chal, 420
Roche, John P., 12, 31, 117, 226
Rockefeller, Nelson, 348
Rolling Thunder. See Bombing of DRV.
Romania, 411
Romney, George, 84, 287, 409
Ronning, Chester, 96
Ross, Arthur M., 238
Rostow, Eugene V., 7, 85, 88, 108, 165, 175, 193, 259, 267, 272
Rostow, Walt W., 1, 4, 8, 9, 12, 24, 30, 32, 34, 37, 40, 44, 50, 60, 64, 84, 87, 91, 100, 106, 108, 116, 118, 137, 144, 146, 149, 156, 158, 163, 171, 172, 174, 175, 178, 185, 186, 192, 202, 205, 209, 213, 215, 216, 218, 219, 220, 222, 223, 225, 226, 229, 230, 237, 238, 241, 253, 254, 256, 264, 265, 269, 270, 283, 298, 299, 306, 308, 309, 318, 320, 327, 331, 332, 334, 342, 351, 354, 355, 358, 359, 360, 364, 365, 366, 373, 379, 381, 386, 391, 393, 395, 401, 415, 426, 427, 428, 444, 447
Bombing of DRV:

Advisers for Johnson re, 22
Cessation of in exchange for halt in Soviet military deliveries to DRV, proposed, 268, 275
Effectiveness of, 273, 341, 345
Goldberg's de-escalation proposal, 35
Haiphong port, 312
Hanoi power station, 173
Impediment to peace efforts, 105
Limitation to areas below 20th parallel, 22, 162, 167, 203
Limitation to areas below 20th parallel, Soviets informed of, 173, 176
Mortar attacks, retaliation for, 261
NSC discussions, 43
Pause in bombing for Tet, 54, 57, 73
Pennsylvania peace initiative and, 336
Phuc Yen airfield, 312
Rostow's recommendations for changes, 245
Scenario to mollify all U.S. officials, 176
Target selection, 25, 83, 287

Buttercup peace initiative, 378, 383, 389, 406, 413, 429, 432, 437, 438, 449, 452

Administration discussions, 341, 409, 420
Negotiations, NLF terms for, 369
Political aspects, 422
Press leaks re, 422
Prisoner exchanges, 369, 438

Civil Operations and Revolutionary Development program, 409
Clifford-Taylor mission, 255
Communist insurgency:

Losses during infiltration, 273
Mining of Saigon channel, 83
1968 winter-spring campaigning plans, U.S. analyses of, 440
Order of battle estimates, 297, 370, 399
Strategy of, 368

Diplomatic efforts toward settlement in Vietnam:

Chinese-U.S. discussions, proposed, 152
Kennedy peace proposal, 38, 83, 105
Marigold peace initiative, 15
Pell-Bo contacts, 214
Quintanilla and Baggs-Ashmore initiatives, 20
Soviet-U.S. initiatives, U.S. strategy for, 193
Thant peace proposal, 98, 112
UN resolutions, 152
UN Security Council initiative, proposed, 311
U.S. reassessment of policy following failure of Sunflower, 83

Free World forces in Vietnam:

Augmentation of, 159, 244
Congressional resolution on, 346
Summit of troop-contributing nations, proposed, 247, 353

Johnson-Thieu meeting in December, 442
Military program in Vietnam:

Acceleration of activities, 83, 347
Body counts, 400
Draft Presidential Memorandum, 177
Haiphong mining option, 83, 105
Intelligence collection activities, 350
Progress in, 234
Stabilization and bombing stand down proposal, 378, 385, 404, 410
"Stalemate" issue, 275
Westmoreland's vision for 1967, 28
Wise Men's views, 377

Negotiation issue:

DRV conditions for talks, 214
DRV reassessment of policy, possible, 252
Troop augmentation by U.S. and, 221
Wise Men's views, 377, 393

Pennsylvania peace initiative, 326

Administration discussions, 317, 336, 341, 346, 348, 353, 357
Bombing of DRV and, 336
DRV conditions for talks, 315
Termination of, 362
U.S. messages to DRV, 321, 348, 349

Presidential election in RVN, 250

Diem's assessment of, 266
Fraud allegations, 336
Jorden's views on U.S. role, 212
Summit of Vietnam allies and, 247

Prisoners of war, U.S. efforts on behalf of, 450
Republic of Vietnam:

Constitution-making, 120
Military's role in government, 102, 279
NLF participation in government issue, 305

Sunflower peace initiative:

Arrangements for talks, 16
Collapse of, 80, 82
DRV response to U.S. proposal, 29
Johnson's correspondence with Ho Chi Minh, 82
Johnson's discussions with Congressional leaders re, 19
Soviet-U.K. effort to facilitate U.S.-DRV talks, 39, 41, 51, 55, 57, 72, 73, 76, 80
U.S. contingency planning, 54
U.S. position for settlement, 16
U.S. proposal for secret talks, 5, 10

Thieu-Ky government, civilian participation in, 304
Thieu-Ky presidential candidacy conflict, 21, 138, 143
Troop augmentation by U.S., 159, 221
U.S. information programs, 300, 346, 348
U.S. Mission in Vietnam:

Lodge's successor, selection of, 83, 97
Personnel for Bunker's team, 119

U.S. policy on Vietnam, 13, 88

"Blueprint for Vietnam" study, 296
Congressional support, wavering of, 262
Ending war in 1967, McNamara's focus on, 105
Leverage on newly-elected RVN government, program for exercise of, 366
Political party development, funding for, 424
Postwar development planning, 430

Wise Men meetings, 376, 377, 382

Roy, J. Stapleton, 140
Rusk, Dean, 1, 3, 5, 19, 20, 24, 30, 34, 36, 37, 38, 41, 46, 47, 82, 84, 87, 96, 102, 133, 146, 149, 152, 156, 162, 173, 174, 186, 193, 206, 216, 237, 238, 252, 253, 268, 278, 279, 285, 354, 400, 417

Bombing of DRV:

Administration briefings for Congressional leadership, 364
Cessation of in exchange for halt in Soviet military deliveries to DRV, proposed, 268
Chinese border buffer zone, 279, 283
Effectiveness of, 341, 439
Expanded strikes of April, 139
Hanoi no-bomb zone, 4, 17
Limitation to areas below 20th parallel, Soviets informed of, 175, 179
Logistical base, 372
NSC discussions, 43
Pause in bombing for Tet, 58, 59, 61
Pennsylvania peace initiative and, 323, 327
Phuc Yen airfield, 294, 355, 363
Port facilities, 323
Scenario to mollify all U.S. officials, 176
Target selection, 25, 247, 287, 305, 317

Buttercup peace initiative, 383, 389, 406, 413, 429, 432, 437, 438, 449, 452

Administration discussions, 341, 409, 420
Political aspects, 423
Press leaks re, 423
Prisoner exchanges, 386, 405
Thieu informed of, 371

Civil Operations and Revolutionary Development program:

COMUSMACV charged with responsibility for, 167
Personnel requirements, 409

Clifford-Taylor mission, 269, 270
Communist insurgency's Cambodian sanctuaries, 409
Diplomatic efforts toward settlement in Vietnam:

Bebler's initiative, 434
Canadian peace proposal, 133
Chinese-U.S. discussions, proposed, 152
DRV-RVN contacts, 361, 367, 402
Eastern European initiatives, 357
ICC initiative, 4
Kennedy peace proposal, 96, 101, 105
Marigold peace initiative, 4, 15, 317
Phase A-Phase B formula, 9
Polish-U.S. discussions, 9
Publicity re secret initiatives, 420
Shah of Iran's initiative, 341
Soviet-U.S. discussions, 4, 7, 117
Thant peace proposal, 101, 107, 108, 111, 112
UN Security Council initiative, proposed, 311, 317, 319, 373, 377, 392, 421, 427, 428
U.S. proposals to DRV for talks, 127

Free World forces in Vietnam, 409

Augmentation of, 317
Summit of troop-contributing nations, proposed, 353

Guam Conference, 106, 109, 115, 116
Humphrey's Vietnam visit, 390
JASON report on bombing of DRV, 439
Johnson re-election bid issue, 341
McNamara's criticism of Rusk's position on Vietnam, 228
Military program in Vietnam:

Air support for ground troops, 305, 409
Cambodia, proposed incursions into, 403, 428
Ceasefires for 1967-68 holidays, 396, 409, 447
Laos, military overflights of, 420
Rusk, Dean-Continued
Military program in Vietnam-Continued
Laos, proposed incursions into, 317, 403, 428
Stabilization and bombing stand down proposal, 403

National Liberation Front surrender issue, 330
Negotiation issue:

DRV conditions for talks, 451
DRV reassessment of policy, possible, 227, 248
Guam Conference discussions, 109
NLF-RVN negotiations, necessity of, 228
RVN position, 109
U.S. public relations re, 111
Wise Men's views, 380

Pennsylvania peace initiative:

Administration discussions, 317, 341, 346, 348, 353, 355, 357, 363
Bombing of DRV and, 323, 327
DRV messages to U.S., 346
Instructions for Kissinger, 277, 307, 318, 323, 358
U.S. messages to DRV, 318, 348
U.S. public statements re, 355, 363

Presidential election in RVN:
Fairness and honesty concerns, 265
Guam Conference discussions, 116
International observers issue, 287
Loan's removal, proposal for, 209
Military-civilian balance among candidates, 125, 126
Military's non-participation, 164
Press coverage, 287, 305
U.S. covert financial support for Huong, proposed, 282, 289
U.S. objectives re, 99

Republic of Vietnam:

Elections for House, U.S. covert involvement in, 335
NLF participation in government issue, 292, 305, 306

San Antonio formula for peace, 434
Sunflower peace initiative:

Ashmore's publicizing of, 333
Bombing de-escalation to encourage talks, 32
Johnson's correspondence with Ho Chi Minh, 40
Kennedy's criticism of U.S. handling of, 122
Public broadcast of information by DRV, 32
Soviet-U.K. effort to facilitate U.S.-DRV talks, 40, 48, 50, 57, 58, 59, 60, 68, 69
U.S. proposal for secret talks, 8, 10, 17, 18

Thieu-Ky campaign:

U.S. covert financial support, proposed, 282, 289
U.S. covert role of guidance and advice, 235, 241, 289
U.S. covert support for front group favoring Thieu and Ky, 242

Thieu-Ky government, inauguration of, 371
Thieu-Ky presidential candidacy conflict, 99

Resolution of conflict, U.S. demands for, 143, 178, 183, 222
Unity of armed forces and, 164
U.S. intervention issue, 183

U.S. anti-war movement, 363
U.S. information programs, 341, 346, 348
U.S. Mission in Vietnam:

Lodge's resignation as Ambassador, 86
Lodge's successor, selection of, 97

U.S. policy on Vietnam:

"Blueprint for Vietnam" study, 296
Congressional hearings, 355, 431
Credibility problems of U.S. officials, 352
Fourteen Points statement, 65
International conferences, U.S. defense of policy at, 142
Leverage on newly elected RVN government, program for exercise of, 301
"Prognosis for Vietnam" report, 374

Wise Men meetings, 376, 377, 380

Russell, Richard B., 19, 23, 26, 96, 197, 239, 262, 336, 354, 390

Sainteny, Jean, 7, 38
Salisbury, Harrison, 3, 7
San Antonio formula for peace, 340, 348, 434
Sato, Eisaku, 356, 402, 419
Sau Ha, 341, 389, 394, 405, 406, 413, 422, 429, 432, 437, 438, 449, 452
Saunders, Harold, 124, 193, 364
Scali, John, 357
Schlesinger, Arthur M., 124
Schoenbrun, David, 334, 362
Scott, Hugh, 287
Senior Interdepartmental Group, 30
Shah of Iran, 341, 411
Shaplen, Robert, 197
Sharp, Adm. Ulysses S. Grant, 2, 30, 78, 110, 115

Anti-infiltration initiatives, 121, 331
Bombing of DRV, 116, 194, 294
Communist insurgency order of battle estimates, 314
Guam Conference, 116
Troop augmentation by U.S., 160

Shenstone, Michael, 14
Shimoda, 259
Sidle, Brig. Gen. Winant, 325
Sieverts, Frank A., 414
Sihanouk, Prince Norodom, 154, 292, 409
Singapore, 355
Sisco, Joseph, 7, 108, 156, 193, 267, 311, 392, 421
Smith, Abbot, 271
Smith, Bromley, 43, 84, 88, 144, 146, 269, 280, 305, 319, 390
Smith, Margaret Chase, 287, 364, 390
Smith, R. J., 298
Smyser, Richard, 3, 362
Snejdarek, Antonin, 227
Soldatov, Alexandr, 57
Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO), 142
Souvanna Phouma, 317, 420
Soviet Union (see also Soviet-U.K. effort to facilitate U.S.-DRV talks under Sunflower peace initiative), 228, 248

Bombing of DRV, 162

Cessation of in exchange for halt in Soviet military deliveries to DRV, proposed, 268, 275
Limitation to areas below 20th parallel, Soviets informed of, 173, 174, 175, 176, 179
Soviet ships damaged by, 188

Continuance of Vietnamese war, preference for, 165
Democratic Republic of Vietnam, relations with, 128, 133, 177, 425
Diplomatic efforts toward settlement in Vietnam:

Canadian peace proposal, 140
Soviet-U.K. discussions, 173
Soviet-U.S. discussions, 4, 7, 85, 117, 133, 206, 207, 216, 217, 341
Soviet-U.S. initiatives, U.S. strategy for, 193
Soviet-U.S. joint guarantee of settlement, 165
UN resolutions, 152
UN Security Council initiative, proposed, 319, 435

Glassboro Summit, 206, 207, 216, 217
Negotiation issue, 85, 154, 364

Spaatz, Gen. Carl, 157
Sparkman, John, 364
Special National Intelligence Estimates:

SNIE 11-11-67, 133
SNIE 14.3-67, 397, 399

Stabilization and bombing stand down proposal. See under Military program in Vietnam.
Starbird, Gen. Alfred, 121, 154
Stennis, John, 262, 287
Stevens, Bill, 386
Stewart, Michael, 85
Stimson, Henry, 94, 97
Sukarno, 113
Sukhodrev, Victor, 216
Sullivan, Leonard, 121
Sullivan, William H., 94, 97, 154, 227, 362, 408
Sunflower peace initiative (see also Pause in bombing for Tet under Bombing of DRV):

Arrangements for talks, 16, 36
Ashmore's publicizing of, 333
Bombing de-escalation to encourage talks, 32, 33
Collapse of, 77, 79, 80, 81, 82
DRV indication of interest in secret talks, 3, 10
DRV response to U.S. proposal, 29
Johnson's correspondence with Ho Chi Minh, 40, 82
Johnson's discussions with Congressional leaders re, 19
Johnson's recapitulation of, 96
Kennedy's criticism of U.S. handling of, 122, 124
Kosygin's analysis of, 85
Ky's notification of, 52, 75
Sunflower peace initiative-Continued
Publication of Johnson-Ho correspondence, 117
Public broadcast of information by DRV, 32, 33, 36
Revival of talks, efforts toward, 137
Secrecy concerns, 36
Soviet-U.K. effort to facilitate U.S.-DRV talks, 39, 40, 41, 46, 48, 49, 50, 51, 53, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 79, 80, 137

Johnson's assessment of, 207
Soviet rationale for involvement, 55
U.K. rationale for involvement, 62

Suspension of U.S.-DRV contacts, 117
U.S. contingency planning, 54
U.S. position for settlement, 16
U.S. proposal for secret talks, 5, 7, 8, 10, 17, 18

Suu. See Phan Khac Suu.
Symington, W. Stuart, 287, 354

Taft, Robert, 92
Takeoff program, 199, 215, 280
Tan Buu Kiem, 341
Tan Duc, 452
Taylor, Gen. Maxwell D. (see also Clifford-Taylor mission), 76, 83, 88, 95, 96, 115, 116, 204, 279

Bombing of DRV, 393

Chinese border buffer zone, 270
Clifford-Taylor proposal for escalation, 269, 270
Effectiveness of, 30, 172
Implacable infliction of pain concept, 172
Target selection, 84
Wise Men's views, 377

Civil Operations and Revolutionary Development program, 1, 30
Diplomatic efforts toward settlement in Vietnam, 30, 112
Free World forces in Vietnam, augmentation of, 269, 270
Huong, assessment of, 100
Lodge's successor, selection of, 37
Military program in Vietnam, 393

Haiphong mining option, 84
Progress in, 30
Stabilization and bombing stand down proposal, 381
"Stick-it-out" scenario, 381

Negotiation issue:

Forms of negotiation, U.S. internal debate re, 87
U.S. public relations re, 1
Wise Men's views, 377

Pennsylvania peace initiative, 357
Republic of Vietnam:

Economic situation, 30
Military's role in government, 100
NLF participation in government issue, 444
Political situation, 30

Thieu-Ky presidential candidacy conflict, 30
Troop augmentation by U.S., 141
U.S. information programs, 300, 377
Vietnam trip, report on, 30
Wise Men meetings, 377, 382

Tenant Farmers Union, 377
Thailand, 269, 270, 317, 341
Thang. See Nguyen Duc Thang, Gen.
Thanh. See Au Truong Thanh; Nguyen Chi Thanh.
Thant, U, 5, 243

Diplomatic efforts toward settlement in Vietnam:

Marigold peace initiative, 4
Thant peace proposal, 98, 101, 107, 108, 111, 112, 117, 123

DRV attitude toward, 201
Presidential election in RVN, international observers for, 256

Thieu. See Nguyen Van Thieu, Lt. Gen.
Thieu-Ky campaign:

Certification of, 246, 251
Front group favoring Thieu and Ky, U.S. covert support for, 242
Funding problems, 284
Opposition to, 237
Platform of, 237, 266
Senate lists, affiliation with, 264
U.S. covert financial support, proposed, 282, 289
U.S. covert role of guidance and advice, 235, 241, 289
Victory in September election, 303

Thieu-Ky government:

Addresses to Vietnamese people, U.S. preparation of, 342
Cabinet appointments, 332, 338, 342, 391, 415
Civilian participation, 228, 229, 230, 235, 304, 320
Inauguration of, 331, 341, 366, 371, 379, 390
Ky's authority in, 232, 237, 243, 251, 260, 266, 320
1968 legislative program, 446
Prime Minister appointment, 320, 332, 338, 342, 391
Reshuffling of government, 266
Short-term and long-term program, 415
U.S. advisory role, 320, 342

Thieu-Ky presidential candidacy conflict, 99

Civilian candidates' exploitation of, 182
Coup, potential for, 31, 145, 226
Dual candidacies, consequences of, 196
Generals' attitude toward, 138, 145, 163, 178, 223, 226, 230
Ky's declaration of candidacy, 163, 166, 171, 222
Ky's views, 12, 21, 118, 185
Resolution of conflict, U.S. demands for, 138, 143, 178, 182, 183, 200, 202, 219, 222, 223, 225
Thieu-Ky alliance, decision on, 226, 229, 230, 243
Thieu-Ky talks re, 186, 192, 195, 198, 200
Thieu's declaration of candidacy, 178, 195, 196, 202, 205, 222
Thieu's personal prestige and, 183, 195, 219
Thieu's resentment at Ky's aggressiveness, 202
Thieu's withdrawal, proposed U.S. effort re, 209, 211, 212, 213, 218
Unity of armed forces and, 144, 163, 164, 182, 186, 195, 198
U.S. covert support for Ky, proposed, 209, 211, 212, 213, 218, 224
U.S. intervention issue, 182, 183, 189, 190
U.S. perspective on, 30

Thompson, Llewellyn E., Jr., 57, 165, 173, 193, 206, 306, 336

Bombing of DRV, 137, 175, 179
Diplomatic efforts toward settlement in Vietnam, 85, 127, 133, 137, 165
Soviet-DRV relations, 128, 133
Sunflower peace initiative, 7, 18, 29, 33, 36, 68, 69, 85

Thompson, Sir Robert, 169
303 Committee, 89, 281, 288, 417, 424
Throckmorton, Gen., 287
Thurmond, Strom, 23, 287
Tibbetts, Margaret Joy, 201
Tito, Josep Broz, 411, 425
Tobias, Brig. Gen. Gaudencio V., 197
Tong. See Truong Dinh Tong.
Tran Bach Dang, 341, 369, 394, 432, 452
Tran Hoi Nam, 14
Tran Ngoc Lieng, 237
Tran Quoc Buu, 237, 242
Tran Van Do, 44, 109, 115, 143, 144, 163, 178, 219, 236, 243, 255, 338, 435, 436
Tran Van Don, Gen., 21, 132, 242
Tran Van Huong, 21, 44, 92, 100, 102, 116, 126, 129, 163, 166, 182, 185, 192, 237, 243, 256, 264, 280, 303, 320, 342

Cooperation with Ky, 186, 195, 197, 198
U.S. covert financial support for, proposed, 281, 282, 289

Tran Van Ly, 320
Trend, Burke, 41, 51, 58, 63, 66
Tri. See Nguyen Bao Tri, Gen.
Trieu Van Tuc, 320
Trinh. See Nguyen Duy Trinh.
Trinh Quoc Khanh, 222
Troop augmentation by U.S.:

McGeorge Bundy's position, 157, 354
William Bundy's position, 154
Ceiling on deployments, agreement re, 233
Deployments of troops, 287, 409
Enthoven's position, 155
JCS position, 141, 177, 186
Johnson's decision re, 238, 240
Komer's position, 147, 189
McNamara's recommendation for smaller increase, 161, 186, 238
Negotiation issue and, 221
Publicity re, 240, 244, 248
Vietnamese manpower utilization and, 159, 160, 210
Westmoreland-Sharp request, 110, 149, 177

Trueheart, William, 224, 350, 417, 424
Truong Dinh Dzu, 295, 303, 305, 320, 329, 332, 369
Truong Dinh Tong, 341, 369, 394, 438, 452
Truong Thai Ton, 332
Truong Van Thuan, 338
Tu. See Hoang Man'Tu.
Tunney, John V., 400
Twining, Gen. Nathan, 157

Unger, Leonard S., 5, 7, 9, 21, 99, 108, 109, 121, 125, 133, 144, 148, 164, 183, 288
United Kingdom (see also Soviet-U.K. effort to facilitate U.S.-DRV talks under Sunflower peace initiative):

Bombing of DRV and, 154
Diplomatic efforts toward settlement in Vietnam, 173, 427

United Nations (see also UN Security Council initiative, proposed under Diplomatic efforts toward settlement in Vietnam):

General Assembly discussion of Vietnam, 331
NLF participation in talks on Vietnam, 435
Presidential election in RVN, international observers for, 256
Resolutions on Vietnam, 151, 152, 156

U.S. domestic situation, 177, 386

Anti-war movement, 161, 341, 363
McGeorge Bundy's assessment of, 157
Wise Men's assessment of, 376, 377

U.S. information programs, 240, 300, 336, 341, 346, 348, 352, 354, 377, 386, 393

U.S. Mission in Vietnam:

Bunker's appointment as Ambassador, 97
Congressional visits, 436
Embassy Chancery dedication, 342
Lodge's resignation as Ambassador, 86
Lodge's successor, selection of, 13, 23, 37, 83, 94, 97
Personnel for Bunker's team, 119, 150, 354

U.S. policy on Vietnam (see also Civil Operations and Revolutionary Development program; Military program in Vietnam), 13, 88

Achievements of, 86
Arrogance issue, 197
"Blueprint for Vietnam" study, 296, 317
McGeorge Bundy's assessment of, 157
William Bundy's assessment of, 154
Bunker's mid-year assessment, 220
Bunker-Westmoreland public relations tour, 352
Ceiling to level of U.S. participation in Vietnam, public statement on, 157
Congressional debates and hearings, 336, 341, 355, 431
Congressional resolution on, 94
Congressional support, wavering of, 262, 344
Credibility problems of U.S. officials, 352
Efficient management of programs, need for, 91
Ending war in 1967, McNamara's focus on, 105
Fourteen Points statement, 65
Funding for, 11, 26, 94
International conferences, U.S. defense of policy at, 142
Komer's recommendations, 24
Leverage on newly elected RVN government, program for exercise of, 301, 366
McPherson's report on Vietnam visit, 197
Objective of policy, proposed change in, 401
Optimism about, 91
Peace Corps involvement, 157
Planning for 1968, 395
Political party development, funding for, 254, 281, 398, 417, 424
Postwar development planning, 92, 115, 220, 430
"Prognosis for Vietnam" report, 374
Radio and leafletting operations in DRV, 350
RVN's increased responsibility for all aspects of policy, 147, 401
Unfavorable outcome, implications of, 309, 316
Wise Men's consideration of, 376, 377
Withdrawal option, 377, 393

Vance, Cyrus R., 22, 47, 76, 91, 131, 147, 149, 162, 169, 175, 177, 193, 194, 287, 428
Vanden Heuvel, William J., 38, 83
Vandenberg, Arthur, 377
Vien. See Cao Van Vien, Gen.; Linh Quang Vien, Lt. Gen.; Nguyen Luu Vien.
Viet Cong. See National Liberation Front.
Vietnam. See Democratic Republic of Vietnam; Republic of Vietnam.
Vietnamese Confederation of Trade Unions, 89, 288
Vinh Loc, Gen., 12, 163, 192, 226, 264
Vogel, Kenneth, 135
Vo Nguyen Giap, Gen., 2, 347
Vo Van Sung, 263
Vu Hong Khanh, 320
Vu Quoc Thuc, 115
Vy. See Nguyen Van Vy, Gen.

Walinsky, Adam, 124
Waller, John Keith, 341
Wallner, Woodruff, 290, 407
Walsh, John, 8, 9, 25, 39, 125
Walsh, P., 298
Wang Ching-wei, 153
Warner, Denis, 213
Warnke, Paul, 193, 267, 296, 331, 395
Washington, Walter, 341
Watson, Marvin, 19, 317, 371
Wattenberg, Ben, 287
Wehrle, LeRoy, 119, 150
Westmoreland, Gen. William C., 30, 158, 209, 210, 223, 226, 230, 232, 255, 302, 400, 442

Ambassador to RVN, consideration for, 13, 23, 37, 94, 97
Army of the Republic of Vietnam:

Abrams' assignment to, 171
Leadership changes, 328
Maximum use of manpower, 347
Mission reorientation, 200
Mobilization for, 210
Reorganization of, 131

Bombing of DRV:

Civilian casualties, 409
Limitation to areas below 20th parallel, 169

Buttercup peace initiative, 409
Civil Operations and Revolutionary Development program:

COMUSMACV charge with responsibility for, 167
Infrastructure Intelligence Coordination and Exploitation Program, 199
Komer's relationship with Westmoreland, 119
RVN's lead officer, 342
Takeoff program, 280

Communist insurgency:

Cambodian sanctuaries, 409
Guam Conference discussions, 116
1968 winter-spring campaigning plans, U.S. analyses of, 443
Order of battle estimates, 208, 297, 314, 325, 370
Status at beginning of 1967, 2
Strategy of, 2

Free World forces in Vietnam, 409
Guam Conference, 115, 116
Komer's assessment of, 347
McNamara mission to Vietnam, 233
Military program in Vietnam:

Air support for ground troops, 409
Anti-infiltration initiatives, 116, 121, 313, 331
Body counts, 409
Cambodia, proposed incursions into, 149, 404, 428, 436
Ceasefires for 1967-68 holidays, 436, 448
DMZ redeployment, 341, 344
Equipment situation, 409
Guam Conference discussions, 116
Laos, proposed incursions into, 149, 404, 409
McNamara's criticism of Westmoreland's management, 239
120 Day Program proposal, 426
Operation York II, 418
Progress in, 116, 177, 192, 208
Stabilization and bombing stand down proposal, 404
"Stalemate" issue, 275
Westmoreland's concept of, 416
Westmoreland's replacement with Abrams, consideration of, 347
Westmoreland's vision for 1967, 28

Thieu-Ky presidential candidacy conflict, 163, 166
Thieu-Ky relationship, 328
Troop augmentation by U.S.:

Deployments of troops, 409
Johnson's decision re, 240
Publicity re, 240, 248
Westmoreland, Gen. William C.-Continued
Troop augmentation by U.S.-Continued
Vietnamese manpower utilization and, 159, 160, 210
Westmoreland-Sharp request, 110, 149, 177

U.S. information programs, 240
U.S. policy on Vietnam, 352

Weyand, Gen. Fred, 197
Wheeler, Gen. Earle G., 2, 87, 88, 90, 96, 115, 116, 174, 193, 261, 268, 395

Army of the Republic of Vietnam, 236
Bombing of DRV:

McGeorge Bundy's assessment of, 157
Civilian casualties, 84
Congressional investigations re, 287
Effectiveness of, 26
Logistical base, 175
NSC discussions, 43
Pause in bombing for Tet, 47, 62, 76
Phuc Yen airfield, 287, 294, 355, 363
Scenario to mollify U.S. officials, 176
Target selection, 84, 287
U.S. aircraft losses, 409

Civil Operations and Revolutionary Development program:

Anti-corruption program, 395
Personnel requirements, 409

Communist insurgency:

1968 winter-spring campaigning plans, U.S. analyses of, 443
Order of battle estimates, 297

Diplomatic efforts toward settlement in Vietnam, 184
Free World forces in Vietnam, augmentation of, 239, 240, 244
Health problems, 305, 317, 336
Lodge's successor, selection of, 97
McNamara mission to Vietnam, 233, 236, 238
Military program in Vietnam:

Acceleration of activities, 400
Anti-infiltration initiatives, 121, 313
Body counts, 409
Cambodia, proposed incursions into, 428
Ceasefires for 1967-68 holidays, 409
Dak To fighting, 400
Defeat-related concerns, 309
Laos, military overflights of, 420
Laos, proposed incursions into, 409
120 Day Program proposal, 418
Operation Shenandoah, 355
Operation York II, 418
Press coverage of combat missions, 386
Progress in, 238
Reserves call-up issue, 186, 363
"Stalemate" issue, 275, 287
"Stick-it-out" scenario, 381

Pennsylvania peace initiative, 353
Presidential election in RVN, 287
Press coverage of Vietnam, 240
Soviet-U.K. effort to facilitate U.S.-DRV talks (Sunflower), 62, 76
Troop augmentation by U.S.:

Deployments of troops, 287
Johnson's decision re, 240
Vietnamese manpower utilization and, 160
Westmoreland's defense of his request, 149

U.S. anti-war movement, 363
U.S. information programs, 240
U.S. policy on Vietnam, Wise Men's consideration of, 376

Wicker, Tom, 305
Wiggins, J. R., 333
Wilford, Michael, 427
Wilson, Harold, 34

Johnson's correspondence with, 64, 65, 66, 67, 70, 74
Marigold peace initiative, 15
Soviet-U.K. effort to facilitate U.S.-DRV talks (Sunflower), 39, 40, 41, 46, 49, 51, 53, 58, 59, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 69, 70, 74, 79, 80, 137

Wilson, Henry Hall, 83
Wise Men:

Analyses of meetings, 380, 382, 393
November 1 meeting, 376
November 2 meeting, 377

Wisner, Frank, 284
Wolf, Lester, 346

Y Bham Enuol, 158, 264

Zhukov, Yuri, 128
Zinchuk, Alexander, 7, 85
Zorthian, Barry, 92, 119, 274, 287, 346, 400, 409


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