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 You are in: Under Secretary for Public Diplomacy and Public Affairs > Bureau of Public Affairs > Bureau of Public Affairs: Office of the Historian > Principal Officers of the Department and U.S. Chiefs of Mission > Principal Officers

Ambassadors at Large, 1949-2008

From the earliest days of the Republic, Presidents have designated special diplomatic envoys for specific assignments, primarily overseas. The President appointed the first official specifically to bear the title of Ambassador at Large on Mar 12, 1949, under the authority vested in Article II, Section 2 of the U.S. Constitution that empowers the President, with the advice and consent of the Senate, to appoint Ambassadors, other public Ministers, and Consuls. Presidents have usually appointed Ambassadors at Large to deal with specific foreign policy issues which have been frequently, but not always, spelled out in their commissions. Functional designations are noted when they were included in an individual's commission.

Name: Philip C. Jessup
State of Residency: New York
Non-career appointee
Appointment: Mar 2, 1949
Entry on Duty: Mar 2, 1949
Termination of Appointment: Jan 19, 1953

Name: W. Averell Harriman
State of Residency: New York
Non-career appointee
Appointment: Feb 6, 1961
Entry on Duty: Feb 13, 1961
Termination of Appointment: Dec 3, 1961

Name: Chester Bowles
State of Residency: Connecticut
Non-career appointee
Appointment: Dec 1, 1961
Entry on Duty: Dec 4, 1961
Termination of Appointment: Jun 9, 1963
Note: Commissioned as Presidential Special Representative and Adviser on African, Asian, and Latin American Affairs. Commissioned during a recess of the Senate; recommissioned after confirmation on Jan 30, 1962.

Name: Llewellyn E. Thompson
State of Residency: Colorado
Foreign Service officer
Appointment: Oct 3, 1962
Entry on Duty: Oct 3, 1962
Termination of Appointment: Dec 26, 1966

Name: W. Averell Harriman
State of Residency: New York
Non-career appointee
Appointment: Mar 11, 1965
Entry on Duty: Mar 18, 1965
Termination of Appointment: Jan 20, 1969

Name: Ellsworth Bunker
State of Residency: Vermont
Non-career appointee
Appointment: Oct 13, 1966
Entry on Duty: Nov 8, 1966
Termination of Appointment: Apr 11, 1967

Name: Henry Cabot Lodge
State of Residency: Massachusetts
Non-career appointee
Appointment: Apr 5, 1967
Entry on Duty: May 3, 1967
Termination of Appointment: May 7, 1968

Name: George C. McGhee
State of Residency: Texas
Non-career appointee
Appointment: Apr 22, 1968
Entry on Duty: May 24, 1968
Termination of Appointment: Mar 15, 1969

Name: David M. Kennedy
State of Residency: Illinois
Non-career appointee
Appointment: Feb 11, 1971
Entry on Duty: Feb 11, 1971
Termination of Appointment: Mar 8, 1973
Note: Commissioned as Ambassador at Large for Foreign Economic Policy Development; later commissioned to serve concurrently as U.S. Permanent Representative to the North Atlantic Treaty Organization.

Name: U. Alexis Johnson
State of Residency: California
Foreign Service officer
Appointment: Feb 2, 1973
Entry on Duty: Feb 2, 1973
Termination of Appointment: Feb 28, 1977

Name: Ellsworth Bunker
State of Residency: Vermont
Non-career appointee
Appointment: Sep 26, 1973
Entry on Duty: Oct 11, 1973
Termination of Appointment: Jun 30, 1978

Name: Robert J. McCloskey
State of Residency: Maryland
Foreign Service officer
Appointment: Dec 19, 1973
Entry on Duty: Feb 14, 1974
Termination of Appointment: Feb 20, 1975
Note: Later commissioned to serve concurrently as Assistant Secretary of State for Congressional Relations.

Name: T. Vincent Learson
State of Residency: New York
Non-career appointee
Appointment: Dec 11, 1975
Entry on Duty: Dec 11, 1975
Termination of Appointment: Jan 21, 1977
Note: Commissioned a: Ambassador at Large for Law of the Sea Matters and Special Representative of the President for the Law of the Sea Conference, and Chief of Delegation.

Name: Arthur J. Goldberg
State of Residency: District of Columbia
Non-career appointee
Appointment: Sep 22, 1977
Entry on Duty: Sep 23, 1977
Termination of Appointment: Jul 27, 1978
Note: Commissioned as Ambassador at Large and U.S. Representative to the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe, and Chairman of the U.S. Delegation.

Name: Elliott L. Richardson
State of Residency: Massachusetts
Non-career appointee
Appointment: Feb 25, 1977
Entry on Duty: Mar 1, 1977
Termination of Appointment: Oct 4, 1980
Note: Commissioned as Ambassador at Large and Special Representative of the President at the Law of the Sea Conference, and Chief of Delegation.

Name: Gerard C. Smith
State of Residency: District of Columbia
Non-career appointee
Appointment: Jul 14, 1977
Entry on Duty: Jul 22, 1977
Termination of Appointment: Nov 10, 1980
Note: Commissioned as Ambassador at Large and U.S. Special Representative for Non-Proliferation Matters

Name: Alfred L. Atherton, Jr.
State of Residency: Pennsylvania
Foreign Service officer
Appointment: Apr 7, 1978
Entry on Duty: Apr 11, 1978
Termination of Appointment: May 22, 1979

Name: Henry David Owen
State of Residency: District of Columbia
Foreign Service officer
Appointment: Oct 12, 1978
Entry on Duty: Oct 20, 1978
Termination of Appointment: Jan 21, 1981
Note: Commissioned as Ambassador at Large and Coordinator for Economic Summit Affairs.

Name: Dick Clark
State of Residency: Iowa
Foreign Service officer
Appointment: Mar 30, 1979
Entry on Duty: May 1, 1979
Termination of Appointment: Nov 1, 1979
Note: Commissioned as Ambassador at Large and Coordinator for Refugee Affairs.

Name: Robert C. Krueger
State of Residency: Texas
Non-career appointee
Appointment: Oct 23, 1979
Entry on Duty: Nov 6, 1979
Termination of Appointment: Feb 1, 1981
Note: Commissioned as Ambassador at Large and Coordinator for Mexican Affairs.

Name: W. Beverly Carter, Jr.
State of Residency: Pennsylvania
Foreign Service officer
Appointment: Feb 9, 1979
Entry on Duty: Feb 15, 1979
Termination of Appointment: Jan 16, 1981
Note: Commissioned as Ambassador at Large for Liaison with State and Local Governments.

Name: Victor H. Palmieri
State of Residency: California
Non-career appointee
Appointment: Dec 20, 1979
Entry on Duty: Dec 27, 1979
Termination of Appointment: Jan 21, 1981
Note: Commissioned as Ambassador at Large and Coordinator for Refugee Affairs.

Name: Daniel J. Terra
State of Residency: Illinois
Non-career appointee
Appointment: Jun 20, 1981
Entry on Duty: Jul 15, 1981
Termination of Appointment: Jan 27, 1989
Note: Commissioned as Ambassador at Large for Cultural Affairs.

Name: Vernon A. Walters
State of Residency: Florida
Non-career appointee
Appointment: Jul 18, 1981
Entry on Duty: Jul 22, 1981
Termination of Appointment: Apr 17, 1985

Name: Howard Eugene Douglas
State of Residency: Virginia
Non-career appointee
Appointment: Mar 9, 1982
Entry on Duty: Mar 17, 1982
Termination of Appointment: Apr 16, 1986
Note: Commissioned as U.S. Coordinator for Refugee Affairs and Ambassador at Large.

Name: James L. Malone
State of Residency: Virginia
Non-career appointee
Note: Not commissioned; nomination of Mar 8, 1982, was withdrawn before the Senate acted on it. Nominated as Ambassador at Large and Special Representative of the President for the Law of the Sea Conference, and Chief of Delegation.

Name: Richard T. Kennedy
State of Residency: District of Columbia
Non-career appointee
Appointment: Dec 10, 1982
Entry on Duty: Dec 14, 1982
Termination of Appointment: Jan 19, 1993
Note: Commissioned as Ambassador at Large and Special Adviser to the Secretary on Non-Proliferation and Nuclear Energy Policy.

Name: Richard B. Stone
State of Residency: District of Columbia
Non-career appointee
Appointment: May 26, 1983
Entry on Duty: Jun 1, 1983
Termination of Appointment: Mar 1, 1984
Note: Commissioned as Ambassador at Large and Special Envoy for Central America.

Name: Richard Fairbanks
State of Residency: District of Columbia
Non-career appointee
Appointment: Mar 30, 1984
Entry on Duty: Apr 3, 1984
Termination of Appointment: Aug 8, 1985

Name: Harry W. Shlaudeman
State of Residency: California
Foreign Service officer
Appointment: Mar 23, 1984
Entry on Duty: Mar 26, 1984
Termination of Appointment: Jul 7, 1986
Note: Commissioned as Ambassador at Large and Special Envoy for Central America.

Name: Paul H. Nitze
State of Residency: District of Columbia
Non-career appointee
Appointment: May 16, 1986
Entry on Duty: May 22, 1986
Termination of Appointment: May 1, 1989

Name: Jonathan Moore
State of Residency: Massachusetts
Non-career appointee
Appointment: Jul 24, 1986
Entry on Duty: Sep 8, 1986
Termination of Appointment: Jun 23, 1989
Note: Commissioned as U.S. Coordinator for Refugee Affairs and Ambassador at Large; designated Mar 5, 1987, to serve concurrently as Director of the Bureau of Refugee Programs

Title: Ambassador at Large
Name: L. Paul Bremer, III
State of Residency: Connecticut
Foreign Service officer
Appointment: Oct 16, 1986
Entry on Duty: Oct 17, 1986
Termination of Appointment: May 25, 1989
Note: Commissioned as Ambassador at Large for Counter-Terrorism.

Title: Ambassador at Large
Name: Jewel S. Lafontant
State of Residency: Illinois
Non-career appointee
Appointment: Jun 23, 1989
Entry on Duty: Jul 20, 1989
Termination of Appointment: Position abolished Feb 5, 1993
Note: Commissioned as U.S. Coordinator for Refugee Affairs. After Dec 17, 1989, Lafontant became Lafontant-Mankarious.

Name: Henry Allen Holmes
State of Residency: District of Columbia
Foreign Service officer
Appointment: Oct 10, 1989
Entry on Duty: Oct 11, 1989
Termination of Appointment: Position abolished Feb 5, 1993
Note: Commissioned as Ambassador at Large for Burdensharing.

Name: Strobe Talbott
State of Residency: Ohio
Non-career appointee
Appointment: Apr 2, 1993
Entry on Duty: Apr 9, 1993
Termination of Appointment: Feb 23, 1994
Note: Commissioned as Ambassador at Large and Special Adviser to the Secretary on the New Independent States.

Name: Robert L. Gallucci
State of Residency: Virginia
Non-career appointee
Appointment: Aug 26, 1994
Entry on Duty: Aug 29, 1994
Termination of Appointment: Apr 30, 1996

Name: James Franklin Collins
State of Residency: Illinois
Foreign Service officer
Appointment: Dec 19, 1995
Entry on Duty: Dec 26, 1995
Termination of Appointment: Aug 1, 1997
Note: Commissioned as Ambassador at Large and Special Adviser to the Secretary on the New Independent States.

Name: David J. Scheffer
State of Residency: Virginia
Non-career appointee
Appointment: Aug 1, 1997
Entry on Duty: Aug 5, 1997
Termination of Appointment: Jan 20, 2001
Note: Commissioned as Ambassador at Large for War Crimes Issues

Name: Stephen E. Sestanovich
State of Residency: District of Columbia
Non-career appointee
Appointment: Sep 18, 1997
Entry on Duty: Sep 19, 1997
Termination of Appointment: Jan 20, 2001
Note: Commissioned as Ambassador at Large and Special Adviser to the Secretary on the New Independent States.

Name: Robert A. Seiple
State of Residency: Washington
Non-career appointee
Appointment: Mar 25, 1999
Entry on Duty: May 5, 1999
Termination of Appointment: Sep 13, 2000 
Note: Commissioned as Ambassador at Large for International Religious Freedom.

Name: Michael A. Sheehan
State of Residency: New Jersey
Non-career appointee
Appointment: Aug 9, 1999
Entry on Duty: Aug 9, 1999
Termination of Appointment: Dec 20, 2000
Note: Commissioned as Coordinator for Counter-Terrorism with the rank of Ambassador at Large.

Name: Pierre-Richard Prosper
State of Residency: California
Non-career appointee
Appointment: Jul 12, 2001
Entry on Duty: Jul 13, 2001
Termination of Appointment: Oct. 12, 2005
Note: Commissioned as Ambassador at Large for War Cimes Issues.

Name: Francis Xavier Taylor 
State of Residency: Maryland
Non-career appointee
Appointment: Jul 12, 2001
Entry on Duty: Jul 13, 2001
Termination of Appointment: Nov. 15, 2002
Note: Commissioned as Coordinator for Counter-Terrorism with the rank of Ambassador at Large.

Name: J. Cofer Black
State of Residency: Virginia
Non-career appointee
Appointment: Nov. 26, 2002
Entry on Duty: Dec. 3, 2002
Termination of Appointment: Nov. 15, 2004
Note: Commissioned as Coordinator for Counter-Terrorism with the rank of Ambassador at Large.

Name: Henry Crumpton
State of Residency: Virginia
Non-career appointee
Appointment: Aug. 2, 2005
Entry on Duty: Aug. 2, 2005
Termination of Appointment: Feb. 15, 2007
Note: Commissioned as Coordinator for Counter-Terrorism with the rank of Ambassador at Large.

Name: Dell L. Dailey
State of Residency: South Dakota
Non-career appointee
Appointment: June 25, 2007
Entry on Duty: Jul 31, 2007
Termination of Appointment:
Note: Commissioned as Coordinator for Counter-Terrorism with the rank of Ambassador at Large.

Name: John V. Hanford, 3rd
State of Residency: Virginia
Foreign Service officer
Appointment: Jan 30, 2002
Entry on Duty: May 1, 2002
Termination of Appointment:
Note: Commissioned as Ambassador at Large for International Religious Freedom.

Name: John Rippin Miller
State of Residency: Washington
Non-career appointee
Appointment: Jul 28, 2004
Entry on Duty: Jul 30, 2004
Termination of Appointment: Dec. 19, 2006
Note: With the rank of Ambassador at Large while serving as Director of the Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons.

Name: Mark P. Lagon
State of Residency: Virginia
Non-career appointee
Appointment: May 30, 2007
Entry on Duty: May 31, 2007
Termination of Appointment:
Note: With the rank of Ambassador at Large while serving as Director of the Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons.

Name: John Clint Willamson
State of Residency: Louisiana
Non-career appointee
Appointment: Jul 3, 2006
Entry on Duty: Jul 10, 2006
Termination of Appointment:
Note: With the rank of Ambassador at Large for War Crimes Issues

 


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