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Chapter 3. U.S. Policy Towards International Production and Trafficking in Illegal Drugs
  

Chapter 3. U.S. Policy Towards International Production and Trafficking in Illegal Drugs

--  143. Memorandum from the Assistant to the President (Moynihan) to Attorney General Mitchell, Washington, September 18, 1969  [Get Acrobat Reader PDF version   ] 

Moynihan argued that the United States could cripple international heroin trafficking in 1-2 years through diplomatic initiatives with economic inducements. He also argued that the U.S. foreign policy establishment had never taken heroin trafficking seriously.

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, Box 357, Subject Files, Narcotics I. No classification marking. Copies were sent to Ehrlichman, Chris Miller, and Haig. Moynihan's memorandum to the Attorney General was not attached.


--  144. Memorandum from the President's Assistant for National Security Affairs (Kissinger) to Secretary of State Rogers and Attorney General Mitchell, Washington, September 29, 1969 [Get Acrobat Reader PDF version   ] 

The President directed Rogers and Mitchell to study the problem of international trafficking in heroin.

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Files 1967-69, SOC 12-5 US. Confidential. In a September 30 memorandum to Kissinger, the President's Assistant Ehrlichman stated: "The President has decided to fully implement Pat Moynihan's proposal to attack the heroin problem. This means taking a hard line with France and Turkey." (Ibid.)


--  145. Memorandum from Alexander Haig of the National Security Council Staff to the President's Assistant for National Security Affairs (Kissinger), Washington, October 5, 1969  [Get Acrobat Reader PDF version   ] 

Haig informed Kissinger that President's Assistant for Urban Affairs Moynihan wanted to set up a special project group in the White House to deal with international heroin trafficking.

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, Box 357, Subject Files, Narcotics I. No classification marking. Kissinger wrote the following note on the memorandum: "Where do we stand? If no action, let's take it over."


--  146. Memorandum From Acting Secretary of State Richardson and Attorney General Mitchell to President Nixon, Washington, October 20, 1969  [Get Acrobat Reader PDF version   ] 

In response to the President's request, Richardson and Mitchell submitted under a covering memorandum an 18-page analysis of international trafficking in heroin, current methods to suppress it, and additional recommendation actions.

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Files 1967-69, SOC 11-5 US. Confidential. Redrafted by Levitsky (S/S).


--  147. Memorandum from Secretary of State Rogers to President Nixon, Washington, October 24, 1969  [Get Acrobat Reader PDF version   ] 

Rogers reported that he had appointed Harry Schwartz as his Special Assistant for Narcotics Matters.

Source: National Archives, RG 59, President's Evening Reading: Lot File 74 D 164. Secret.


--  148. Memorandum For the Record, Washington, October 24, 1969  [Get Acrobat Reader PDF version   ] 

In a meeting of senior officials, the President's Assistant for National Security Affairs Kissinger re-affirmed the President's conviction that heroin trafficking must be stopped at the nation's shores. Administration officials considered the joint report from Secretary of State Rogers and Attorney General Mitchell and reported on their current efforts. The group constituted themselves as a Task Force under Department of State leadership.

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, Box 357, Subject Files, Narcotics I. Confidential. Sent for information.


--  149. Memorandum For the Record, Washington, November 4, 1969  [Get Acrobat Reader PDF version   ] 

The memorandum communicated the record of first meeting of the Task Force on Heroin Trafficking.

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, Subject Files, Box 357, Narcotics I. Confidential. Sent for information. Drafted by Downey. Tab A was attached but not published.


--  150. Memorandum From the President's Assistant for Urban Affairs (Moynihan) to President's Assistant for National Security Affairs (Kissinger), Washington, November 6, 1969  [Get Acrobat Reader PDF version   ] 

Moynihan was critical of the task force report on heroin prepared by the Department of State, and suggested that he be sent as an envoy to the Presidents of France and Turkey.

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, Box 357, Subject Files, Narcotics I. Confidential. Moynihan added a postscript noting that "Turkey was 'co-pilot' with USA on air pollution" in the NATO Committee on Challenges of Modern Society and that "Ingersoll should accompany me." Haig wrote the following note at the bottom of the page: "Haig discussed w/ Moynihan 6 Nov. He agrees with HAK psn that he not be US negotiator or Rep & that we pursue as outlined. AH"


--  151. Telegram 188129 From the Department of State to the Embassy in Turkey, November 6, 1969, 0004Z [Get Acrobat Reader PDF version   ] The Department transmitted a message from President Nixon to Turkish Prime Minister Demirel that expressed concern about international heroin trafficking and its domestic effects within the United States.

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Files1967-69, INCO-DRUGS 17 US. Confidential; Priority; Limdis. Drafted by Schwartz, Cash, and Charles R. Hartley (NEA/UR) on November 4; cleared by Rockwell and Kissinger; and approved by U. Alexis Johnson, Brown (S/S) and Kissinger.


--  152. Telegram 191974 From the Department of State to the Embassy in Burma, November 14, 1969, 1737Z  [Get Acrobat Reader PDF version   ] 

The telegram transmitted an oral message for the Burmese Minister of Foreign Affairs regarding President Nixon's concern about international narcotics trafficking.

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Files 1967-69, INCO-DRUGS ASIA SE. Confidential. Repeated to Bangkok and Vientiane. Drafted by William W. Thomas, Jr.,(EA) on November 7, cleared in EA, S/NM, and AID, and approved by Schwartz.


--  153. Telegram 7775 From the Embassy in Turkey to the Department of State, November 17, 1969, 1120Z [Get Acrobat Reader PDF version   ] 

Ambassador Handley reported that he had delivered the President's message to Turkish Prime Minister Demirel and presented him with a proposal to eradicate poppy production. Demirel agreed to study the problem.

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Files1967-69, INCO-DRUGS 17 US. Confidential; Priority; Limdis.


--  154. Telegram 7825 From the Embassy in Turkey to the Department of State, November 19, 1969, 1111Z [Get Acrobat Reader PDF version   ] 

Ambassador Handley proposed a strategy for the United States to secure Turkish cooperation in the elimination of opium production.

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Files 1967-69, INCO-DRUGS 17 US. Confidential; Priority; Limdis.


--  155. Memorandum From Helmut Sonnenfeldt of the National Security Council staff to President's Assistant for National Security Affairs (Kissinger), Washington, November 19, 1969  [Get Acrobat Reader PDF version   ] 

Sonnenfeldt provided an account of what had been accomplished since the Heroin Traffic Task Force meeting and requested that Kissinger convene another meeting of the Task Force.

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, Box 357, Subject Files, Narcotics I. Sent for action. Kissinger approved the recommendation on November 21. The memorandum to the Deputy Attorney General was attached but not published.


--  156. Letter From French President Pompidou to President Nixon, Paris, November 21, 1969  [Get Acrobat Reader PDF version   ] 

Pompidou responded to Nixon's message on curbing international opium trafficking.

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Files 1967-69, INCO-DRUGS 17 US.
No classification marking. Nixon and Pompidou apparently did not discuss narcotics when the French President visited Washington March 23-26, but Rogers and French Foreign Minister Shuman did on February 25, 1970, see Document 164.


--  157. Telegram 16094 from the Embassy in Thailand to the Department of State, November 26, 1969, 1225Z  [Get Acrobat Reader PDF version   ] 

The Embassy reported on the Thai Government's commitment to the eradication of narcotics trafficking and also analyzed the obstacles hindering the Thai effort.

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Files 1967-69, INCO DRUGS 17 THAI. Confidential. Repeated to Rangoon and Vientiane.


--  158. Memorandum From the President's Assistant for National Security Affairs (Kissinger) to President Nixon, Washington, December 27, 1969  [Get Acrobat Reader PDF version   ] 

Kissinger recommended that Nixon receive the Turkish Ambassador after receiving the Turkish Government's response to Ambassador Handley's next approach.

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, Box 357, Subject Files, Narcotics I. Confidential. Sent for action. According to a notation Kissinger made on the memorandum, the President approved the recommendation.


--  159. Memorandum from the President's Assistant for National Security Affairs (Kissinger) to President Nixon, Washington, January 5, 1970  [Get Acrobat Reader PDF version   ] 

Kissinger characterized French cooperation on the heroin trafficking problem as "outstanding" following the Nixon-Pompidou exchange of messages and provided examples of improved cooperation.

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, Box 357, Subject Files, Narcotics I. Confidential. Sent for information.


--  160. Memorandum From the President's Assistant for National Security Affairs (Kissinger) to the Under Secretary for Political Affairs (Johnson), Washington, January 7, 1970  [Get Acrobat Reader PDF version   ] 

Kissinger relayed the President's approval of the Department of State's plan to ask the Turkish Government to destroy its present opium crop in return for financial inducements. Kissinger notified the Department that Assistant to the President Haldeman's assistant, Egil Krogh, would now supervise U.S. Government efforts to eliminate Turkey's illegal opium production.

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Files 1970-73, INCO-DRUGS 17 US-TUR. Confidential.


--  161. Telegram 0378 From the Embassy in Turkey to the Department of State, January 21, 1970, 1000Z  [Get Acrobat Reader PDF version   ] 

Ambassador Handley described a meeting with Turkish Prime Minister Demirel on opium production and conveyed President Nixon's concerns about heroin addiction in the U.S.

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Files 1970-73, INCO-DRUGS TUR. Confidential; Limdis. Repeated to Paris.


--  162. Telegram 1682 From the Embassy in France to the Department of State, February 13, 1970, 1045Z [Get Acrobat Reader PDF version   ] 

The Embassy in France provided guidance on the problem of heroin trafficking in France in advance of the visit to Washington of French President Pompidou.

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Files 1970-73, INCO-DRUG S FR. Confidential. Pass to BNDD and Moynihan.


--  163. Memorandum of Conversation, Washington, February 26, 1970  [Get Acrobat Reader PDF version   ] 

In a meeting with French Foreign Minister Schumann, Secretary of State Rogers emphasized President Nixon's strong personal interest in narcotics control.

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Files 1970-73, SOC 11-5. Confidential. The meeting was held in the Cabinet Room of the White House and began at 11:45 a.m. Drafted by Long.


--  164. Telegram 1466 From the Embassy in Turkey to the Department of State, March 12, 1970, 1530Z [Get Acrobat Reader PDF version   ] 

Ambassador Handley criticized tactics used by the Bureau of Narcotics and Dangerous Drugs that he believed imperiled cooperation with the Turkish Government on destruction of the opium crop.

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Files 1970-73, INCO-DRUGS TUR. Confidential; Limdis.


--  165. Telegram 42685 From the Department of State to the Embassy in Turkey, March 24. 1970, 1015Z [Get Acrobat Reader PDF version   ] 

The Department instructed Ambassador Handley to put into effect a plan to collect Turkey's opium output to prevent diversion to the heroin market.

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Files1970-73, INCO-DRUGS TUR. Confidential; Priority; Limdis. Repeated to Paris for Cusack. Drafted by Hartley and Schwartz on March 20; cleared by Davies, Cash, Ingersoll, AID, and William Watts of the NSC staff; and approved by Richardson.


--  166. Memorandum of Conversation, Washington, April 1, 1970  [Get Acrobat Reader PDF version   ] 

The memorandum recorded the conversation between Secretary of State Rogers and Turkish Ambassador Esenbel on control of the Turkish opium crop.

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Files 1970-73, INCO-DRUGS 17 US-TUR. Confidential. The meeting was held in Rogers' office at 3 p.m. Drafted by Cash.


--  167. Telegram 1957 From the Embassy in Turkey to the Department of State, April 2, 1970, 1115Z [Get Acrobat Reader PDF version   ] 

Turkish Prime Minister Demirel told Ambassador Handley that the Turkish Government could not plow under the current opium crop because it would lead to civil disturbance and create public support for more planting.

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Files1970-73, INCO-DRUGS TUR. Confidential; Limdis. Repeated to Paris.


--  168. Memorandum From Helmet Sonnenfeldt of the National Security Council Staff to the President's Assistant for National Security Affairs (Kissinger), Washington, May 5, 1970  [Get Acrobat Reader PDF version   ] 

Sonnenfeldt provided Kissinger with talking points for a meeting of the Heroin Task Force and included a recommendation by President's Assistant for Urban Affairs Moynihan to replace Ambassador Handley if Turkey planted an opium crop in the fall.

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, Box 357, Subject Files, Narcotics II. Confidential. Sent for information. A notation on the memorandum indicates that Kissinger saw it. Tab B is Document 167. Tabs C and D were attached but not published.


--  169. Telegram 68968 From the Department of State to the Embassy in Turkey, May 6, 1970, 2246Z [Get Acrobat Reader PDF version   ] In a personal message, Under Secretary of State Richardson told Ambassador Handley that the Department of State was "on the spot" to produce results on suppression of the Turkish opium crop.

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Files 1970-73, INCO-DRUGS TUR. Secret; Priority; Nodis. Drafted by Schwartz, cleared by Eliot, and approved by Richardson.


--  170. Memorandum From the Under Secretary of State (Richardson) to the President's Assistant for National Security Affairs (Kissinger), Washington, May 19, 1970  [Get Acrobat Reader PDF version   ] 

Richardson reported that the best strategy was to pursue Turkish opium suppression in a multilateral setting and that the matter should be raised at an ad hoc meeting of the CCMS.

Source: National Archives, Central Files 1970-73, INCO-DRUGS TUR. Confidential. Copies were sent to Finch and Moynihan.


--  171. Memorandum From Arthur T. Downey of the National Security Council Staff to the President's Assistant for National Security Affairs (Kissinger),Washington, June 8, 1970  [Get Acrobat Reader PDF version   ] 

Downey provided a briefing memorandum and talking points for Kissinger to use at an upcoming Heroin Task Force meeting.

Source: Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, Box 357, Subject Files, Narcotics II. Sent for information. Tab A is Document 170. The covering memorandum of May 21 from Sonnenfeldt to Kissinger was attached but not published. Tab B was not attached. Tab C was attached but not published.


--  172. Memorandum From Arthur T. Downey of the National Security Council Staff to the President's Assistant for National Security Affairs (Kissinger), Washington, June 10, 1970  [Get Acrobat Reader PDF version   ] 

Downey transmitted to Kissinger under a covering memorandum a summary record of the June 9 Heroin Task Force meeting.

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, Box 357, Subject Files, Narcotics II. Confidential; Sensitive. Sent for information. A copy was sent to Saunders. Kissinger wrote the following note at the bottom of the page: " What conclusion did you reach or may I not know? HK."


--  173. Briefing Memorandum from the Deputy Legal Adviser (Salans) to the Acting Secretary of State (Johnson), Washington, July 7, 1970  [Get Acrobat Reader PDF version   ] 

Salans provided under cover of a briefing memorandum a detailed proposal for a new international convention to deal broadly with the opium problem, which would supplement the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs of 1961 that relied on voluntary cooperation.

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Files 1970-73, SOC 11-5. No classification marking. Drafted by G. Jonathon Greenwald (L/NEA) and cleared by Schwartz and Rodger P. Davies.


--  174. Memorandum From Helmut Sonnenfeldt and Harold H. Saunders of the National Security Council Staff to the President's Assistant for National Security Affairs (Kissinger), Washington, July 10, 1970  [Get Acrobat Reader PDF version   ] 

Sonnenfeldt and Saunders urged Kissinger to re-assert personal control over the international anti-narcotics effort because of the possibility of serious disruption of the U.S.-Turkish relationship.

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, Box 357, Subject Files, Narcotics II. Confidential. Sent for action. Kissinger approved the recommendation on July 14. Tab A was telegram 108993 to Ankara, July 9 (Ibid., Box 663, Country Files, Middle East, Turkey, Vol. II), Tab B was a letter from Johnson to Kennedy, June 29, scheduled to be printed in Foreign Relations, 1969-1976, Eastern Mediterranean and Eastern Europe, 1969-1972, volume XXIX. Tab C was not attached.


--  175. Memorandum From Secretary of State Rogers to President Nixon, Washington, July 28, 1970  [Get Acrobat Reader PDF version   ] 

Rogers reported that Ambassador Handley met with Congressional leaders to discuss proposed legislation that would allow the President to cut off AID funds to any country that failed to cooperate fully on narcotics control.

Source: National Archives, RG 59, President's Evening Reading: Lot 74 D 164. Secret.


--  176. Intelligence Note Prepared in the Bureau of Intelligence and Research, Washington, August 4, 1970  [Get Acrobat Reader PDF version   ] 

Intelligence note on the problem of drug abuse to be considered at a special UN meeting in Geneva.

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Files 1970-1973, SOC 11-5 ECOSOC. Confidential. Drafted by John J. Donovan (INR/SGR).


--  177. Memorandum From Secretary of State Rogers to President Nixon, Washington, August 6, 1970  [Get Acrobat Reader PDF version   ] 

Rogers reported that Ambassador Handley and other Department of State officials met with Congressman Vanik to discuss his proposed amendment to the Trade Bill that would give the President authority to impose a trade embargo on countries that permitted trafficking in poppy-derived drugs.

Source: National Archives, RG 59, President's Evening Reading: Lot 74 D 164. Secret. Eliot signed for Rogers.


--  178. Memorandum of Conversation, August 17, 1970  [Get Acrobat Reader PDF version   ] 

Ambassador Handley and President Nixon discussed U.S.-Turkish relations, especially the Turkish Government's opium control program.

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, Box 358, Subject Files, Narcotics III. Secret. Drafted by Saunders.


--  179. Memorandum From Harold H. Saunders of the National Security Council Staff to the President's Assistant for National Security Affairs (Kissinger), Washington, August 18, 1970  [Get Acrobat Reader PDF version   ] 

Saunders suggested that a summary of conclusions reached at the Heroin Task Force meeting of August 17 should be distributed to ensure a uniform interpretation of the administration's goals and policy.

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, Box 358, Subject Files, Narcotics III. Confidential. Sent for action. The memorandum was unsigned. There is no indication that Kissinger approved or disapproved the recommendations. Tab B was attached but not published.


--  180. Action Memorandum from the Assistant Secretary of State for International Organization Affairs (DePalma) and the Legal Adviser (Stevenson) to the Under Secretary of State for Political Affairs (Johnson), Washington, September 8, 1970  [Get Acrobat Reader PDF version   ] 

The memorandum concludes that it would be more practical to work through existing international bodies and to amend the 1961 Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs rather than to propose a new convention and establish a new UN agency for control of opium production and heroin trafficking.

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Files 1970-73, SOC 11-5. Secret. Drafted by Stephen M. Boyd (L/NEA), cleared in IO, BNDD, S/NW, NEA/TUR, and L/T, and approved by Johnson on September 15.


--  181. Memorandum From the Executive Secretary of the National Security Council Staff (Davis) to the Executive Secretary of the Department of State (Eliot), Washington, September 10, 1970  [Get Acrobat Reader PDF version   ]  Davis reported that President Nixon approved the sale of 500,000 tons of PL-480 wheat to Turkey without linking it to an opium production control program.

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, Box 358, Subject Files, Narcotics III. Secret. A notation on the memorandum indicates Davis signed the original.


--  182. Intelligence Note Prepared in the Bureau of Intelligence and Research, Washington, October 29, 1970  [Get Acrobat Reader PDF version   ] 

An Intelligence Note entitled "United Nations: U.S. Initiatives on Narcotics Front Progressing Despite Minor Obstacles."

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Files 1970-73, SOC 11-5. Confidential. Drafted by Donovan.


--  183. Memorandum From the Under Secretary of State for Political Affairs (Johnson) to the President's Assistant for National Security Affairs (Kissinger), Washington, November 19, 1970  [Get Acrobat Reader PDF version   ] 

Johnson reported that the ECOSOC Council had approved a U.S. resolution calling for the establishment of a voluntary UN fund for drug abuse control.

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Files 1970-73, SOC 11-5 ECOSOC. Unclassified. Tabs A and B were attached but not published. A copy was sent to Moynihan.


--  184. Telegram 47398 From the Department of State to the Embassy in Burma, March 19, 1971, 0434Z [Get Acrobat Reader PDF version   ] 

The Department instructed the Embassy to underline the U.S. commitment to containing international narcotics trafficking through periodic conversations with the Burmese Government.

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Files 1970-73, INCO-DRUGS BURMA. Secret; Exdis. Drafted by William F. Beachner (EA/TB); cleared in EA, in substance with BNDD, S/NM, and Defense; and approved by Wilson. Repeated to Bangkok, Phnom Phen, Saigon, Vientiane, Hong Kong, and CINCPAC.


--  185. Memorandum From Harold H. Saunders of the National Security Council Staff to the President's Deputy Assistant for Domestic Affairs (Krogh), Washington, March 25, 1971  [Get Acrobat Reader PDF version   ] 

Saunders provided Krogh with an assessment of the new Turkish Government's attitudes and capabilities on reducing the flow of illegal opium from Turkey. He also transmitted an account of progress on U.S. efforts to control opium production in Turkey.

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, Box 663, Country Files, Middle East, Turkey, Vol. II. Secret; Noforn. Sent for information. Concurred in by Downey. On March 12 Demirel resigned under pressure from military forces upset by Turkey's political instability. Turkish President Sunay designated Nuhat Erim to form a new government.


--  186. Memorandum From the President's Deputy Assistant for Domestic Affairs (Krogh) to the President's Assistant for Domestic Affairs (Ehrlichman), Washington, April 13, 1971 [Get Acrobat Reader PDF version   ] 

Because of some Pentagon officials' reluctance to confront the issue of drug use among servicemen in Vietnam, Krogh suggested the formation of a joint White House working group to deal with the problem.

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, Box 357, Subject Files, Narcotics II. Secret. Sent for action. There was no indication that Ehrlichman approved or disapproved of the recommendation. Tab A was not attached.


--  187. Intelligence Note Prepared in the Bureau of Intelligence and Research. April 30, 1971, Washington  [Get Acrobat Reader PDF version   ] 

Intelligence Note entitled: "United Nations: US initiative to strengthen Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs."

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Files 1970-73, SOC 11-5. Confidential. Drafted by Donovan.


--  188. Intelligence Note Prepared in the Bureau of Intelligence and Research Washington, April 30, 1971  [Get Acrobat Reader PDF version   ] 

Intelligence Note entitled: "Turkey: Waiting for the New Government's Opium Program."

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Files 1970-73, INCO-DRUGS TUR. Secret; No Foreign Dissem. Drafted by Gene R. Preston (INR).


--  189. Memorandum From the President's Deputy Assistant for National Security Affairs (Haig) to President Nixon, Washington, May 8, 1971  [Get Acrobat Reader PDF version   ] 

Haig provided details of a proposal by Secretary of the Treasury Connally to preemptively purchase the Turkish opium crop. Also included is the May 7 memorandum from which Haig derived his information.

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, Box 358, Subject Files, Narcotics III. Secret. Sent for information. On April 27 the President sent Kissinger a memorandum that read: "Moynihan's idea of buying the entire Turkish opium crop is one that seems intriguing. I realize that there are problems here, but would you have a check made to see what, if anything, could be done. Connally seems to like the idea, provided it does not have other foreign policy implications which would mitigate against it." (Ibid., Box 341, HAK/President Memoranda,1971)


--  190. Memorandum From Director of Central Intelligence Helms to the President's Assistant for National Security Affairs (Kissinger), Washington, May 28, 1971  [Get Acrobat Reader PDF version   ] 

Helms sent Kissinger information on how the CIA planned to distribute sensitive intelligence on narcotics in Southeast Asia.

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, Box 358, Subject Files, Narcotics IV. Secret; Sensitive. Copies were sent to Rogers, Laird, Mitchell, Moorer, Sullivan, Ingersoll, and Rossides. The attachment is Secret; No Foreign Dissem; Controlled Dissem Abroad; Background Use Only.


--  191. Summary of a Meeting, Washington, June 3, 1971, 8 to 9:50 a.m.  [Get Acrobat Reader PDF version   ] 

During the meeting, President Nixon emphasized to civilian and military members of his administration his concerns about narcotics addiction.

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, Box 358, Subject Files, Narcotics III. No classification marking. Appendix A, the list of participants, is taken from the President's Daily Diary. (Ibid., White House Central Files)


--  192. Telegram 100799 from the Department of State to the Embassy in Turkey, June 8, 1971. 1802Z [Get Acrobat Reader PDF version   ] 

The Department endorsed the idea of another meeting between Ambassador Handley and Turkish Prime Minister Erim. The telegram also transmitted the text of a personal message to Erim from President Nixon.

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Files 1970-73, INCO-DRUGS TUR. Secret; Priority; Exdis. Drafted by Geoffrey Ogden (NEA/TUR), cleared by, Wellman, and NEA/TUR, in substance by Sisco, and approved by Davies. The account of Handley's discussion with Erim is in telegram 3489 from Ankara, May 18, and is printed in Foreign Relations, 1969-1976, Eastern Mediterranean and Eastern Europe, 1969-1972, Volume XXIX.


--  193. Memorandum for the President's File from the President's Deputy Assistant for Domestic Affairs (Krogh). Washington, June 14, 1971  [Get Acrobat Reader PDF version   ] 

Krogh provided an account of a meeting among the President, senior Cabinet officers, and U.S. Ambassadors from relevant countries on international narcotics trafficking and the problems of heroin addiction.

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, White House Special Files, President's Office Files, Box 85, Memoranda for the President. No classification marking. The meeting lasted from 10:10 to11:45 a.m.


--  194. Telegram 108468 From the Department of State to All Diplomatic Posts, June 17, 1971, 2213Z [Get Acrobat Reader PDF version   ] Secretary of State Rogers alerted all posts to President Nixon's comprehensive Congressional message on the drug problem, and to results of the June 14 meeting with the President.

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Files 1970-73, SOC 11-5. Unclassified. Repeated to Rome for FODAG and Paris for NESCO. Drafted by Betty C. Gough (IO/HDC), cleared by Herz, Wellman, and Eliot, and approved by Rogers.


--  195. Memorandum From Samuel M. Hoskinson of the National Security Council Staff to the President's Assistant for National Security Affairs (Kissinger), Washington, June 18, 1971  [Get Acrobat Reader PDF version   ] 

Hoskinson informed Kissinger of a disagreement between the Departments of State and Treasury over the President's $50 million program for a Turkish opium buy-out.

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, Box 358, Subject Files, Narcotics IV. Secret; Exdis. Sent for information. A copy was sent to Downey. Hoskinson did not initial the memorandum. Connally's letter was not attached.


--  196. Telegram 110121 From the Department of State to the Embassy in Turkey, June 19, 1971, 2040Z [Get Acrobat Reader PDF version   ] 

In a personal message to Ambassador Handley, Secretary of State Rogers provided instructions for a meeting with Turkish Prime Minister Erim based on a meeting with the President.

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Files 1970-73, INCO-DRUGS TUR. Secret; Priority; Exdis. Drafted by Ogden; cleared by Davies, Sisco, Robert L. Pugh (NEA/TUR), and Richard Kennedy; cleared in substance with Ingersoll, Hardin, Williams, Wellman, and Connally; and approved by Rogers.


--  197. Telegram 4337 From the Embassy in Turkey to the Department of State, June 23, 1971, 1030Z [Get Acrobat Reader PDF version   ] 

The Embassy reported in detail on a key meeting with Prime Minister Erim on the opium issue. Erim agreed to U.S. conditions on eradication, purchase, and anti-opium legislation in return for U.S. assistance to affected Turkish farmers.

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Files 1970-73, INCO-DRUGS TUR. Secret; Priority; Exdis.


--  198. Telegram 113716 From the Department of State to the Embassy in Turkey, June 24, 1971, 2257Z [Get Acrobat Reader PDF version   ] 

In a personal message for Ambassador Handley, Secretary of State Rogers instructed him to keep the pressure on Prime Minister Erim. Rogers noted, however, that the United States was not prepared to provide compensation for assumed losses from illicit production.

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Files 1970-73, INCO-DRUGS TUR. Secret; Exdis. Drafted by Sisco; cleared by Ehrlichman, Mitchell, and Connally; and approved by Rogers.


--  199. Telegram 4439 From the Embassy in Turkey to the Department of State, June 26, 1971, 2245Z [Get Acrobat Reader PDF version   ] 

Ambassador Handley reported to Secretary of State Rogers that a private conversation with Prime Minister Erim had resulted in a realistic approach to opium control. He urged the Department to follow through immediately.

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Files 1970-73, INCO-DRUGS TUR. Secret; Immediate; Exdis.


--  200. Telegram 4441 From the Embassy in Turkey to the Department of State, June 27, 1971, 0635Z [Get Acrobat Reader PDF version   ] 

Ambassador Handley reported that a final deal on opium control had been negotiated with Prime Minister Erim.

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Files 1970-73, INCO-DRUGS TUR. Secret; Immediate; Exdis.


--  201. Telegram 116137 From the Department of State to the Embassy in Turkey, June 28, 1971, 0114Z [Get Acrobat Reader PDF version   ] 

The Department laid out the exact terms of Ambassador Handley's agreement with the Turkish Government over opium control in order to avoid any potential misunderstanding.

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Files 1970-73, INCO-DRUGS TUR. Secret; Immediate, Exdis. Drafted by Pugh; cleared by Davies, Sisco, Connally, and Saunders; cleared in draft with Williams and in substance with Ingersoll and Wellman; and approved by Rogers.


--  202. Intelligence Report, Washington, July 1, 1971 Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, Box 359, Subject Files, Narcotics V. Secret; Sensitive. 

 [8 pages not declassified]
--  203. Memorandum From the President's Assistant for National Security Affairs (Kissinger) to President Nixon, Washington, Undated  [Get Acrobat Reader PDF version   ] 

Kissinger reported that a major breakthrough had been achieved with the Turkish Government on opium control in exchange for U.S. financial assistance and a public message from Nixon. A draft presidential statement was attached.

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, Box 358, Subject Files, Narcotics IV. Secret; Outside system. Sent for action. Nixon initialed his approval. The attached statement was released on July 30 and is printed in Public Papers: Nixon, 1971, pp. 789-790.


--  204. Intelligence Report, Washington, July 9, 1971 Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, Box 359, Subject Files, Narcotics V. Secret; Sensitive.

 [2 pages not declassified]
--  205. Unattributed Memorandum, Washington, undated  Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, Box 359, Subject Files, Narcotics V. Secret; Sensitive.

[6 pages not declassified]
--  206. Memorandum From Arnold Nachmanoff of the National Security Council Staff to the President's Assistant for National Security Affairs (Kissinger), Washington, July 23, 1971  [Get Acrobat Reader PDF version   ] 

Nachmanoff discussed the alleged involvement of Panamanian Government leaders in international narcotics trafficking. He recommended that the Bureau of Narcotic and Dangerous Drugs accept an invitation to send a mission to Panama to discuss narcotics trafficking, but to do so after coordination with other relevant agencies.

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, Box 358, Subject Files, Narcotics IV. Secret; Sensitive, Eyes Only. Sent for action. Tabs A and I were attached but not published. Kissinger instructed Nachmanoff to see Haig and suggested that he check with Ehrlichman's staffers to determine how they preferred to handle the issue.


--  207. Memorandum From the President's Deputy Assistant for National Security Affairs (Haig) to the President's Assistant for National Security Affairs (Kissinger), Washington, July 28, 1971 [Get Acrobat Reader PDF version   ] 

Haig reported that President's Assistant Ehrlichman had formed a Cabinet committee, chaired by Secretary of State Rogers, on the international drug problem. Haig added his concerns that the Department of State would not be able to mediate between the quarreling factions.

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, Box 358, Subject Files, Narcotics IV. Confidential. Haig did not initial the memorandum, and there is no indication of Kissinger's decision, but see Document 208.


--  208. White House Press Release, September 7, 1971 [Get Acrobat Reader PDF version   ] 

The press release contained a memorandum from President Nixon to Secretary of State Rogers that named the members of the Cabinet Committee on International Narcotics Control.

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, Box 359, Subject Files, Narcotics V. No classification marking. Printed from a copy that indicates Nixon signed the original.


--  209. Memorandum from the President's Assistant for National Security Affairs (Kissinger) to President Nixon, Washington, September 23, 1971  [Get Acrobat Reader PDF version   ] 

Kissinger submitted a bi-weekly report on the narcotics problem in Southeast Asia to the President.

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, Subject Files, Box 358, Narcotics IV. Confidential. Sent for information. A notation on the memorandum indicates that the President did not see it.


--  210. Memorandum From Director of Central Intelligence Helms to the President's Assistant for National Security Affairs (Kissinger), Washington, September 24, 1971  

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, Box 358, Subject Files, Narcotics IV. Secret; Sensitive.

[9 pages not declassified.]


--  211. Circular Airgram CA-4945 from the Department of State to all NEA Diplomatic and Consular Posts, November 1, 1971  [Get Acrobat Reader PDF version   ] 

The Bureau of Near Eastern and South Asian Affairs circulated a concept paper with proposals for an anti-narcotics program for the region.

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Files 1970-73, SOC 11-5. Limited Official Use. Drafted by James H. Broughton (NEA/RA) on October 28, cleared by Davies, and approved by Stanley D. Schiff (NEA/RA).


--  212. Telegram 212605 From the Department of State to the Embassy in the United Kingdom, Washington, November 23, 1971, 2114Z [Get Acrobat Reader PDF version   ] 

The Department transmitted the text of a letter from President Nixon to General Ne Win to be delivered by Ambassador Annenberg to the Burmese representative in London.

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, Box 729, Country Files, Europe, United Kingdom, Vol. VII. Secret; Immediate; Nodis. Drafted by Wellman, cleared by Dexter, and approved by Gross. Repeated Priority to Bonn and Rangoon.


--  213. Memorandum From the President's Deputy Assistant for Domestic Affairs (Krogh) to the President's Deputy Assistant for National Security Affairs (Haig), Washington, December 8, 1971 [Get Acrobat Reader PDF version   ] 

Krogh informed Haig that neither the Soviet Union nor China would respond to a U.S. call for an international "Manhattan Project" designed to end drug abuse.

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, Box 358, Subject Files, Narcotics IV. Secret. Tab A was attached but not published.


--  214. Telegram 19761 From the Embassy in the Republic of Vietnam to the Department of State, December 22, 1971, 1055Z [Get Acrobat Reader PDF version   ] 

The telegram reported a conversation between the Ambassador and Vietnamese President Thieu on the status of the Vietnamese anti-narcotics and anti-smuggling campaign.

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Files 1970-73, SOC 11-5. Secret; Exdis. Repeated to Bangkok and Seoul. The Embassy requested that the Department pass to CINCPAC for POLAD. The text of the aide mimoire is in telegram 587 from Saigon, January 13, 1972. (Ibid.)


--  215. Memorandum From John H. Holdridge of the National Security Council Staff to the President's Assistant for National Security Affairs (Kissinger), Washington, January 28, 1972  [Get Acrobat Reader PDF version   ] 

Holdridge reported on the almost "shockingly cooperative" attitude of General Ne Win towards anti-narcotics cooperation with the United States.

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, Box 358, Subject Files, Subject Files, Narcotics V. Secret. Sent for information. Haig was the original recipient, although he redirected this memorandum to Kissinger. Tab A was attached but not published.


--  216. Memorandum From the Executive Secretary of the Department of State (Eliot) to the President's Assistant for National Security Affairs (Kissinger), Washington, January 29, 1972  [Get Acrobat Reader PDF version   ] 

Eliot reported that India would play a pivotal role in amending the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs.

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, Box 358, Subject Files, Narcotics V. Confidential. David Passage signed for Eliot.


--  217. Telegram From the Department of State to all Diplomatic Posts, February 9, 1972  [Get Acrobat Reader PDF version   ] 

The Department provided the text of a message from President Nixon to all U.S. Chiefs of Mission on the subject of international narcotics control.

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Files 1970-73, SOC 11-5. Limited Official Use. Text received from the White House; cleared by Hurwitch, Fessenden, Robert P. Myers (EA), Andre J. Navez (AF), IO/HDC, and Davies; and approved by Wellman. The time of transmission is not indicated. Repeated to USUN New York, the U.S. Mission in Geneva, and Paris for NESCO.


--  218. Letter From President Nixon to Pakistani President Bhutto, Washington, February 10, 1972  [Get Acrobat Reader PDF version   ] 

At the Department of State's suggestion, Nixon sent Bhutto a letter asking for cooperation on narcotic problems and introducing Nelson Gross, the Department of State Coordinator for International Narcotic Matters, who was to visit Pakistan and South Asia.

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, Box 760, Presidential Correspondence File, Pakistan, President Bhutto. No classification marking. Rogers sent the President a draft of this letter under cover of a February 5 memorandum. (Ibid.)


--  219. Telegram 1366 From the Embassy in Pakistan to the Department of State, February 11, 1972, 1100Z [Get Acrobat Reader PDF version   ] 

Senior Advisor Gross reported on his discussion concerning narcotics with Pakistani President Bhutto.

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Files 1970-73, ORG 7/NM. Confidential. Repeated to Kabul, Tehran, and the consulate at Karachi.


--  220. Airgram A-2333 from the Department of State to all Diplomatic and Consular Posts, March 7, 1972  [Get Acrobat Reader PDF version   ] 

The airgram transmitted to all posts contains the text of Senior Adviser to the Secretary and Coordinator for International Narcotics Matters Gross' Congressional testimony.

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Files 1970-1973, SOC 11-5. Unclassified. Drafted by Lawrence and approved by Wellman.


--  221. Airgram A-3078 from the Department of State to All Diplomatic and Consular Posts, March 28, 1972  [Get Acrobat Reader PDF version   ] 

The airgram transmitted Rogers' statement on the adoption of amendments to the UN 1961 Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs plus additional background information.

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Files 1970-73, SOC 11-5. Unclassified. Drafted by Wellman on March 27 and cleared by Gross. The press statement was attached but not published.


--  222. Memorandum From Richard R. Peterson to the Open Forum Panel, Washington, April 21, 1972  [Get Acrobat Reader PDF version   ] 

Peterson recommended for debate a number of changes to strengthen narcotics control operations within the structure of the Department of State.

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Files 1970-73, SOC 11-5. No classification marking.


--  223. Airgram A-4489 From the Department of State to All Diplomatic and Consular Posts, May 3, 1972  [Get Acrobat Reader PDF version   ] 

In a question-and-answer format, the Department summarized the opium control situation in Turkey.

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Files 1970-73, SOC 11-5. Unclassified. Drafted by Wellman, cleared by Ogden, and approved by Gross.


--  224. Letter From Secretary of State Rogers to Secretary of the Treasury Schultz, Washington, June 20, 1972  [Get Acrobat Reader PDF version   ] 

Rogers discussed the funding of anti-narcotics trafficking initiatives.

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Files 1970-73, INCO-DRUGS BURMA. Secret. Drafted by Malcolm Lawrence (S/NM) and Ogden, and cleared with Davies, Gross, AID, A/NM, and Dexter.


--  225. Airgram A-8787 from the Department of State to All Diplomatic and Consular Posts, August 28, 1972  [Get Acrobat Reader PDF version   ] 

The Department provided posts with up-to-date information on international narcotics control efforts.

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Files 1970-73, SOC 11-5. Unclassified. Drafted by Wellman on August 23, cleared by S/PRS, and approved by Gross.


--  226. Circular Telegram 162821 From the Department of State to Certain Diplomatic Posts September 7, 1972  [Get Acrobat Reader PDF version   ] 

The Department of State reported that Secretary of State Rogers had approved a conference in Washington for senior-level officers responsible for narcotics matters abroad.

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Files 1970-73, SOC 11-5. Limited Official Use. Drafted by Wellman on September 6; cleared in substance with Krogh; cleared with ARA, EA, AF, EUR, NEA, and IO; and approved by Gross.


--  227. Memorandum From the Secretary's Special Assistant for Narcotic Matters (Gross) to the Director of the Office of Asian Communist Affairs (Jenkins), Washington, October 4, 1972  [Get Acrobat Reader PDF version   ] 

Gross reported on approaches made to the People's Republic of China on narcotics control.

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Files 1970-73, SOC 11-5. Secret; Nodis. Cleared by IO and Bevins. Talking points related to the PRC's accession to the Single Convention and Amending Protocol opened for signature on March 25 were attached but not published.


  
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