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 You are in: Under Secretary for Public Diplomacy and Public Affairs > Bureau of Public Affairs > Bureau of Public Affairs: Office of the Historian > Foreign Relations of the United States > Nixon-Ford Administrations > Volume III
Foreign Relations, 1969-1976, Volume III, Foreign Economic Policy, 1969-1972; International Monetary Policy, 1969-1972
Released by the Office of the Historian

Index

References are to Document numbers

Ackley, Gardner H., 14, 120
Agnew, Spiro, 19, 224
Aichi, Kiichi, 23
Allen, Richard, 79, 173
Annenberg, Walter, 175, 193
Ansiaux, Hubert J.N., 34, 121
Armstrong, Willis C., 89, 241
Azores Agreement, 219, 220, 221, 222, 223, 224

Balance of payments policies (see also German offset agreement; Gold convertibility; Japan):

Bergsten memoranda, 16, 33
Cabinet Committee on Economic Policy, 3, 5, 9
Circular telegram, 63
Council of Economic Advisers position, 131
Council on International Economic Policy discussions, 53, 54, 55, 59
European consultations, 8, 14, 16, 34, 37
Federal Reserve Board position, 15, 29
Flanigan memorandum, 32
Foreign exchange crises and, 5, 154, 166
Government transactions and, 27
Group of Ten negotiations, 1, 76, 78, 83
Interest equalization tax, 5, 6, 10, 11, 14, 15, 54
Johnson administration, 2
Kennedy memoranda, 15, 21, 31
Kissinger memoranda, 4, 12, 27, 31
Nixon Europe trip talking papers, 115
OECD WP-3 meeting, 81
Petty memoranda, 5, 11
Procedural issues, 9, 88
Shultz memoranda, 54, 60, 62
Special Drawing Rights and, 5, 8, 14, 15, 16, 111
Strategic Overview Paper, 26
Task Force on U.S. Balance of Payments Policies, 1
Treasury Department position, 10, 39, 60, 76, 89, 90
U.S.-Canadian discussions, 85
U.S. forces cost reduction and, 2, 48
U.S.-French discussions, 34, 36, 37
U.S.-Japanese discussions, 17
Volcker Group Papers, 6
Voluntary Foreign Credit Restraint program, 6, 29, 54

Bank for International Settlements (BIS), 226
Barber, Anthony, 91, 175, 181, 193
Barr, Joseph W., 153
Barre, Raymond, 34, 91
Beaudry, Robert M., 121
Beigel, Edgar J., 162
Belgium (see also European Community; Group of Ten), 14, 34, 81, 91
Bennett, Jack F., 94, 105, 192, 225, 230, 231, 242
Bennett, Wallace F., 153
Benson, Edgar J., 85, 172
Bergsten, C. Fred:

Balance of payments policies, 2, 3, 4, 8, 12, 16, 27, 31, 33, 34, 48
Cabinet Committee on Economic Policy, 19
Council on International Economic Policy, 53, 61
European Community, 44, 47
Foreign exchange crises, 123, 124, 125, 126, 160
Foreign policy considerations, 3, 64
German offset agreement, 13, 24
International monetary reform, 118, 122, 131, 138, 139, 148
Procedural issues, 3, 61, 88
Volcker Group, 109

Berlin, Lawrence H., 180
Bernard, Jean Rene, 204
Bernstein, E. M., 111, 118
Blessing, Karl, 14, 34
Boeker, Paul H., 29
Boggs Congressional Subcommittee, 56
Border tax adjustments (see also New Economic Policy), 41, 119
Borg, Parker W., 178
Bradfield, Michael, 88, 242
Brandt, Willi:

Defense burden-sharing, 45
Foreign exchange crises, 155, 234
New Economic Policy, 169, 196
German-French summit, 191, 192, 205, 206
Nixon meeting, 83

Bretton Woods system, 161, 171, 221, 242
Brimmer, Andrew F., 6, 60
Brown, John, 32
Brown, Winthrop, 69
Brunthaver, Carroll G., 100, 102
Bryant, Ralph, 173, 230, 242
Burns, Arthur F. (see also Quadriad):

Balance of payments policies, 1, 3, 8, 27, 31, 33, 59
Bank for International Settlements, 226
Cabinet Committee on Economic Policy, 19
Foreign exchange crises, 232, 236, 240
Gold prices, 115, 160
International monetary reform, 161

Exchange rate flexibility, 149
Gold convertibility, 151, 168
Nixon meeting (June 26, 1969), 131
Smithsonian Agreement, 221
U.S.-French discussions, 146
Volcker Group Papers, 130

International monetary situation reports, 198
Japan, 23, 72
New Economic Policy, 164, 165, 168, 177, 191

International negotiations, 183, 187, 189, 195, 203, 213, 215

Procedural issues, 38
Shultz Group, 232
U.S.-French discussions, 36, 37

Butz, Earl, 100

C-20 Committee, 237, 244
Cabinet Committee on the Balance of Payments, 9
Cabinet Committee on Economic Policy, 3, 5, 9, 19
Cadieux, Marcel, 85
Caetano, Marcello, 83
Campbell, John, 49
Camps, Miriam C., 40
Canada (see also Group of Ten), 71, 81, 85, 88, 89, 147, 172, 188
Capital controls. See Balance of payments policies.
Cargo, William I., 40
Carli, Guido, 121, 161
Cates, William C., 63, 77, 156
Center for Political Research (CPR), 54
Central American Common Market, 26
Chile, 91
China, People's Republic of, 83
Clappier, Bernard, 170
Clift, Denis, 85
Cohen, Edwin S., 182
Cole, Ken, 27, 137
Colman, John C., 9, 11, 17, 20, 71
Colombo, Emilio, 14, 120, 132, 210
Common Market. See European Community; European Economic Community.
Conference on European Security and Cooperation (CESC), 91
Congo, 145
Congress, U.S.:

Council on International Economic Policy, 67
Gold convertibility, 152, 164
Gold prices, 153, 209
Interest equalization tax, 11
Reuss Subcommittee on International Exchange and Payments of the Joint Economic Committee, 164, 167
State Department economic strategy paper, 56
U.S. economic/military aid and, 2
U.S. forces cost reduction, 13

Connally, John (see also Quadriad):

Balance of payments policies, 63, 78, 85
Council on Foreign Relations address, 226, 236
Council on International Economic Policy, 55, 57, 59, 61, 79
Defense burden-sharing, 84
Foreign exchange crises, 155, 156, 158, 159, 160
Foreign investment task force, 80
German offset agreement, 68
Japan, 75, 77, 87
New Economic Policy, 164, 165, 168

Azores Agreement, 223, 224
Bilateral discussions, 181, 193, 194, 215, 219, 220
Circular telegram, 213
European Community trade negotiations, 217
Foreign reactions, 71, 172
Group of Ten discussions, 175, 178, 182, 210, 211, 212, 216
Group of Ten meeting postponement, 191, 194
Hormats memoranda, 188, 202
International negotiations, 187, 203
Kissinger memorandum, 176
Peterson memoranda, 177, 185, 186
Press conferences, 193, 195
Quadriad discussions, 189

OECD ministerial meeting, 65
Procedural issues, 58, 88, 166
Resignation, 90, 232, 236
Smithsonian Agreement, 221, 227
Treasury Secretary appointment, 52

Coombs, Charles A., 151
Cooper, Richard N., 3, 26, 54, 123, 125
Corporate codes of conduct, 2
Council of Economic Advisers (CEA), 131
Council on Foreign Relations, 226, 236
Council on International Economic Policy (CIEP), 53, 54, 55

Briefing paper, 67
Canada, 89
Decision Memoranda:

No. 3, 61
No. 14, 101

Establishment, 48, 49
Foreign investment interagency task force, 80
Japan, 69, 70, 75
McCracken memorandum, 157, 158, 159, 160
New Economic Policy, 174
Procedural issues, 49, 57, 58, 61, 75, 88, 107
Study Memoranda:

No. 1, 55, 57, 59, 60
No. 7, 67
No. 14, 80

"U.S. Objectives for Trade Negotiations and Monetary Reform," 94
Volcker Group Alternates and, 225
Work program, 79

Cross, Sam Y., 17, 162, 163, 170, 171, 242
Curran, Robert T., 63, 89, 241
Currency crises. See Foreign exchange crises.

Daane, Dewey:

Foreign exchange crises, 123, 126
International monetary reform, 118, 120, 127, 135, 221

Special Drawing Rights, 113, 132, 135, 231

New Economic Policy, 170, 171, 173

Dahrendorf, Ralf, 43, 44, 47, 102
Dale, William B.:

International monetary reform, 121, 241

Exchange rate flexibility, 147, 163
IMF quota increases, 133, 135
Special Drawing Rights, 112, 132, 135, 150

Japan, 77
Special Working Group, 242
Volcker Group Alternates, 225

Dam, Kenneth, 72, 76, 182, 184, 225, 242
Davignon, Etienne, 91
Davis, Jeanne W., 20, 69, 73, 174
De Gaulle, Charles, 7, 116
De Strycker, C., 135, 142
Debre, Michel, 7
Defense, U.S. Department of, 49
Defense burden-sharing (see also German offset agreement), 2, 78

European Community trade negotiations and, 91
European Defense Improvement Program, 50, 78, 84
German position, 45
Group of Ten discussions, 84
Japan, 17, 23, 82
Kennedy memorandum, 46
New Economic Policy and, 177

Deming, Frederick L., 109
Deming Group. See Volcker Group.
DePalma, Samuel, 141
Developing countries. See Less developed countries.
Direct investment control relaxation (see also Balance of payments policies):

Bergsten memoranda, 16, 33
Cabinet Committee on Economic Policy, 3
Council on International Economic Policy discussions, 54
Kennedy memoranda, 15, 31
Kissinger memoranda, 4, 12, 31
Treasury Department paper, 10
Volcker Group Papers, 6

Dyche, Schubert, 92

East-West trade, 19
Eberle, William D., 90

European Community, 102, 105
Trade negotiations, 91, 100, 101, 218
Japan, 87, 93
New Economic Policy, 213, 214, 218

Echeverria Alvarez, Luis, 172
ECONCOM (U.S.-Japan Joint Economic Committee), 23, 69, 75, 77
Economic aid/Special Drawing Rights link, 34, 120, 132, 141, 146, 150
Ehrlichman, John D., 38, 75, 80, 168

Council on International Economic Policy, 53, 61, 79

Eliot, Theodore L., Jr., 68, 89

Japan, 73, 77
New Economic Policy, 172, 178, 188

Emminger, Otmar, 81, 142, 145, 149

Foreign exchange crises, 122, 123, 126
New Economic Policy, 170, 192, 199
Special Drawing Rights, 133, 231

Enders, Thomas O., 8, 112, 117
Erb, Richard, 225, 242
Europe. See European Community; European Economic Community; Europe, U.S. policy toward; specific countries.
Europe, U.S. policy toward, 106, 108
European Community (EC) (see also European Economic Community), 40, 42

Common Agricultural Policy (CAP), 42, 91, 108, 140, 154, 207
Dollar inflow problem, 151
Enlargement, 26, 43, 44, 47, 154, 156
Exchange rate flexibility and, 148
Group of Twenty and, 227
New Economic Policy, 172, 178, 214, 217, 218
Non-member preferential trade agreements, 40, 47, 48, 100, 105
Trade negotiations (1972), 91, 100, 101
U.S. consultations, 44, 47, 102, 103, 104

European Defense Improvement Program (EDIP), 50, 78, 84
European Economic Community (EEC) (see also European Community), 19, 26, 34, 36

New Economic Policy, 190, 199

European Free Trading Association (EFTA), 26, 40, 205
Exchange rate flexibility (see also International monetary reform):

Circular telegram, 163
Council on International Economic Policy discussions, 174
German position, 34, 128
Group of Ten discussions, 111, 138, 146, 147, 149
Kissinger memoranda, 131, 140
McCracken memorandum, 157
State Department economic strategy paper, 56
Task Force on U.S. Balance of Payments Policies, 2
U.S.-British discussions, 114
U.S.-European discussions, 121, 127, 128
U.S.-French discussions, 146, 156, 162
Volcker Europe trip, 121
Volcker Group Papers, 110, 111, 118, 119, 121, 130, 147, 148

Export Expansion Advisory Committee, 9

Fayat, Henri, 91
Federal Reserve Board (see also Federal Reserve program), 15, 29, 60, 126
Federal Reserve program (see also Balance of payments policies), 6, 8, 10, 14, 15, 29
Feketekuty, Geza, 228, 230
Ferrari Aggradi, Mario, 171, 210, 213, 218
Flanigan, Peter M.:

Balance of payments policies, 32, 33, 90
Canada, 88
Council on International Economic Policy, 94
European Community, 91, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105
Foreign exchange crises, 232, 233
Japan, 93
New Economic Policy, 187, 189
Shultz Group, 232, 242
U.S. forces cost reduction, 48
U.S. policy toward Europe, 106
Volcker Group Alternates, 225

Fleming, J. Marcus, 121
Foreign exchange crises, 110, 125, 232, 233, 234, 235, 236

Balance of payments policies and, 5, 154, 166
French position, 156
Hormats memorandum, 167
Johnston memorandum, 154
Katz memorandum, 166
Kennedy memorandum, 126
Kissinger memoranda, 123, 124, 129, 139
McCracken memoranda, 124, 129, 157, 158, 159, 160
New Economic Policy and, 164, 174
Shultz memorandum, 234
Smithsonian Agreement and, 108, 234, 242
Strategic Overview Paper, 26
Treasury Department papers, 152
U.S.-British discussions, 122
U.S.-French discussions, 156
U.S.-German discussions, 155, 235, 240

Foreign investment (see also Direct investment control relaxation), 2, 56, 80
Foreign policy aspects of foreign economic policy, 3, 4, 64
Fowler, Henry H., 17
France (see also Azores Agreement; European consultations under Balance of payments policies; Group of Ten; New Economic Policy international negotiations):

Balance of payments policies, 34, 36, 37
European Community trade negotiations, 91
Gold prices, 153
International monetary reform, 7, 134, 146, 156, 162
New Economic Policy, 170, 171, 191, 197, 208, 217, 219, 220
Nixon visit, 7, 116
OECD WP-3 meeting, 81
Political situation, 122, 123, 125
Pompidou U.S. visit, 34, 36, 37

Freeman, John, 122
Friedman, Milton, 193
Fukuda, Takeo, 17, 82, 87, 194

General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), 41, 100, 105, 108, 229

Japan, 23, 74, 75

German offset agreement, 2, 13, 18, 24, 45, 50, 68, 86
Germany, Federal Republic of (see also Defense burden-sharing; European consultations under Balance of payments policies; Foreign exchange crises; German offset agreement; Group of Ten; New Economic Policy international negotiations; U.S. forces cost reduction):

Berlin tax concession, 28
European Community trade negotiations, 91
Exchange rate flexibility, 34, 128
Foreign exchange crises, 155, 235, 240
Gold prices, 111, 153
International monetary reform, 34, 128
New Economic Policy, 169, 170, 181, 188, 191, 192, 205, 206
OECD WP-3 meeting, 81

Gilbert, Carl, 41, 44, 65, 75, 231

Council on International Economic Policy, 49, 55, 61, 79

Giscard d'Estaing, Valery, 91

Balance of payments policies, 34
Foreign exchange crises, 156
IMF monetary reform report, 238, 241
International monetary reform, 134, 146, 162
New Economic Policy, 171, 183, 190, 199, 219

Gold convertibility (see also International monetary reform; New Economic Policy), 136

Congressional actions, 152, 164
Coombs memorandum, 151
French position, 116
Kennedy IMF speech (Sept. 29, 1969), 139
Kissinger memoranda, 12, 131, 139
Strategic Overview Paper, 26
Task Force on U.S. Balance of Payments Policies, 1, 2
Volcker Group Papers, 111, 119, 130

Gold prices (see also New Economic Policy), 209, 224

European consultations, 34, 145
Kissinger memorandum, 131
New Economic Policy and, 171
Nixon Europe trip, 115, 116
South Africa and, 34, 114, 145, 153
Task Force on U.S. Balance of Payments Policies, 1
Treasury Department position, 153
Two-tier system, 145, 153
Volcker Group Papers, 111, 119, 130

Gould, Kingdon, Jr., 172
Grandy, James F., 85
Great Britain (see also European consultations under Balance of payments policies; Foreign exchange crises; Group of Ten; New Economic Policy international negotiations), 81, 91, 114, 122

European Community entry, 26, 154, 156
Foreign exchange crises, 232, 233
New Economic Policy, 170, 193

Greece, 22
Greenwald, Joseph A., 5, 8, 81
Group of Ten:

Balance of payment negotiations, 1, 76, 78, 83
Defense burden-sharing, 84
Exchange rate flexibility, 111, 138, 146, 147, 149
Foreign exchange crises, 174
Group of Twenty creation, 229
IMF quota increases, 135, 142
Less developed country participation, 225
Meeting postponement, 191, 193, 194, 199
New Economic Policy, 174, 175, 178, 182, 191, 193, 194, 199, 205, 210, 211, 212, 213
Smithsonian Agreement, 221
Special Drawing Rights, 111, 132, 133, 135, 175, 178, 231

Group of Twenty, 92, 227, 229
Gyoten, Toyoo, 77

Haberler, Gottfried, 1
Haferkamp, Wilhelm, 102
Haig, Col. Alexander M.:

Balance of payments policies, 12, 32, 33
Council on International Economic Policy, 67, 79
European Community trade negotiations, 100
Foreign exchange crises, 160
International monetary situation reports, 136
Japan, 70, 93, 95
Kennedy IMF speech (Sept. 29, 1969), 138
New Economic Policy, 177, 186, 188, 200, 211, 212, 223
OECD ministerial meeting, 65, 66
U.S. forces cost reduction, 48
U.S. policy toward Europe, 106

Haldeman, H. R., 38, 164, 168, 191
Hampton, Brig. Gen., 22
Handfield-Jones, 142, 231
Hankel, 170
Hara, 170
Hardin, Clifford, 42, 75, 106

Cabinet Committee on Economic Policy, 3, 19
Council on International Economic Policy, 49, 55, 61, 79, 94

Harris, John, 122
Hartman, Arthur A., 22, 43, 44
Hawaii Conference, 72
Hayes, Alfred, 151
Heath, Edward, 232, 233, 242
Heginbotham, E., 121, 128
Helms, Richard M., 22, 69, 75, 94, 106
Herbst, Otto Axel, 68, 86
Hermberg, Edzard S., 181
Hickel, Walter, 75
Higginson, Charles, 40
Hillenbrand, Martin, 89, 219

Foreign exchange crises, 235, 240
German offset agreement, 18, 24

Hinton, Deane, 66, 100, 173, 225

Council on International Economic Policy, 61, 79

Hirsch, Fred, 121
Hirschtritt, Ralph, 17
Hodgson, James D., 75, 80

Council on International Economic Policy, 49, 55, 61, 79

Hogen, Shinsaku, 96
Holdridge, John, 70, 73, 93, 95, 96
Hormats, Robert:

Balance of payments policies, 90
Canada, 85
Council on International Economic Policy, 79
European Community consultations, 104
European Community trade negotiations, 100
Foreign exchange crises, 160, 167, 233, 235, 236, 240
IMF quota increases, 144
International monetary situation reports, 244
Japan, 70, 87, 93, 95
New Economic Policy, 188, 198, 200, 202

Foreign reactions, 172, 174
International negotiations, 182, 211, 212, 214, 217, 222

Nixon/Shultz IMF speeches (Sept. 1972), 243
Procedural issues, 75
Smithsonian Agreement, 226

Hosomi, Takashi, 77
Houthakker, Hendrick, 3, 7, 8, 109, 123
Howe, Jon, 160
Huntsman, Jon, 65, 66, 158, 159, 160

New Economic Policy, 177, 193, 195

 

Import surcharge. See New Economic Policy.
Inamura, Koichi, 77, 142
Inflation, 8, 51, 131, 149

Balance of payments policies and, 8, 34
U.S.-French discussions, 36, 37, 156

Ingersoll, Robert S., 93, 95, 96, 98
Interest equalization tax (IET) (see also Balance of payments policies), 5, 6, 10, 11, 14, 15, 54
International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD), 146, 180
International Development Association (IDA), 146
International Monetary Fund (IMF) (see also Special Drawing Rights):

Balance of payments policies, 8
C-20 Committee, 237
Documents, SM/72/122, 237
Exchange rate flexibility, 56
Group of Twenty, 227
Kennedy speech (Sept. 29, 1969), 136-138
New Economic Policy, 180, 183
Nixon/Shultz speeches (Sept. 1972), 243
Report on Reform of the International Monetary System, 238, 241, 242

International monetary reform (see also Exchange rate flexibility; Foreign exchange crises; Gold convertibility; New Economic Policy; Special Drawing Rights):

Balance of payments policies and, 5
C-20 Committee, 237
Connally International Banking Conference speech (May 28, 1971), 155
Council of Economic Advisers papers, 131
Council on International Economic Policy, 59, 94
European Community trade negotiations and, 91
French political situation and, 122, 123
Group of Ten discussions, 138
IMF quota increases, 119-120, 133, 135, 142, 144
IMF report, 238, 242
International monetary situation reports, 136, 143, 147, 198, 244
Kennedy IMF speech (Sept. 29, 1969), 136, 137, 138
Kissinger memoranda, 51, 131, 139, 140
Nixon Europe trip, 115, 116
Nixon meeting (June 26, 1969), 130, 131, 136
Nixon/Shultz IMF speeches (Sept. 1972), 243
Nixon Treasury Department remarks, 117
OECD WP-3 role, 113, 132
Procedural issues, 38
Schlesinger memorandum, 161
Special Working Group, 242
State Department economic strategy paper, 56
Strategic Overview Paper, 26
Trade link, 90, 91, 94
Treasury Plan X, 239
U.S.-British discussions, 122
U.S.-French discussions, 7, 146
U.S.-German discussions, 34, 128
U.S.-Italian discussions, 120
U.S. policy toward Europe and, 108
Volcker Group papers, 110-111, 118, 119, 130, 133

Irwin, John N., Jr., 89, 90, 166, 241

European Community, 44, 47, 91, 102, 105
Japan, 69, 71, 74
New Economic Policy, 207

Israel, 105
Italy (see also Defense burden-sharing; European consultations under Balance of payments policies; Group of Ten; New Economic Policy international negotiations; U.S. forces cost reduction), 14, 81, 91, 120, 153, 170
Iyami, 170

Japan (see also Group of Ten; New Economic Policy international negotiations), 71-73, 92, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99

Council on International Economic Policy discussions, 69, 70, 75
Defense burden-sharing, 17, 23, 82
GATT, 23, 74-75
National Security Study Memorandum, 17, 20
New Economic Policy, 170, 194
OECD WP-3 meeting, 81
Sato U.S. visit, 17, 23, 30, 83, 87, 93
U.S.-Japan Joint Economic Committee, 23, 69, 75, 77

Javits, Jacob, 209
Jenkins, Roy, 34, 114, 122, 138
Joge, 121, 142
Johnson, U. Alexis, 22, 42, 169
Japan, 23, 69, 74, 87
Johnson, William, 85
Johnson administration, 2, 10
Johnston, Ernest, 50, 65, 67, 154, 160
Jones, Dallas L., 89
Jurich, Anthony J., 17, 20, 24

Kashiwagi, Yusuke, 17
Katz, Abraham, 40, 163, 207
Katz, Julius, 85, 166, 178, 186, 214
Kearns, Henry, 92
Kehrli, Bruce, 104
Kempe, Edson W., 207
Kennedy, David M.:

Balance of payments policies, 3, 8, 14-16, 21, 29, 31, 33-34

Petty memoranda, 5, 11
U.S.-French discussions, 36-37

Border tax adjustments, 41
Conference on European Security and Cooperation, 91
Council on International Economic Policy, 49, 61, 67, 79
Defense burden-sharing, 46
Foreign exchange crises, 122, 123, 126
German tax concession, 28
Gold prices, 145
IMF speech (Sept. 29, 1969), 136, 137, 138
International monetary reform:

Bilateral discussions, 122, 128, 146
Exchange rate flexibility, 122, 146, 148-149
IMF quota increases, 144
Nixon meeting (June 26, 1969), 131
Nixon Treasury Department remarks, 117
Special Drawing Rights, 113, 132, 135, 141
Volcker Group Papers, 130

International monetary situation reports, 147
Japan, 17, 20, 75
National Advisory Council on International Monetary and Financial Policy, 9
New Economic Policy, 177, 191, 219
North Atlantic Treaty Organization, 52
U.S. economic aid, 35
Volcker Group, 109

Kennon, L. J., 62, 162-163, 178
Kerrigan, William M., 141
Kessler, John B.A., 142
Kiesinger, Kurt George, 136
Kishi, Nobusuke, 87
Kissinger, Henry A.:

Balance of payments policies, 4, 12, 27, 31

Bergsten memoranda, 16, 33
European consultations, 8, 34
U.S.-Canadian discussions, 85

Cabinet Committee on Economic Policy, 19
Council on International Economic Policy, 49, 53, 55, 59, 61, 94
Defense burden-sharing, 78
European Community, 40, 43

Trade negotiations, 91, 101
U.S. consultations, 44, 47, 102, 104

Foreign exchange crises, 122-123, 125-126, 129, 139, 233, 236

Council on International Economic Policy discussions, 174
Hormats memorandum, 167
Johnston memorandum, 154
McCracken memoranda, 124, 160
U.S.-German discussions, 235, 240

Foreign investment task force, 80
Foreign policy considerations, 4, 64
German offset agreement, 13, 24, 50, 68
German tax concession, 28
International monetary reform, 7, 51, 122, 130, 135, 140, 174

Gold convertibility, 12, 131, 139

International monetary situation reports, 136, 143, 151, 198, 244
Japan, 20, 69, 73, 87

U.S.-Japanese discussions, 71, 74, 75, 77, 93, 96, 97, 98, 99

New Economic Policy, 168

Azores Agreement, 222, 223
European Community trade negotiations, 214, 217, 218
Foreign reactions, 172, 174, 185, 188
Group of Ten discussions, 178, 211
Hormats memoranda, 182, 188, 202
International negotiations, 176, 191, 193, 203
OMB/Treasury papers, 200
Peterson memoranda, 177, 179, 186
Quadriad discussions, 186, 187, 189
U.S.-French discussions, 219, 220

Nixon/Shultz IMF speeches (Sept. 1972), 243
OECD ministerial meeting, 65, 66
Procedural issues, 38, 75, 88
Shultz Group, 232
Smithsonian Agreement, 226
Strategic Overview Paper, 26
U.S. forces cost reduction, 2, 22, 25, 48
U.S. policy toward Europe, 106, 108

Klasen, Karl, 181, 183, 206, 225
Kondo, Michio, 77, 92
Kornblum, John C., 128
Korp, Ralph V., 121
Kosugi, Terou, 194
Kuczynski, Michael, 121

Laffer, Arthur B., 54
Laird, Melvin, 75, 106

Council on International Economic Policy, 49, 79, 94, 107
Defense burden-sharing, 46, 78

Larosiere, Jacques de, 146, 162
Larre, Rene, 14, 121, 142, 146
Latin America, 26, 183, 185
Latin America Free Trade Area, 26
Leddy, John M., 163
Less developed countries (LDCs) (see also U.S. economic aid):

Balance of payments policies, 31-33
Economic nationalism, 2
European Community trade negotiations and, 91
Gold purchases, 145
Group of Ten participation, 225
New Economic Policy and, 183, 185
Special Drawing Rights and, 120, 132
Strategic Overview Paper, 26

Livingston, Robert G., 234
Loken, James, 100
Long, Russell, 153
Lucet, Charles, 7
Luns, Joseph, 91, 196

MacLaury, Bruce K., 131, 146
Malfatti, Franco Mario, 43, 61
Malmgren, Harold B., 242
Management and Budget, Office of (OMB), 72, 200
Mansfield, Mike, 2, 156
Mansholt, Sicco, 91
Martin, William McC., 80, 109, 145, 227

Balance of payments policies, 8, 15, 29
International monetary reform, 130-132, 135, 164

Mayo, Robert P., 19, 41, 130, 131

Balance of payments policies, 3, 8, 15, 27

Mazaki, Hideki, 194
McCracken, Paul W. (see also Quadriad):

Balance of payments policies, 3, 4, 8, 15, 21, 27
Border tax adjustments, 41
Cabinet Committee on Economic Policy, 19
Council on International Economic Policy, 49, 55, 59, 61, 79
Foreign exchange crises, 124, 129, 157, 158, 159, 160
Foreign investment task force, 80
Gold prices, 115
International monetary reform, 130, 131, 137, 140, 146
International monetary situation reports, 136, 143
Japan, 69, 72, 75
New Economic Policy, 164, 168, 176, 177, 187, 189, 204
U.S. forces cost reduction, 48
Volcker Group, 109

McGinnis, John J., 68
McGrew, Donald, 14, 146, 162
Meyer, Armin H., 23, 194
Meyer, Charles A., 82
Middendorf, John W., 171, 196, 215
Mills, Wilbur, 166
Mitchell, Derek, 193
Mizuta, Mikio, 17, 77, 82, 87
New Economic Policy, 178, 183, 194
Mobutu Sese Seko, 145
Moeller, Alex, 34
Montreal Monetary Conference, 236
Moorer, Adm. Thomas N., 106
Morris, Robert J., 100
Morse, Jeremy, 142, 170, 237
Mosbacher, Emil, 122
Moynihan, Daniel Patrick, 19

Nakasone, Yasuhiro, 93
National Advisory Council on International Monetary and Financial Policy (NAC), 9
National Security Council (NSC):

Balance of payments policies, 3, 4, 5, 16
German offset agreement, 18
Interdepartmental Group for East Asia, 20
Japan, 17, 20, 69
Procedural issues, 3, 4, 5, 16, 19

National Security Decision Memoranda (NSDM):

12, 18, 22, 24
13, 20, 69
45, 42
68, 42, 47
130, 75
133, 78

National Security Study Memoranda (NSSM):

5, 17, 20, 69
7, 109
79, 40
91, 40
122, 69, 73
164, 106, 108

Ndele, Alfred, 145
Neale, A. D., 170, 193
Nelson, T. Page, 5, 145, 242
Netherlands (see also European consultations under Balance of payments policies; Group of Ten), 14, 34, 81, 215
New Economic Policy (see also Gold convertibility; New Economic Policy international negotiations), 164, 165, 168

Foreign reactions, 71, 169, 170, 171, 172, 174, 185, 188
German-French summit, 191-192, 205, 206
Group of Ten discussions, 174, 175, 178, 182, 205, 210, 211, 212, 213
Nixon speech (Aug. 15, 1971), 71-72, 110, 168
Press coverage, 203
Volcker Group discussions, 173

New Economic Policy international negotiations (see also Smithsonian Agreement), 203

Azores Agreement, 219, 220, 221, 222, 223
Council on International Economic Policy discussions, 174
Circular telegrams, 207, 213, 216
EC/EEC discussions, 178, 190, 199
European Community trade negotiations, 214, 217, 218
Group of Ten discussions, 178, 205, 210, 211, 212, 213, 216
Group of Ten meeting postponement, 191, 193, 194, 199
Hormats memoranda, 182, 188, 202
IBRD/IMF meetings, 180, 183
Kissinger memorandum, 176
North American Treaty Organization and, 196, 211
Nixon high-level meetings, 83
OECD discussions, 204
OMB paper, 200
Peterson memoranda, 177, 179, 185-186, 195, 209
Quadriad discussions, 176, 185, 186, 187, 188, 189
Treasury Department position, 172, 200, 201
U.S.-British discussions, 193
U.S.-French discussions, 191, 197, 208, 217, 219, 220
U.S.-German discussions, 181, 188, 192, 206
U.S.-Japanese discussions, 194
U.S.-Netherlands discussions, 215
Volcker Group role, 184

Nield, 142
Nishimura, Gen., 82
Nixon, Richard M.:

Balance of payments policies, 3, 4, 12, 15, 16, 21, 27, 31-34
Council on International Economic Policy, 49, 53, 61, 67, 79
Defense burden-sharing, 45, 46, 84
East-West trade, 19
European Community, 36, 44, 47, 100, 102, 103, 105
Europe trip, 7, 8, 115, 116
Foreign exchange crises:

Kennedy memorandum, 126
Kissinger memoranda, 123, 124, 129, 139
McCracken memorandum, 157, 158, 159, 160
Shultz memorandum, 234
U.S.-British discussions, 122, 232, 233, 242

Foreign investment task force, 80
German offset agreement, 50
High-level European meetings, 83, 219
IMF quota increases, 144
International monetary reform:

Bilateral discussions, 7, 122
Group of Ten discussions, 135
IMF speech (Sept. 1972), 243
Kennedy IMF speech (Sept. 29, 1969), 137, 138
Kissinger memoranda, 51, 131, 139-140
Meeting (June 26, 1969), 130, 131
Smithsonian Agreement, 221
Treasury Department remarks, 117

International monetary situation reports, 136, 143, 147, 198
Japan, 74, 77, 97, 98, 99
Sato U.S. visit, 17, 23, 30, 87, 93
New Economic Policy, 164, 165, 168, 169

Azores Agreement, 219, 220, 223, 224
Hormats memorandum, 202
IBRD/IMF meetings, 183
International negotiations, 191, 202, 203
Kissinger memorandum, 176
OECD discussions, 204
Peterson memoranda, 177, 195, 209
Quadriad discussions, 187, 189
Speech (Aug. 15, 1971), 71, 72, 110, 168
U.S.-French discussions, 217, 219, 220

OECD ministerial meeting, 65, 66
Pompidou U.S. visit, 36, 37
Procedural issues, 9, 19, 38, 58, 61
Soviet/Chinese summits, 83
U.S. forces cost reduction, 2, 22, 25
Volcker Group, 109

Nixon Doctrine, 2
Noel, Emile, 218
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), 19, 52

Defense burden-sharing, 2, 46, 78, 84
New Economic Policy, 196, 211

Nuvoloni, Ludovico, 120

O'Brien, Leslie, 181
Ohira, Masayoshi, 93, 96
Oort, 215, 227, 231
Operation Reduction (OPRED), 2, 25
Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), 225, 229

Comprehensive economic program proposal, 56
Ministerial meeting, 65, 66, 90
New Economic Policy, 204
Special Drawing Rights, 113
Trade/monetary negotiations link, 90, 91
U.S. balance of payments policies, 76
WP-3, 81, 113, 121, 132

Orwat, Maj. Gen., 22
Osborn, David L., 23
Osgood, Robert E., 2, 26
Ossola, Rinaldo, 149, 227

IMF quota increases, 135, 142
New Economic Policy, 170, 203, 210
Special Drawing Rights, 113, 132, 133, 135, 231

Overbey, Col. G. D., 22

Palmby, Clarence, 44
Palumbo, 120, 142
Pascoe, L. P., 112
Patman, Wright, 153
Pauls, Rolf, 24, 45, 68, 123, 126, 234
Pearce, William R., 100
Pedersen, Richard, 40
Pepin, Jean Luc, 85
Peterson, Peter G.:

Balance of payments policies, 60, 62
Commerce Secretary appointment, 88
Council on International Economic Policy, 49, 53, 54, 55, 57, 59

Briefing paper, 67
Foreign investment task force, 80
Procedural issues, 61, 75
Work program, 79

European Community trade negotiations, 91, 100, 218
Foreign exchange crises, 158, 159
Foreign policy considerations, 64
International monetary reform, 51, 161
Japan, 69, 72, 73, 75
New Economic Policy, 164, 168, 173, 176, 177

International negotiations, 179, 182, 184, 185, 186, 187, 189, 191, 195, 218
OECD ministerial meeting, 65-66
U.S. policy toward Europe, 106

Peterson, Rudy, 58
Peterson Council. See Council on International Economic Policy.
Petrow, C., 171
Petty, John R.:

Balance of payments policies, 5, 8, 11, 14, 21, 39
Canada, 85
Council on International Economic Policy, 57
Foreign exchange crises, 156
International monetary reform, 143, 146

Special Drawing Rights, 5, 120, 132, 135, 141

Japan, 17, 20, 77
New Economic Policy, 179, 181, 182, 185

Circular telegrams, 207, 213, 216
Group of Ten discussions, 175, 216

U.S. economic aid, 35

Pierre-Brossolette, Claude, 146, 170, 231
Plescoff, George, 7, 146
Polak, J.J., 142
Policy Analysis Decision Memoranda (PADM):

No. 10, 89

Pompidou, Georges:

Azores Agreement, 219, 220, 221, 222, 223, 224
Azores Summit, 83, 217, 219, 220
Election of, 123
Foreign exchange crises, 234
International monetary reform, 134, 162
New Economic Policy, 190, 191, 192, 205, 206, 217
U.S. visit, 34, 36, 37

Portugal, 145
Preeg, Ernest H., 56
Procedural issues, 9, 38, 166

Balance of payments policies, 9, 88
Council on International Economic Policy, 49, 57, 58, 61, 75, 88, 107
Foreign policy considerations and, 64
National Security Council, 3, 4, 5, 16, 19
New Economic Policy, 168, 176
Volcker Group Alternates creation, 225
Volcker Group creation, 109

Public opinion, 56

Quadriad, 12, 136, 176, 185, 186, 187, 188, 189

Reduction of Costs in Europe (REDCOSTE), 2, 18, 22
Reifman, A., 56, 89
Renner, J., 56
Reuss, Henry, 152-153, 164, 167, 209
Rey, Jean, 34
Richardson, Elliot L., 22, 24, 25, 45
Riesman, Sol Simon, 85
Ritchie, A.E., 85, 89
Rodman, Peter W., 96
Rogers, William P.:

Balance of payments policies, 5, 8, 15, 63
Canada, 89
Council on International Economic Policy, 49, 55, 61, 79, 94
Defense burden-sharing, 45-46, 78
European Community, 42, 43, 91, 100
Foreign exchange crises, 166
Foreign investment task force, 80
German offset agreement, 18, 86
International monetary reform, 51, 117, 128, 130, 131, 142

Exchange rate flexibility, 121, 162, 163
New Economic Policy, 83, 168, 169, 216, 219
Special Drawing Rights, 112, 141

Japan, 23, 74, 75, 77
Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, 65, 66, 90
Procedural issues, 9, 58, 166
Shultz Group, 232
U.S. policy toward Europe, 106
Volcker Group, 109

Rueff, Jacques, 153
Rush, Kenneth, 45, 100, 108

New Economic Policy, 190, 199, 206, 217

 

Safire, William, 3, 19, 168
Samuels, Nathaniel:

Balance of payments policies, 62, 63
Border tax adjustments, 41
Cabinet Committee on Economic Policy, 19
Canada, 89
Council on International Economic Policy, 79
Defense burden-sharing, 45
European Community, 40, 43, 44, 47, 102
Foreign exchange crises, 123
German offset agreement, 24, 50, 68, 86
International monetary reform, 128, 131, 134
New Economic Policy, 168, 173, 186, 190, 214
State Department economic strategy paper, 56
Volcker Group Alternates, 225

Samuelson, Paul, 193
Sasaki, 183
Sato, Eisaku:

New Economic Policy, 194
U.S. visit, 17, 23, 30, 83, 87, 93

Schaetzel, J. Robert, 214, 218
Schaffner, Philip P., 15
Scheel, Walter, 196
Schiller, Karl, 91, 111, 151

Balance of payments policies, 34
International monetary reform, 122, 128, 133
New Economic Policy, 175, 181, 190, 199

Schmelzer, W.K. Norbert, 196
Schmidt, Adolph William, 85
Schmidt, Helmut, 45, 196, 235, 240
Schmidt, Wilson E., 60, 76, 77, 80
Schoellhorn, Johann, 122, 123, 128, 133, 170, 181, 227
Schumann, Maurice, 218, 219
Schweitzer, Pierre Paul, 8, 111, 172, 175, 178, 209
Scott, Harold, 85
Shakespeare, Frank J., 91
Sharp, Mitchell, 172
Shimoda, Takeso, 23
Shriver, Robert S., Jr., 34, 114, 132, 134-135
Shultz, George P. (see also Quadriad), 41, 51

Balance of payments policies, 3, 54, 60, 62
Cabinet Committee on Economic Policy, 3, 19
Canada, 89
Council on International Economic Policy, 49, 53, 54, 55, 61, 79, 94
European Community trade negotiations, 91, 100
Foreign exchange crises, 160, 232, 234, 242
Foreign investment task force, 80
IMF monetary reform report, 238, 241, 242
IMF speech (Sept. 1972), 243
Japan, 69, 72, 75, 92, 97
New Economic Policy, 164, 165, 168

International negotiations, 176-177, 182, 184, 187, 188, 189, 200, 202, 211, 212

Treasury Secretary appointment, 90, 107, 232
U.S. policy toward Europe, 106

Shultz Group, 232, 242
Siciliano, Rocco C., 61
Singapore, 145
Sjonander, 231
Smith, R. J., 178
Smithsonian Agreement, 221, 222, 227, 232, 236

Foreign exchange crises and, 108, 234, 242
French position, 226

Snoy et d'Oppuers, Jean-Charles, 34, 121, 205
Solomon, Ezra, 118, 173, 182, 184
Solomon, Robert, 230
Sonnenfeldt, Helmut, 85, 104, 219, 226

Azores Agreement, 222, 224
Foreign exchange crises, 154, 167
German offset agreement, 24, 68

South Africa. See Gold prices.
Soviet Union, 83, 91
Spain (see also Defense burden-sharing; U.S. forces cost reduction), 105
Special Commission for Latin American Coordination (CECLA), 185
Special Drawing Rights (SDR), 21

Allocation, 231
Balance of payments policies and, 5, 8, 14, 15, 16, 111
Circular telegram, 112
Contingency planning, 150
Council of Economic Advisers position, 131
Economic aid link, 34, 120, 132, 141, 146, 150
German position, 128
Gold prices and, 153
Group of Ten discussions, 111, 132, 133, 135, 175, 178, 231
IMF decision, 140
IMF quota increases and, 142
Italian position, 14, 120
Johnson administration policies, 2
Justification, 113
Kissinger memorandum, 131
Nixon Europe trip talking papers, 115
State Department economic strategy paper, 56
Strategic Overview Paper, 26
U.S.-French discussions, 116, 134, 146
Volcker Group Papers, 111, 119, 130, 133

Springsteen, George S., 22, 40, 85, 89, 241
Stans, Maurice, 9, 19, 41, 80, 85, 106

Balance of payments policies, 3, 8, 15, 31, 33
Council on International Economic Policy, 49, 55, 61, 79, 94
Japan, 23, 75, 87
Resignation, 88

State Department economic strategy paper, 56
Stein, Herbert, 3, 168, 232

European Community, 100, 102, 105

Stern, Ernest, 180
Stoessel, Walter J., Jr., 108
Strategic Overview Paper, 26
Strauss, Franz Josef, 103, 122, 123, 129
Sweden (see also European consultations under Balance of payments policies; Group of Ten), 14
Switzerland, 14, 81
Syria, 141

Tanaka, Kakuei, 87, 93, 96, 98, 99
Tanigawa, Kanzo, 77
Task Force on U.S. Balance of Payments Policies, 1, 2
Templeman, Donald C., 127
Timmins, D. B., 216
Togo, Fumihiko, 23
Towe, Peter M., 85
Trade Expansion Act, 171
Trade preference areas, 26
Train, Russell, 75
Treasury, U.S. Department of the:

Balance of payments policies, 10, 39, 60, 76, 89, 90
Foreign exchange crises, 152
German offset agreement, 24
Gold prices, 153
Japan, 17
New Economic Policy, 172, 200, 201
Nixon Europe trip, 115, 116
Nixon remarks, 117
OECD ministerial meeting, 65
Plan X, 239
Procedural issues, 57, 58, 88

Trezise, Philip, 29, 69, 141, 163
Trudeau, Pierre, 83, 172
Tsurumi, Kiyohiko, 93, 98

Ukawa, Hidetoshi, 96, 99
UN Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD), 2, 91, 225
Unger, Michael, 92
United Kingdom. See Great Britain.
U.S. economic aid (see also Economic aid/Special Drawing Rights link):

Balance of payments policies and, 2, 26
Procurement tying, 35
Special Drawing Rights and, 34
State Department economic strategy paper, 56

U.S. forces cost reduction (see also German offset agreement), 2, 13, 18, 22, 25, 48
U.S. military aid (see also Defense burden-sharing; U.S. forces cost reduction), 2, 27
Ushiba, Nobuhiko, 71, 87, 92, 99

Van Lennep, Emile, 91, 113, 135
Vernay, Alain, 197
Vienot, Marc, 156
Vietnam war, 26, 91
Volcker, Paul A.:

Balance of payments policies, 5, 9, 21, 63, 88

European consultations, 8, 14, 34, 37
Group of Ten negotiations, 76
OECD WP-3 meeting, 81
Shultz memorandum, 60

Canada, 85, 89
Connally resignation, 90
European Community, 91, 105
Europe trips, 8, 13, 14, 120, 121, 138, 145
Exchange rate flexibility, 147, 149, 163

U.S.-European discussions, 121, 127, 138, 146, 162

Foreign exchange crises, 123, 125, 156, 233
Gold prices, 145
IMF monetary reform report, 241
International monetary reform, 131

Bilateral discussions, 7, 120, 128, 146
Group of Ten discussions, 138, 142, 151
Trade link, 90, 91

Japan, 17, 69, 72, 77, 92
Montreal Monetary Conference, 236
New Economic Policy, 165, 168, 175, 203

Foreign reactions, 170, 171
Group of Ten discussions, 210, 213, 216
International negotiations, 187, 190
Peterson memoranda, 179, 185, 209
U.S.-French discussions, 219
U.S.-German discussions, 181, 192
Volcker Group role, 184

Procedural issues, 88, 166
Shultz Group, 232
Smithsonian Agreement, 221
Special Drawing Rights, 112, 113, 132, 135, 141, 150, 231
U.S. economic aid, 35
Volcker Group Alternates, 225

Volcker Group, 57, 58, 59, 110, 173

Creation of, 109
New Economic Policy, 184
Papers:

VGA/72-40, 228
VGA/72-50, 229
VGA/72-64, 230
VG/LIM/60-37, 118
VG/LIM/69-2, 111
VG/LIM/69-3, 111
VG/LIM/69-4, 111
VG/LIM/69-17 (Corr.), 115
VG/LIM/69-18, 116
VG/LIM/69-38, 118
VG/LIM/69-48, 119
VG/LIM/69-50, 6
VG/LIM/69-66, 130
VG/LIM/69-74, 139
VG/LIM/70-14, 147
VG/LIM/70-24, 148
VG/LIM/71-21, 151
VG/LIM/71-35, 175
VG/Uncl. INFO/71-30 (Reuss resolution), 152
VG/WG/69-8, 121
VG/WG/69-9, 121
VG/WG/69-20, 121
VG/WG/71-31, 163
VG/WG II/69-8, 128
VG/WG II/69-14, 134
VG/WG II/69-24, 133

Procedural issues, 9, 57-58

Volcker Group Alternates (VGAs), 225, 228, 230
Volpe, John, 75
Voluntary Foreign Credit Restraint (VFCR) program, 6, 29, 54

Walker, Charls E., 5, 19, 21, 145, 147, 181
Wallich, Henry, 193
Walters, Maj. Gen. Vernon, 7
Wardhana, Mohammed Ali, 237
Watson, Arthur K., 231, 238

New Economic Policy, 191, 197, 208, 219
Smithsonian Agreement, 222, 226

Webster, Donald A., 61, 79
Weinberger, Caspar, 100
Weintraub, Sidney, 142, 166, 225, 241

Balance of payments policies, 62, 63
New Economic Policy, 178, 207, 216

Wheeler, Gen. Earle, 22, 69, 75
Whitaker, John C., 9
Whitehead, Clay T., 107
Whitman, Marina, 225, 242
Wickel, James J., 99, 194
Wickmann, Krister, 121
Widman, F. Lisle, 17, 39, 76, 117, 121, 128, 143
Widnall, William B., 153
Williams Commission, 56
Willis, George H., 109

Balance of payments policies, 6, 21, 39, 63, 88
Group of Twenty creation, 229
International monetary reform, 118, 120, 121, 127, 128, 142, 148

Nixon Europe trip, 115, 116
Special Drawing Rights, 113, 132, 141

Japan, 77
Special Working Group, 242
Volcker Group Alternates, 228

Wilson, Harold, 34
Witteveen, Henrikus, 34, 121
Wonnacott, 121, 148
Wood, R., 121, 127
Wormser, Olivier, 34, 146, 178, 183, 208

Yoshida, Kenzo, 99

Ziegler, Ron, 107
Zijlstra, Jelle, 34, 121, 171, 215

 

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