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 You are in: Under Secretary for Public Diplomacy and Public Affairs > Bureau of Public Affairs > Bureau of Public Affairs: Office of the Historian > More Publications > Historical Background Papers
Historical Background
Office of the Historian
Washington, DC

THE UNITED STATES AND THE GLOBAL COALITION AGAINST TERRORISM, SEPTEMBER 2001-DECEMBER 2003

2001    2002    2003

January 2, 2002: State Department spokesman Richard Boucher said that Secretary of State Powell was working closely with Indian and Pakistani leaders, as well as with U.S. Ambassadors in the region, to try to defuse tensions between India and Pakistan.

Zacarias Moussaoui was arraigned at the federal courthouse in Alexandria, Virginia, on charges of involvement in the September 11 terrorist attacks.

January 3, 2002: A senior administration official confirmed that President Bush had invited Hamid Karzai, who chairs the interim government of Afghanistan, to visit with him at the White House.

The Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, General Richard Myers, said that on January 3 U.S. military forces had hit the same al-Qaida terrorist training camp in Afghanistan that U.S. cruise missiles struck in 1998. The 1998 attack came after the bombing of U.S. Embassies in Kenya and Tanzania.

Secretary of Defense Rumsfeld, at the same press briefing, said the United States would use facilities at the U.S. Naval Base at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, to house some of the 248 persons detained in Afghanistan and currently in U.S. custody.

Bush administration officials said that the United States and leading NATO allies had increased military reconnaissance flights and other surveillance activities in Somalia to prevent the country from becoming a new base for the al-Qaida terrorist group.

January 4, 2002: A U.S. Army Special Forces soldier was killed by small-arms fire near Gardez in a rugged mountainous region of eastern Afghanistan near the border with Pakistan. Army Gen. Tommy Franks, who was responsible for military operations in Afghanistan, said that the serviceman was "working with and coordinating with tribal leaders in that area." The soldier was the first U.S. military member to be killed by hostile fire in the 3-month-old operation.

Speaking on the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC), Secretary of State Powell commended Pakistani President Musharraf and Indian Prime Minister Vajpayee for steps taken by each to avoid military confrontation in retaliation for the terrorist attack on the Indian Parliament on December 13. The Bush Administration, Powell said, had been in daily contact with Pakistani and Indian leaders since the December 13 terrorist attack on the Indian Parliament. Powell also said he believed India and Pakistan would eventually have to open a political dialogue over Kashmir, however, "right now we have to focus on the dangerous situation that is before us, and that is the mobilization of forces that are in close proximity to one another, with the possibility of some sparks setting that off."

In response to a question posed by journalists, the State Department released a statement that "Iran continues to provide Lebanese Hizballah and the Palestinian rejectionist groups-notably HAMAS, the Palestine Islamic Jihad, and Ahmad Jibril's PFLP-GC-with varying amounts of funding, safehaven, training, and weapons."

January 5, 2002: The United States took custody of Ibn al-Shaykh al-Libi, one of Osama bin Laden's top paramilitary trainers. Al-Libi was captured by Pakistani officials as he tried to flee from Afghanistan.

January 6, 2002: An article by Secretary of State Powell, "Hemispheric Solidarity in the War on Terrorism," was published in Diario las Americas on January 6, 2002. In the article Powell warned about terrorist fundraising activities and transit routes in Latin America. He also praised the Organization of American States (OAS) for being the first multilateral organization to condemn the September 11 attacks and commended the efforts of the OAS anti-terrorism arm-the Inter-American Committee Against Terrorism (CICTE).

A nine-member bipartisan U.S. Senate delegation led by Joseph Lieberman (Democrat-Connecticut) and John McCain (R-Arizona) held a press conference in Tashkent, Uzbekistan, after meeting with Uzbek President Islam Karimov and Uzbek Defense Minister Kodir Ghulomov. The delegation thanked Karimov and the people of Uzbekistan for the support they had given to the coalition against terrorism. Members of the delegation also discussed human rights and democratization with the Uzbek leaders. The other senators who accompanied Lieberman and McCain to Turkey, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Afghanistan and Pakistan were Fred Thompson (R-Tennessee), John Reed (D-Rhode Island), Chuck Hagel (R-Nebraska), Susan Collins (R-Maine), John Edwards (D-North Carolina), Bill Nelson (D-Florida), and Jean Carnahan (D-Missouri).

January 7, 2002: State Department Spokesman Richard Boucher said that Pakistani President Musharraf had made more arrests of militants over the weekend and that the United States understood "that President Musharraf intends to continue to speak out against extremism and terrorism and to try to set Pakistan on a course of moderation."

Deputy Secretary of Defense Paul Wolfowitz said in an interview with The New York Times that the U.S. could provide training, equipment, and possibly some backup support to countries that wanted to deal with terrorists but lacked the means to take on the problem. Wolfowitz noted that the United States was working with the Filipinos to help them govern their own territory better, particularly with regard to the Abu Sayyaf Group on Basilan Island which was connected to the al-Qaida network.

Foreign Ministers from China, Russia, and four Central Asian countries (allied as the Shanghai Cooperation Organization) said that the fall of the Taliban in Afghanistan did not end the terrorist threat. The ministers said in a joint statement that their governments would continue to work together against "terrorism, separatism and extremism" to promote regional stability.

January 8, 2002: Responding to a question on C-SPAN's "Washington Journal," Secretary of Defense Rumsfeld commented on three U.S. objectives in Afghanistan regarding the war against terrorism. The first objective, to remove the Taliban government, had been achieved. The second objective, to capture or kill the senior Taliban leadership, "has not yet been accomplished, although pieces of it have been." The third objective, the capture or killing of al-Qaida members at all levels, remained unfinished. Globally, said Rumsfeld, "the task is to see that terrorist networks are rooted out," and that countries no longer continue to harbor terrorists.

Two senior al-Qaida fighters were captured in Afghanistan January 7 and sent to the U.S. detention facility at Kandahar. General Richard Myers, chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, added that laptop computers, cellular telephones, training documents and small arms were also seized.

January 9, 2002: In an interview with the London-based Middle East Broadcasting Centre, Secretary of State Powell said that the United States had not yet determined the next phase in the war against terrorism after Afghanistan. Asked if Somalia and Iraq were the likely next targets, Powell downplayed the reference to Somalia and repeated the U.S. misgivings about Saddam Hussein's weapons of mass destruction program.

The Secretary also addressed Arab perceptions that U.S. policy and public statements on the Israeli-Palestinian conflict were biased towards Israel, saying that the Bush administration criticized and encouraged both sides in an even-handed manner. Powell also repeated the U.S. position that the campaign against terrorism was not aimed at any religion and praised Egypt and Saudi Arabia for their cooperation in the campaign against terrorism.

Treasury Secretary Paul O'Neill told reporters that the U.S. Government had blocked the financial assets of two additional organizations and two individuals suspected of financing terrorism. The order targeted the Afghan Support Committee (ASC) and the Revival of Islamic Heritage Society (RIHS).

Secretary of State Powell met with Indian Minister of Home Affairs Lal Krishna Advani. They discussed the relationship between the United States and India, tensions between India and Pakistan, and the Secretary’s upcoming trip to the region.

The bipartisan delegation of nine U.S. Senators led by Senators Lieberman and McCain met with Pakistani President Pervez Musharraf. In a subsequent press conference, the senators expressed support for Musharraf’s efforts to fight terrorism and quell tensions between Pakistan and India.

State Department spokesman Richard Boucher again called on the Palestinian Authority to provide a full explanation of the arms shipment that Israel had intercepted on January 3.

White House Press Secretary Ari Fleischer stated that President Bush "condemns the attack by the terrorist group Hamas that killed four Israeli soldiers today." Fleischer also said that the legal status of the prisoners who were being transferred to the U.S. base at Guantanamo was being reviewed on a case-by-case basis to determine their exact status and the treatment they would receive.

January 10, 2002: British Ambassador Jeremy Greenstock, chairman of the UN Security Council's Counter-terrorism Committee, announced that within 90 days the committee would review and respond to 117 reports the committee had received from member countries. The committee would recommend what each country should do to ensure terrorists could not operate within its territory.

President Bush said Iran must contribute to the war against terror and the United States would uphold the doctrine of "either you're with us or against us." He added that the United States hoped to work with Iran to help stabilize the Afghan interim government. The President said also he was beginning to suspect that the arms shipment aboard a cargo ship that Israelis captured on January 3 was intended to arm terrorists, but noted that it was important to reserve judgment until the evidence is definitive.

President Bush met with Greek Prime Minister Konstandinos Simitis at the White House.

President Bush telephoned Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak to discuss the situation in the Middle East and the campaign against terrorism. President Bush also dropped in on the meeting at the White House between National Security Advisor Condoleezza Rice and Indian Home Minister Lal Krishna Advani.

Secretary of Defense Rumsfeld praised Australia's support in the war against terrorism in remarks at the Pentagon with Australian Minister of Defense Robert Hill.

Rumsfeld met with the Prime Minister of Greece, Konstandino Simitis. The two discussed the war on terrorism and security ramifications for the upcoming Olympic Games in the United States (2002) and in Greece (2004).

Assistant Secretary of State for Near Eastern Affairs William Burns met with Libyan officials in London as a follow-up on earlier discussions regarding Libyan compliance with UN Security Council resolutions on Pan Am Flight 103.

January 11, 2002: Twenty Afghan militia and al-Qaida detainees arrived at the U.S. naval base at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba. The detainees were characterized as "unlawful combatants" rather than prisoners of war.

White House Spokesman Ari Fleischer told reporters that President Bush, concerned over the continuing threat of military confrontation between India and Pakistan, asked Secretary of State Powell to travel to the region next week.

Singapore authorities announced that a videotape found in a house in Afghanistan helped lead them to capture alleged members of a terrorist cell planning to blow up Western embassies, U.S. naval vessels, and a bus used to transport American military service members.

Sudanese President Omar al-Bashir, hosting a summit meeting of East African leaders in Khartoum, urged his colleagues to take united action against terrorists and to help "shed the image" that Africa was a breeding ground for terrorists.

January 12, 2002: President Bush and Secretary of State Powell both offered strong praise for Pakistani President Pervez Musharraf’s speech against terrorism inside and outside Pakistan.

Assistant Secretary of State for Near Eastern Affairs William Burns traveled to Bahrain and Kuwait. In meetings with each nation’s leaders, Burns expressed U.S. appreciation for their support after the September 11 attacks.

January 13, 2002: Thirty more Taliban and al-Qaida detainees arrived at the U.S. Navy base at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, bringing to 50 the number sent there for interrogation and possible trial on terrorism charges.

January 14, 2002: Department of State spokesman Richard Boucher told reporters in Washington that Pakistani President Musharraf’s January 12 speech was profoundly important not only because of its promise to remove violence from the Kashmir confrontation with India, but also for its implied call for Pakistani social transformation. Boucher called the arrest by the Palestinian Authority of individuals in connection with the weapons smuggling operation abroad the ship Karine A, as well as its statement that the smuggling operation was contrary to its policy, "steps in the right direction."

Secretary of State Powell said in an interview with CNN that Iraq was clearly a state sponsor of terrorism, but the Bush administration had made no decision about whether to change its policy toward Iraq.

January 15, 2002: Secretary of State Powell left the United States for a 6-day visit to South Asia and Japan to seek reduced tensions in South Asia and to participate in a conference on Afghan reconstruction.

Attorney General Ashcroft announced that U.S. citizen John Walker Lindh, who had trained with the al-Qaida terrorist organization and fought alongside Taliban forces in Afghanistan, would be brought back to the United States to stand trial in a U.S. federal court. Ashcroft stated that Walker was to be tried on four charges, including conspiracy to kill U.S. nationals abroad, which carried a possible life sentence.

Assistant Secretary of State for Political-Military Affairs, Lincoln P. Bloomfield, Jr., traveled to the Middle East for 2 weeks to "compare notes" with senior officials on the restoration of Afghanistan and support to other countries and also to discuss regional political developments. Bloomfield's itinerary included stops in the United Arab Emirates, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, Kuwait, Egypt, and Jordan.

January 16, 2002: President Bush met with Turkey’s Prime Minister Bulent Ecevit in the Oval Office to discuss foreign and economic policy.

Secretary of State Powell met with Pakistani President Musharraf and Foreign Minister Abdul Sattar in Islamabad. In a press conference, Powell praised Musharraf's strong stand against terrorism and recent steps to deescalate tensions with India.

Secretary of Defense Rumsfeld said that several hundred more United States military personnel would be joining the approximately 250 already in the Philippines. The U.S. troops were sent to provide training and logistics support, in addition to participating in ongoing exercises with Philippine troops.

Rumsfeld also said that an investigation of over 50 facilities in Afghanistan found canisters that looked like chemical weapons containers. Their external markings made them "appear to be weapons of mass destruction."

Attorney General Ashcroft announced that a federal grand returned a nine-count indictment against alleged "shoe bomber" Richard Reid.

The United Nations Security Council unanimously adopted a resolution continuing sanctions against the Taliban, Osama bin Laden and bin Laden's al-Qaida terrorist organization.

January 17, 2002: The U.S. Department of Justice released photographs of five suspected members of Osama bin-Laden's al-Qaida terrorist group and video excerpts of three of them, in an effort to obtain help from the public in finding them.

Secretary of State Powell, the first U.S. Secretary of State to visit Afghanistan in 25 years, officially reopened the U.S. Embassy in Kabul.

Powell also met with Afghan Interim Authority Chairman Hamid Karzai in Kabul. Powell said his talks with the 3-week-old Afghan administration focused on the current and short-term fiscal needs of country and Karzai's efforts to ensure that Afghan warlords would not be allowed to divert international aid for their own use.

Powell announced that the U.S. Agency for International Development (AID) was reopening its mission in Pakistan to promote education, health, and human development.

Powell arrived in India and spoke to the press in New Delhi with Indian Foreign Minister Singh.

Secretary of Defense Rumsfeld met with his Indian counterpart Minister of Defense George Fernandes at the Pentagon. Rumsfeld announced that he and Fernandes had signed a "U.S.-India Bilateral General Security of Military Information Agreement," paving the way for future cooperation in military technology between the United States and India.

President Bush spoke by phone with British Prime Minister Tony Blair. They discussed the war on terrorism, developments in South Asia, Blair's visit to the region during the previous week, and Powell's current meetings in India and Pakistan.

January 18, 2002: U.S. Ambassador James Cunningham addressed the UN Security Council in support of the work of the Counter-Terrorism Committee. The Council held a day-long open meeting to discuss the CTC's first 90 days of work.

At the end of a week-long visit to Central Asia, an U.S. Congressional delegation held a news conference in Tashkent, Uzbekistan, to express gratitude to countries in the region that had been helpful to the United States in the war against terrorism. The U.S. delegation was led by Senate Majority Leader Tom Daschle and included Senators Bob Smith (Republican-New Hampshire), Byron Dorgan (Democrat-North Dakota), Richard Durbin (Democrat-Illinois), and Mark Dayton (Democrat-Minnesota), and Representative Ellen Tauscher, (Democrat-California).

January 19, 2002: The Pentagon announced that Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Air Force General Richard Meyers would visit Egypt, United Arab Emirates, and Jordan January 19-24 to discuss security issues for the region.

January 20, 2002: In an interview in Japan, Secretary of State Powell thanked the Japanese Government for both political and diplomatic support that it had given the United States in fighting international terrorism. Powell also thanked Japan for hosting the International Conference on Reconstruction Aid for Afghanistan (ICRAA).

January 21, 2002: Secretary of State Powell announced at the Tokyo Conference for Reconstruction Assistance to Afghanistan that the United States would contribute $296 million in assistance to Afghanistan in the current fiscal year. Powell said this was only the first contribution to what would be a multi-year effort. World Bank President James Wolfensohn said the EU had pledged $500 million in Afghan aid for the next year and Japan $500 million over 2-1/2 years. He said the Bank's pledge would be between $550 million and $570 million over 2-1/2 years. Overall, international donors at the conference pledged more than $4.5 billion over 5 years for the rebuilding of Afghanistan. Iran pledged $560 million, Saudi Arabia $220 million, India and Pakistan $100 million each, South Korea $45 million, and Kuwait $30 million, all over varied periods of time. Meeting with reporters after the conference, Powell said that the United States is helping to develop a program to buy back the hundreds of thousands of weapons in the hands of Afghan individuals as a means to stabilize the country and establish a national army.

Ambassador John D. Negroponte, U.S. Permanent Representative to the United Nations, told the press in Damascus, Syria, that he met with Syrian Foreign Ministry officials to discuss issues that were on the Security Council agenda, including terrorism and Afghanistan, Africa, and the Middle East.

January 22, 2002: Secretary of Defense Rumsfeld defended the treatment that al-Qaida and Taliban detainees at Guantanamo Bay were receiving, saying it "is proper, it's humane, it's appropriate and it's fully consistent with international conventions."

Department of State spokesman Richard Boucher said that the U.S. condemned that day's terrorist attack in Jerusalem, and called upon Chairman Arafat "to take immediate and effective steps to end attacks such as these and bring those responsible to justice."

In Calcutta, India, two men armed with an AK-47 automatic rifle sped up on a motorcycle to the American Center and killed 4 Calcutta police officers and wounded 19. All but two of those wounded were city constables and none were American. Secretary of State Powell phoned Indian Foreign Minister Jaswant Singh to express condolences to the families of those killed in the attack.

The India-U.S. Joint Working Group on Counter-terrorism met January 21-22 to discuss the progress of several joint counter-terrorism initiatives, as well as ways to strengthen intelligence and investigative cooperation.

January 23, 2002: State Department spokesman Boucher said that meetings between U.S. and British representatives and their Libyan counterparts did not represent a new initiative. Libya must comply with UN resolutions regarding the bombing of Pan Am flight 103 as a first step to getting its name removed from the list of state sponsors of terrorism.

Secretary of State Powell called Palestinian leader Yasser Arafat and urged him to provide a full accounting for the Karine A attempted weapons smuggling incident and rein in groups that perpetuate violence.

Gen. Tommy R. Franks, during a press conference in the Kyrgyz Republic, said that the war on terrorism would not move "from one nation to the next sequentially" but rather would approach the problem "globally, simultaneously." Franks also stated that the United States did not want permanent military bases in Central Asia.

January 24, 2002: On January 21, 23 and 24, U.S. and coalition aircraft attacked Iraqi anti-aircraft and surface-to-air missile sites while enforcing the southern no-fly over zone. Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Gen. Richard Myers said the three strikes occurred in response to Iraqi forces firing on coalition aircraft.

The United States released about $193 million in gold and $24 million in other Afghan Government assets frozen since 1999 under Executive Order 13224, which had frozen all assets associated with the Taliban regime in Afghanistan.

January 25, 2002: Treasury Secretary Paul O'Neill and Bahamian Finance Minister William Allen signed an agreement committing the United States and the Bahamas to sharing tax information in an effort to cut off funding to terrorist organizations. The United States had recently concluded similar tax-information exchange agreements with the Cayman Islands and Antigua and Barbuda.

Secretary of State Powell, in a luncheon meeting with Foreign Minister Abdullah of the Interim Authority of Afghanistan, affirmed that Afghanistan could count on continued U.S. support.

January 27, 2002: Vice President Cheney, during in an interview on Fox news, said Palestinian leader Yasser Arafat's letter to President Bush denying knowledge of the aborted attempt to smuggle weapons from Iran to terrorists in Middle East was "not credible." Cheney added that the incident "raises serious questions" about Arafat's interest in moving forward with the peace process.

Secretary of Defense Rumsfeld, visiting the detention facility at the U.S. naval base at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, said that it would probably be expanded to accommodate hundreds, but not thousands, of people.

January 28, 2002: President Bush met with Afghan Interim Authority Chairman Hamid Karzai at the White House. Bush and Karzai issued a joint statement reaffirming their commitment to fight terrorism and ensure security, stability, and reconstruction in Afghanistan. After the meeting, Bush announced a U.S. commitment to help establish and train a national military for Afghanistan. In addition President Bush said the United States would support training programs for Afghan police officers, and he announced that the Overseas Private Investment Corporation (OPIC) would provide an additional $50 million line of credit for Afghanistan to finance private sector projects.

Deputy Secretary of State Armitage joined with Chairman Karzai at a ceremony for the official reopening of the Afghan Embassy in Washington.

During a telephone conversation with Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak about the Middle East, President Bush told the Egyptian leader that Yasser Arafat must not only renounce terrorism, but also join the effort to arrest terrorists.

Attorney General Ashcroft spoke in Washington to the Inter-American Committee Against Terrorism of the Organization of American States. Ashcroft praised OAS cooperation, noting steps to tighten border controls, implementing more effective mechanisms to track and intercept terrorist financing, and participating in shared training and joint anti-terrorist exercises. Ashcroft called on the OAS committee to continue its efforts to develop a counter-terrorism database, to train staffs in counter-terrorism measures, and to sign and ratify the 12 UN counter-terrorism conventions.

Senior-level representatives of NATO and Russia met to evaluate their cooperative efforts and to reiterate their determination to intensify further their common struggle against the terrorist threat.

The commander-in-chief of U.S. forces in the Pacific praised counterterrorism efforts in Southeast Asia, citing Singapore's recent arrests of suspected terrorists and the presence of U.S. troops in the Philippines.

January 29, 2002: In his State of the Union address, President Bush named three countries that continued to sponsor terror: North Korea, Iran, and Iraq. He labeled them and their terrorist allies "an axis of evil" and said the price of indifference to them would be "catastrophic." Bush also warned that the United States could not afford to delay further responses to the terrorist threat. He noted U.S. anti-terrorist activity already under way in the Philippines, in Bosnia, and along the coast of Somalia. President Bush said that many nations were joining the United States to take forceful action against terrorists and he singled out Pakistani President Musharraf for praise. He said that if other nations were timid in the face of terror and did not act, "America will."

In Belgium for 2 days of meetings with EU and NATO officials, Ambassador Francis X. Taylor, U.S. Coordinator for Counter-terrorism, said that European Union efforts to combat terrorism since September 11 had been "superb." He also said that the United States and the European Union should build on the excellent cooperation already achieved by dealing with extradition matters and improving the exchange of intelligence and law enforcement information.

U.S. Ambassador to Japan Howard H. Baker spoke at the Foreign Correspondents' Club of Japan in Tokyo, praising the logistical support that the Japanese Government provided allied forces in refueling their ships in the region and the controls placed on sources of terrorist financing. Baker also commended Japan for hosting the International Conference of Reconstruction Assistance for Afghanistan (ICRAA) on January 21 and 22.

Saudi Arabia’s Interior Minister Prince Najef ben Abdelaziz stated that some 100 of the 158 prisoners detained at the U.S. base in Cuba were Saudi citizens who should be turned over to Riyadh to stand trial. Saudi press reports said that finance officials, in accordance with UN and U.S. recommendations, had blocked 150 bank accounts of individuals suspected of terrorist ties.

January 30, 2002: On January 25, 2002, after Congress granted him the authority to do so, President Bush waived a ban on U.S. Government aid to Azerbaijan until that country relieved pressure on Armenia and the people of Nagorno-Karabakh. A White House statement said that lifting the restrictions cleared the way for more cooperation with both Azerbaijan and Armenia on a common anti-terrorist agenda.

January 31, 2002: President Bush met with German Chancellor Gerhard Schroeder at the White House to discuss the global economy and the war on terrorism.

Secretary of State Powell and Jordan's King Abdullah held discussions in Washington about the situation in the Middle East, attempts to secure a cease-fire and resume negotiations between Israelis and Palestinians, the campaign against terror, and Afghanistan. After the meeting, Powell told reporters that the United States was doing everything possible to rescue Daniel Pearl, a Wall Street Journal reporter who was kidnapped in Pakistan the week before. He said there would be no negotiations over his captors’ demands for better treatment of the prisoners in Cuba and the return of any Pakistani nationals held there.

Powell said that retired General Anthony Zinni would return to the Middle East when the level of violence was lower to try to help the parties negotiate a cease-fire.

National Security Advisor Condoleezza Rice reinforced the President’s warnings in his State of the Union address about the growing danger posed by such states as North Korea, Iran, and Iraq, saying that the United States would do everything in its power to deny them weapons of mass destruction. She emphasized that the United States was asking Russia to help promote change in the three states and ensure that Russian firms did not help Iran develop advanced weapons technology.

CNN broadcast an interview with Osama bin Laden that had been conducted by the Al-Jazeera Arabic network on October 21. In the interview, bin Laden said that the U.S. war on terrorism would bring down an "unbearable hell and choking life" on Americans and the West.

February 1, 2002: President Bush had a breakfast meeting at the White House with Jordan’s King Abdullah. After the meeting Bush thanked the King for his strong support in rooting out terror. King Abdullah, in answer to a reporter’s question, said, "I think the President has been very articulate from the beginning of the 11th of September that there is a new world, there's a new expectation of how countries are supposed to react. And those countries better make up their minds pretty quickly. And I endorse tremendously that view and that position."

Secretary of State Powell said at the World Economic Forum that the Bush administration was prepared to take its anti-terrorism campaign beyond Afghanistan to other nations that provide "aid, succor, and support" to terrorists and "states that proliferate weapons of mass destruction." Powell also stated the need to address global poverty, commenting that the multinational effort to rebuild Afghanistan is driven in part by the understanding that "terrorism really flourishes in areas of poverty, despair, and hopelessness."

The European Union said it would continue its policy of engagement and rapprochement with Iran despite the U.S. belief that it is a potential terrorist threat.

February 2, 2002: At a meeting in Hanoi, Admiral Dennis C. Blair, the commander-in-chief of U.S. forces in the Pacific, said that the United States and Vietnam were exploring further opportunities for Vietnamese participation in international anti-terrorism efforts. The admiral noted that Vietnam had assisted in checking on the financial dealings that supported terrorism and had granted weather-diverted overflight rights to some U.S. aircraft.

Philippine military officials said that Philippine troops had killed 16 Abu Sayyef Muslim guerrillas linked to the al-Qaida network in 3 days of fighting on the Island of Jolo.

February 3, 2002: Secretary of Defense Rumsfeld, Secretary of State Powell, and National Security Advisor Rice each appeared on Sunday morning network news talk shows and defended President Bush’s strongly worded warning about North Korea, Iran, and Iraq in his State of the Union address. They stressed that Bush cited these nations because each was engaged in programs to develop weapons of mass destruction, and each had relationships with terrorist networks. Rumsfeld also stated that a number of reports showed that Iran had helped Taliban and al-Qaida fighters escape across Iran's border with Afghanistan.

Powell said he welcomed a statement from Palestinian Authority Chairman Yasser Arafat condemning terrorism published in that day's Sunday New York Times, but added that Arafat needed to do "a lot more" to bring Middle East violence under control.

The White House Office of National Drug Control Policy (ONDCP) launched a media campaign to educate the public about how the sale of illicit drugs finances acts of terror. The campaign premiered with the broadcast of television messages during the American national football championship, the "Super Bowl."

February 4, 2002: Speaking at the World Economic Forum, State Department Director of Policy Planning Richard Haass said that the United States was pursuing a foreign policy that went beyond the campaign against global terrorism, by promoting development, open markets, and reducing regional tensions wherever possible.

Secretary of State Powell met with Palestinian parliament Speaker Ahmed Queria to discuss moves toward a cease-fire in the Middle East.

February 5, 2002: The United Nations announced that Arab League Secretary General Ahmed Queria had delivered a message from Saddam Hussein in which Iraq offered a "dialogue" without preconditions with UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan.

Secretary of State Powell told the Senate Foreign Relations Committee that the war against terrorism required transnational efforts, especially on the part of countries where terrorists had operated in the past. He singled out Somalia as a country where terrorist cells might seek refuge, and he commended Yemeni leadership for its counter-terrorism efforts. Powell also noted that the United States had been working with Sudan and the Philippines to combat terrorist networks.

February 6, 2002: Secretary of State Powell, speaking before the House International Relations Committee, said that there was no doubt that Iraq was pursuing a nuclear weapons program. Powell said the United States would work with other countries to get weapons inspectors back into Iraq, however he insisted there must be a regime change in Iraq and the United States might have to act unilaterally to achieve its goals.

Jaime Gama, Chairman-in-Office of the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) and Portuguese Foreign Minister, met with UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan in New York on February 5 and with Secretary of State Powell in Washington on February 6 to discuss the OSCE role in the fight against terrorism.

The White House announced that Vice President Cheney would visit Great Britain and 10 Middle East countries in March for talks on terrorism and regional security.

February 7, 2002: President Bush met with Israeli Prime Minister Ariel Sharon at the White House. After the meeting Bush said he had assured Sharon that the United States would continue to pressure Yasser Arafat to take concrete steps to reduce terrorist activity. President Bush also said he has proposed $300 million in the new budget to improve conditions for average Palestinians who wanted to realize a better life. Both Bush and Sharon said they foresaw the establishment of a Palestinian state at the end of the peace process.

White House spokesman Ari Fleischer announced President Bush’s decision that the Geneva Convention applied to members of the Taliban militia, but not to members of the international al-Qaida terrorist network.

Director of Central Intelligence George Tenet told the Senate Intelligence Committee that 1,000 terrorist operatives had been detained in 60 countries, but warned that the al-Qaida network still posed a serious threat.

Frank Spicka, head of Interpol’s terrorism division, told the Financial Times that evidence suggested that many al-Qaida fighters had escaped from Afghanistan before the military offensive began. He said it was quite possible that Osama bin Laden and hundreds of other al-Qaida were in Yemen, Somalia, Pakistan, or Iran.

Admiral Dennis C. Blair, the commander-in-chief of U.S. forces in the Pacific, delivered a speech in Seoul lauding South Korea's cooperation in the war against terrorism. He especially noted Korea's willingness to send ships as far as Diego Garcia in the Indian Ocean and aircraft to support the United States in the Western Pacific.

February 8, 2002: Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff General Richard Myers said a reconnaissance team had been sent to investigate the site of a February 4 U.S. military strike carried out by an unmanned surveillance aircraft on "some individuals" in Afghanistan. Some reports from the area claimed that the attack struck Afghans loyal to the interim government.

General Myers said 28 more detainees had arrived at Camp X-ray at the U.S. Navy base in Guantanamo Bay, Cuba on February 7 bringing the total number of detainees to 186. An additional 271 detainees remained in Afghanistan. Defense Secretary Rumsfeld said that as many as 105 of the detainees had been through a first round of interrogation in Cuba.

Officials from the United States and Russia held the sixth meeting of the U.S.-Russia Afghanistan working group in Washington. They discussed cooperation in implementing the Bonn agreement for the reconstruction of Afghanistan and fighting terrorism worldwide.

February 9, 2002: The G-7 countries issued a joint statement following their February 7-8 meeting in Ottawa, indicating that a major topic of the meeting was blocking terrorist financing, an effort initiated in October 2001.

February 11, 2002: Jimmy Gurule, Under Secretary of the Treasury for Enforcement, met with members of the UN Security Council's Afghan Sanctions Committee. He urged the United Nations to pass a resolution setting up an international list of individuals and groups involved in financing terrorist activities and requiring nations to block their assets and trade.

Assistant Secretary of State Elizabeth Jones said that the United States wanted to engage the countries of Central Asia over the long term, especially on economic reform, democratic reform, and human rights, but that the United States did not want bases in the region. She made her comments in a briefing about her recent trip to Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, and the Kyrgyz Republic.

The FBI issued a new security threat alert warning of the possibility of an attack as early as February 12 in the United States or Yemen. Information regarding the possible attack was obtained from U.S. military operations in Afghanistan and from interviews of detainees in Cuba.

February 12, 2002: Appearing before the Senate Budget Committee, Secretary of State Powell said that the Bush administration had no plan for conflict with Iran, Iraq, or North Korea, but that the administration was looking at a variety of options for regime change in Iraq. The Secretary said that the United States sought dialogue and peaceful solutions but would not ignore its responsibilities if diplomacy and political action were not successful.

White House Press Secretary Ari Fleischer reported that President Bush had called President Mubarak of Egypt as part of the two leaders' regular consultations about the situation in the Middle East.

February 13, 2002: President Bush met with Pakistani President Musharraf at the White House. At a joint appearance with reporters, Bush praised Pakistan’s role as a key partner in the global coalition against terror and Musharraf's commitment to lead his country toward peace with its neighbors. Bush said that the United States was committed to working in partnership with Pakistan to pursue those goals.

President Musharraf called for the full implementation of the Bonn accords on Afghanistan and said the reconstruction of the country would accelerate the return of millions of Afghan refugees in Pakistan to their homeland. Musharraf said he looked forward to hosting President Bush on a reciprocal visit to Pakistan.

Secretary of Defense Rumsfeld also met with Musharraf. After the meeting, Rumsfeld praised the Musharraf’s "bold steps" to fight terrorism and said that the United States was discussing ways to restore military cooperation to the level that pre-dated the imposition of U.S. sanctions on Pakistan in the late 1990's.

February 14, 2002: Secretary of State Colin Powell met with Canadian Foreign Minister William Graham in Washington. Speaking after the meeting, Powell told reporters that the Bush administration hoped to see the UN Security Council adopt by May 2002 a more tightly defined list of prohibitions that would curb Iraq's access to goods that could be used to produce weapons, yet would permit greater flow of consumer goods to the Iraqi people. Powell also expressed confidence that Russia would work together with the United States to formulate revisions to the UN-imposed sanctions. Powell reiterated that President Bush had made no decision with respect to military action against Iraq.

February 15, 2002: Vice President Cheney told the Council on Foreign Relations that the United States needed to focus on Iraq in the war against terrorism. Cheney said that Iraq had a robust program to develop weapons of mass destruction, had used them in the past, and had also dealt with terrorists such as Abu Nidal, who had an office in Baghdad. Cheney said he had been "deeply disappointed" by the conduct of the Iranian government in recent months. He said that Iran seemed committed to trying to destroy the peace process in the Middle East, and it continued to try to develop weapons of mass destruction.

February 16, 2002: President Bush said that during his trip to Asia he would remind the world that North Korea sought to "threaten freedom with weapons of mass destruction."

February 17, 2002: President Bush arrived in Tokyo to begin his 6-day trip to Japan, South Korea, and China.

Secretary of State Powell, speaking from Tokyo on the NBC news program "Meet the Press," renewed the U.S. demand that Iraq permit the United Nations to resume arms inspections without condition. Powell said that if inspections were not allowed, economic sanctions on Iraq would remain in place. Powell acknowledged that the United States had found no links between Iraq and the September 11 terrorist attacks. "At the same time," Powell said, the world needed to be concerned about Saddam Hussein "because we know that he continues to try to find the means to develop weapons of mass destruction-nuclear programs, chemical programs, biological programs."

On CNN's "Late Edition," Powell stated that the United States was not acting unilaterally with regard to Iran, Iraq, and North Korea. Powell said the Bush administration was examining all its options with regard to these three countries and would do so in consultations with U.S. allies.

February 18, 2002: President Bush met with Japanese Prime Minister Koizumi in Tokyo. Koizumi said that he and Bush had discussed the reconstruction of Afghanistan, the continuing global fight against terrorism, regional issues, Japan's economy, and the environment.

Gen. Richard B. Myers, chairman of the U.S. Joint Chiefs of Staff, commended and thanked the people of the Kyrgyz Republic for their courage as a partner in the international coalition against terrorism. Speaking to reporters in Bishkek, Myers predicted an increase in coalition forces at the Manas airbase in the Kyrgyz Republic, but he stressed that no troops would remain in the country permanently. Myers also would not rule out the possibility that Russian troops might join as part of the coalition

February 19, 2002: In a Pentagon background briefing, a Department of Defense official said that the al-Qaida terrorist network had "lost its center of gravity," although it still posed a global threat. According to the official, the Central Intelligence Agency estimated that approximately 1,000 terrorist suspects in 60 countries had been arrested in the global campaign against terrorism.

February 20, 2002: President Bush, in remarks made near the demilitarized zone that divides South Korea from the North, voiced his hope for a reunited Korea and extended to North Korea the offer of dialogue. The President warned, however, that "we must not permit the world's most dangerous regimes to threaten us with the world's most dangerous weapons." Bush also noted that the United States and South Korea "are cooperating to fight against terror, proving that our alliance is both regional and global."

In a joint news conference with South Korean President Kim Dae-Jung in Seoul, President Bush reiterated his support for Kim's efforts to establish a dialogue with North Korea. Bush said the United States had not yet received a response from North Korea to his offer of unconditional talks. Bush also stressed that his comments about North Korea as part of an axis of evil were directed "toward a regime, toward a government-not toward the North Korean people." He noted that the United States provided more food to the North Korean people than any nation in the world, averaging nearly 300,000 tons of food a year.

Secretary of Defense Rumsfeld stated that the Defense Department's new Office of Strategic Influence had no plans to place false and deceptive information in the U.S. or foreign press to advance the war effort. But Rumsfeld made clear that the United States could use what he termed "tactical deception," designed to mislead the enemy as to particular military moves.

February 21, 2002: Presidents Bush and Chinese leader Jiang Zemin met in Beijing and discussed terrorism and North Korea. Speaking after the meeting, Bush reiterated the U.S. offer to meet with the North Korean regime and he asked for China's help in conveying that message to North Korean leader Kim Jong-il.

Secretary of Defense Rumsfeld said up to 15 Afghan civilians killed in a compound January 23 in the Hazar Qadam valley village of Khas Uruzgan were not al-Qaida or Taliban militia forces. Rumsfeld said an evaluation by U.S. Central Command officials indicated that U.S. military personnel were fired upon from inside the compound and they returned fire, in keeping with the rules of engagement used by U.S. forces in Afghanistan since operations began there October 7.

Department of State Spokesman Richard Boucher confirmed that the U.S. Embassy in Pakistan had received evidence that Wall Street Journal reporter Daniel Pearl was dead. Boucher said that both the United States and Pakistan were committed to identifying all perpetrators and bringing them to justice.

Adm. Dennis C. Blair, commander-in-chief of U.S. forces in the Pacific (CINCPAC), said that the U.S. Pacific Command had deployed personnel to embassies in the Philippines, Indonesia, Malaysia, and India "to better integrate our operations with interagency country teams."

February 22, 2002: Secretary of State Powell said that U.S. officials would contact North Korea’s mission at the UN to try to renew talks on security. Commenting on President Bush’s "axis of evil" remarks, Powell suggested that the strong words got North Korea’s attention.

February 24, 2002: Speaking on CBS's "Face the Nation," Secretary of Defense Rumsfeld said that previous weapons inspections inside Iraq were often ineffective and relied upon defectors. He said that any new inspections program must be much stronger and more intrusive.

Gen. Richard Myers, chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, appeared on ABC's "This Week" and "Fox News Sunday." He said that although neither Osama bin Laden nor Mullah Omar has been located or apprehended yet, the coalition against terrorism was making progress against terrorist networks. Myers said that investigators were linking interrogations in Afghanistan and at Guantanamo with the efforts of civil law enforcement authorities in the United States and in other coalition countries. He noted that over the weekend there were several arrests in other countries where al Qaeda operates.

February 25, 2002: President Bush told reporters at the White House that he had spoken with Pakistani President Musharraf while flying back from China, and he was satisfied with the ongoing response of Musharraf and the Pakistani Government in the case of murdered journalist Daniel Pearl.

Secretary of State Powell, meeting with Spanish Foreign Minister Josep Pique, moved to calm European fears about U.S. intentions with regard to Iran, North Korea, and Iraq. Powell said that he had reinforced the fact that the United States did not have plans for military action against Iraq and remained willing to talk to Iran and North Korea.

Officials at the U.S. Embassy in Rome confirmed that the Department of State had sent two security experts from Washington to help investigate a possible planned terrorist attack on the Embassy. During the previous week Italian authorities had arrested four Moroccan men who possessed cyanide compound and maps of the Embassy and underground utility tunnels near the embassy.

The Department of State announced that a photo exhibit commemorating the September 11 terrorist attacks on the United States would be launched on March 5 in London and would also be shown in Manila, Abuja (Nigeria), Dar es Salaam, Rome, Islamabad, Rabat, Paris, Istanbul, Nairobi, Moscow, Damascus, Mexico City, and Kuwait.

February 26, 2002: Secretary of Defense Rumsfeld said that 68 nations were making material contributions to the anti-terrorism effort in Afghanistan. He said that the effort included 17,000 troops deployed by 17 governments to the Afghanistan region and he gave a partial account of individual countries’ contributions. The Department of Defense also released a fact sheet describing contributions coalition partners had made to the war against terrorism.

Rumsfeld said he had talked on the morning of February 26 with Defense Under Secretary for Policy Doug Feith and that Feith had decided to close the Office of Strategic Information.

Secretary of the Treasury O'Neill announced that the U.S. Treasury Department had identified and frozen assets held by 21 people associated with the Spain-based Basque terrorist group known by the acronym ETA. O'Neill said the United States had cooperated with Spain and the European Union (EU) in compiling the list of people who had worked for or on behalf of ETA.

February 27, 2002: Speaking with reporters in North Carolina, President Bush acknowledged that he thought there was al Qaeda influence in Georgia, adding "so long as there's al Qaeda influence anywhere, we will help the host countries rout them out and bring them to justice." Bush told reporters that the United States provided Georgia with equipment and technical advice. The President cited the U.S. presence in the Philippines and in Yemen as additional examples of the U.S. commitment to help countries fighting al Qaeda-affiliated groups.

Department of State spokesman Richard Boucher stated that the United States was offering up to $5 million for information leading to the arrest and conviction of people responsible for the kidnapping and murder of Daniel Pearl.

March 1, 2002: At a press briefing, Pentagon spokeswoman Victoria Clarke emphasized the Japanese contribution to the anti-terrorism effort. She noted that Japan had three destroyers and two supply ships in the Indian Ocean refueling U.S. and British warships. In addition, about half of Japan's fleet of C-130 and U-4 aircraft were providing airlift support to the Afghanistan operation.

The U.S. Department of State issued the International Narcotics Control Strategy Report (INCSR) of 2001. The report noted that the September 11 terrorist attacks had spurred the world's international organizations to take prompt action against terrorist financing resulting from drug trafficking. The report cited as successes the United Nations Security Council action calling on member nations to combat terrorism and its financing, and U.S. and EU-backed programs to curtail money laundering and financial crime that formed the channels terrorist groups used to move illicit drug profits.

March 2, 2002: The U.S. Central Command (CENTCOM) headquarters in Tampa announced that U.S. and coalition forces had attacked al-Qaida and non-Afghan Taliban forces south of Gardez in eastern Afghanistan beginning in the evening of March 1. According to the statement, one American and three anti-Taliban Afghan soldiers had been killed in the offensive named Operation Anaconda.

March 4, 2002: Gen. Tommy Franks, commander-in-chief of the U.S. Central Command, announced that close to a thousand U.S. ground forces, were involved in the ongoing Operation Anaconda. General Franks said U.S. and coalition forces had killed roughly 100 to 200 enemy forces in the assault, while eight or nine U.S. troops had been killed.

In a joint statement made after they met in Washington, Treasury Secretary O'Neill and Bahrain Finance Minister Abdulla Hassan Saif outlined both nations' commitment and cooperation to combat the financing of terrorism. O'Neill praised the steps Bahrain had taken to combat money laundering and promote international accounting standards for Islamic institutions.

Governor Tom Ridge, the U.S. Director of Homeland Security met with Mexican leaders in Mexico City to discuss the need for more effective measures to safeguard the U.S.-Mexico border in the wake of the September 11 terrorist attacks. Ridge suggested that the existing border infrastructure and the current approach to border management were out-of-date and inadequate. Ridge stated that it was vital that both Mexico and the United States embrace technological advances to boost security along their shared border.

March 5, 2002: In Kuwait City U.S. Treasury Secretary O'Neill thanked Kuwait for its quick condemnation of the September 11 terrorist attacks and its cooperation in blocking the financial assets of terrorists and their supporters.

March 6, 2002: U.S. Treasury Secretary O'Neill spoke at a press conference in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. O'Neill said that during his visit to the region, Saudi Arabia and other countries in the Gulf had given him a "strong degree of confidence" that those countries were working to block the flow of funds to terrorists. He also said that the Gulf countries were working to thwart money laundering associated with the drug trade and block charitable money from being channeled to terrorists.

March 7, 2002: A UN spokesman called talks between Iraqi Foreign Minister Naji Sabri and Secretary-General Kofi Annan on returning UN weapons inspectors to that country "frank and useful." The United Nations and Iraq said that a second round of talks would be held in mid-April "based on a well-defined agenda agreed in advance."

March 8, 2002: U.S. Homeland Security Director Tom Ridge and Canadian Deputy Prime Minister John Manley met to continue discussions on the 30-point Smart Border Action Plan.

U.S. Ambassador James Cunningham said that the United States was supporting UN Secretary-General Annan's talks with Iraq on restarting weapons inspections. Cunningham said that in his first encounter with the Iraqis on March 7, the Secretary-General "kept the focus where it should be properly, which is on implementation of (Security Council) resolutions and the need to implement the resolutions."

A "senior defense official" told reporters at a Pentagon briefing that Somalia was "a favorable environment" and "a potential haven for some al Qaeda terrorist members, to include those currently trying to flee Afghanistan." "There are no central government security organs, and the country has a long, porous border," he said, specifically singling out the Somali Islamic Union, or al-Ittihaad al-Islamiya-AIAI-as a terrorist threat.

March 11, 2002: In a speech on the South Lawn of the White House, President Bush said, that since the Taliban government no longer governed Afghanistan and al Qaeda had lost its home base for terrorism, the second stage in the war on terrorism-"a sustained campaign to deny sanctuary to terrorists"-had begun.

The South Lawn of the White House was the venue for many ceremonies held on March 11 to honor both victims and heroes of the multiple terrorist attacks in the United States exactly 6 months earlier. Joining President Bush, cabinet secretaries and lawmakers, and relatives of many of the "9/11" victims were members of the Washington diplomatic corps.

Secretary of Defense Rumsfeld welcomed representatives from 29 nations that were part of the coalition against terrorism at a Pentagon ceremony honoring the victims of the September 11 terrorist attacks. At the ceremony, Rumsfeld said he hoped that all remaining al-Qaida and Taliban forces would be cleared that week from the 60-square-mile combat zone near Gardez, Afghanistan.

State Department spokesman Richard Boucher said 136 nations had offered some form of military assistance in the war on terrorism, and 17 of those nations had deployed more than 16,500 troops in the U.S. Central Command's area of responsibility. Boucher said that on the financial side, 142 countries had issued blocking orders on the financial assets of terrorists or their backers, resulting in the blocking of more than $104.8 million. He said $34.2 million had been blocked in the United States, and $70.5 million overseas.

Vice President Cheney spoke in a press conference after meeting with British Prime Minister Tony Blair in London. Cheney said that the purpose of his visit to 11 Middle Eastern countries was to discuss both the current actions of the international anti-terror coalition and future threats from weapons of mass destruction, including "the important choices that await us in the days ahead." Cheney said, "In these matters America is not announcing decisions, I will be there to conduct frank discussions and to solicit the views of important friends and allies."

Treasury Secretary O'Neill told reporters that the United States and Saudi Arabia were acting jointly to block the assets of the Somalia and Bosnia-Herzegovina branches of a Saudi-based charitable foundation, the Al-Haramain Islamic Foundation.

The White House announced that President Bush would visit Germany, Russia, and France May 22-27 to advance the goal of combating terrorism, strengthening transatlantic ties, and advancing the new U.S. relationship with Russia.

National Security Advisor Condoleezza Rice said in an interview on the Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) "Newshour With Jim Lehrer" that the United States was consulting with its friends and allies about future policy towards Iraq, but it had made no decision on the use of force against the Saddam Hussein regime.

March 12, 2002: Department of Defense spokesperson Victoria Clarke said that the United States did not support allowing any al-Qaida or Taliban leadership inside the combat area near Gardez, Afghanistan, to escape capture or death. Clarke was responding to questions about reports that officials in the interim Afghan government were negotiating for the surrender of the remaining al-Qaida and Taliban fighters inside the 60-square-mile pocket near Gardez in the Shah-I-Kot valley.

Secretary of State Powell told a Senate panel that news reports suggesting a growing U.S. reliance on nuclear weapons had misinterpreted the Department of Defense’s nuclear policy review. Powell said that the United States was not considering a preemptive strike against anyone and had not lowered the nuclear threshold.

Homeland Security Director Ridge announced details of the new Homeland Security Advisory System (HSAS) his office put together to measure and evaluate terrorist threats and communicate them to the public in a timely manner.

March 14, 2002: Attorney General Ashcroft announced that a U.S. federal grand jury in New Jersey had handed up an indictment against Ahmed Omar Saeed Sheikh, the key suspect in the January kidnapping in Pakistan of Wall Street Journal reporter Daniel Pearl. Saeed, a British national, was being held in Pakistan.

The Department of State announced that Deputy Secretary of State Richard Armitage had met with the Defense Ministers of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania on March 13 in Washington. The ministers reported on plans to contribute Baltic troops to an international contingent, led by Denmark and scheduled to be deployed to the Kyrgyz Republic in April, as part of operation Enduring Freedom.

March 16, 2002: Speaking in a CNN television interview on March 16, Deputy Secretary Defense Paul Wolfowitz reiterated that no decision had been taken concerning military action against Iraq. He pointed out that Vice President Cheney was consulting with U.S. friends and allies in the region on a wide range of issues, including Iraq, the war on terrorism, and the Middle East situation. Wolfowitz denied that any specific linkage existed between Iraq and Middle East violence, but said that the United States was continuing to make every effort to end the violence and restart talks between Israel and the Palestinians. He also said Saudi Arabia's diplomatic initiative was important and worth pursuing.

March 17, 2002: An attack on the Protestant International Church in Islamabad killed five worshippers and injured dozens more. Included among those killed were American family members from the U.S. Embassy Barbara Green and her daughter Kristen Wormsley.

March 18, 2002: President Bush said, "we've got a lot more fighting to do in Afghanistan" because "there are more al Qaeda killers in Afghanistan, perhaps in Pakistan, willing to come back into Afghanistan."

Vice President Cheney met with Kuwait's first Deputy Prime Minister and Foreign Minister to discuss areas of cooperation, including the war on terrorism and the Middle East peace process. Cheney said that he told them that the United States would work closely with its friends in Kuwait and elsewhere throughout the region to resolve regional security issues.

Cheney later spoke in Jerusalem with Israeli Prime Minister Ariel Sharon and told Sharon that the U.S. had a clear goal "to end the terror and violence" plaguing Israelis and Palestinians. Cheney said both peoples had "suffered mightily," and that Special Envoy Anthony Zinni's return to the region demonstrated U.S. determination to help both sides achieve peace.

FBI Director Robert Mueller, traveling though the Asia-Pacific region to meet with his counterparts, spoke at a press conference in Manila. Mueller said "it is critically important that the FBI work with its law enforcement counterparts around the world to exchange information and work together to prevent another September 11th (from) happening, whether it be in the United States, or in the Philippines, or in Thailand, or in Singapore, or any other country."

Attorney General Ashcroft announced the indictment of three members of the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) for conspiracy to import cocaine into the United States. Ashcroft said that the indictment marked the convergence of two of the top priorities of the Department of Justice: the prevention of terrorism and the reduction of illegal drug use.

March 19, 2002: Appearing at a Senate Armed Services Committee hearing, CIA Director George Tenet stated that the al-Qaida terrorist network led by Osama bin Laden was still the most immediate and serious threat faced by the United States despite considerable success from operations in Afghanistan and elsewhere. Tenet said that this threat persisted despite the counteroffensive against al-Qaida that had led to the arrest of over 1,300 extremists in more than 70 countries.

Under Secretary of State for Political Affairs Marc Grossman told the American Turkish Council that Turkey had been a steadfast partner in the war on terrorism. In addition to its role in the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF), Turkey had extended basing rights and overflights to coalition forces, provided trainers for the new Afghan police force, and supplied medical care for the people of Afghanistan.

March 20, 2002: Attorney General Ashcroft announced that U.S. law enforcement authorities would ask some 3,000 additional foreign nationals in the United States to undergo voluntary interviews to help the government identify and disrupt terrorist networks. He also released a report detailing the results of the first phase of the interview program. The second-phase interviews were to be completed within 60 days, and would be similar to some 5000 undertaken across the nation since early November by special U.S. Attorney-led task forces.

General Tommy Franks, commander of Operation Enduring Freedom and commander in chief of the U.S. Army's Central Command (CENTCOM), told journalists in Moscow that Russia had provided "a great deal in terms of support, equipment, and humanitarian aid to Afghanistan." Franks specifically praised the work of EmerCom, Russia's Ministry of Emergency Situations. He also cited a Russian-operated hospital in Kabul, tunnel-clearing operations north of Kabul, and clearance of "overflight for our necessary flights across Russia" as much appreciated and important contributions to coalition operations.

March 21, 2002: Secretary of Defense Rumsfeld announced that new procedures for military tribunals had been released by the Defense Department. Rumsfeld said that the procedures had been designed to produce "honest, fair and impartial" trials of suspected international terrorists

President Bush said that Vice President Cheney had briefed reporters about the results of Cheney's 10-day trip through the Middle East. Bush said that Cheney was prepared to return to the Middle East on short notice to meet with Palestinian leader Yasser Arafat if Arafat met U.S. conditions about stopping violence. Cheney said that at every stop on his trip, he had discussed the campaign in Afghanistan, the war on terror, the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, and Iraq's development of weapons of mass destruction. "I found at virtually every stop that the United States has great friends and allies in that part of the world," Cheney said. Cheney also said that the allies were uniformly concerned about Iraq's refusal to live up to the UN Security Council resolutions and continued development of weapons of mass destruction.

In an interview with Wolf Blitzer on CNN, Deputy Secretary of Defense Paul Wolfowitz said that Al-Qaida and Taliban fighters remaining in Afghanistan were regrouping to fight U.S. troops again. Asked whether U.S. forces would cross over into Pakistan in pursuit of terrorists fleeing Afghanistan, Wolfowitz replied, "In some limited circumstances, it's a possibility. I don't see that being anything large-scale."

In an interview with The New York Times, Wolfowitz said it was probable that Indonesia, with the world's largest Muslim population, was a target of recruitment by the al Qaeda terrorist organization. He expressed confidence, however, that the coalition against terrorism had "a great ally not only in the government of Indonesia but in most of the people of Indonesia."

March 22, 2002: Department of State Deputy Spokesman Philip Reeker described a list of 19 questions about weapons inspections given by the Iraqi delegation to UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan March 7 as an attempt to divert attention from its noncompliance with UN Security Council Resolutions 624 and 1284. Reeker also announced that the Department of State had implemented an ordered departure of all non-emergency personnel and all dependents from the U.S. Embassy and consulates in Pakistan. Reeker said that the action came after a review of the U.S. security posture in Pakistan in light of the March 17 terrorist attack on an Islamabad church, but that the action did not indicate "any lack of confidence in Pakistan's ability to protect Americans."

March 23, 2002: President Bush met with Peru's President Alejandro Toledo in the Peruvian capital of Lima. Speaking at a joint press conference after their meeting, Bush expressed sympathy for the victims of the recent bombing near the U.S. Embassy in Lima that killed a number of people and injured many more. Bush also praised Peru for taking the lead in rallying the hemisphere to take strong action against terrorists.

March 24, 2002: President Bush met with El Salvador’s President Francisco Flores Perez. At a press conference in San Salvador, Bush thanked Flores' government for ordering a freeze on suspected terrorist assets in El Salvador and for strengthening its border security in the wake of the September 11 terrorist attacks against New York and Washington. The U.S. President hailed El Salvador as a close friend and ally of the United States and noted that the country remained a steadfast member of the international coalition against terrorism.

March 25, 2002: Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld announced plans for U.S. and coalition forces to begin training a national Afghan army. Rumsfeld said that although a training schedule was still being worked out, plans called for training cycles of approximately 10 weeks each to be held over a period of about 18 months for the first units.

March 26, 2002: Deputy Permanent U.S. Representative to the UN Ambassador James Cunningham said that the United States did not see the need to expand the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) beyond Kabul and its immediate environs. He noted that the United States would support the renewal of ISAF's mandate until the end of the year, provide assistance to Turkey should it take over ISAF command, and help train a national army and contribute to training and equipping police.

Secretary of State Colin Powell met with New Zealand Prime Minister Helen Clark at the State Department. Powell noted that the United States and New Zealand had "excellent" bilateral relations, and he cited the support that New Zealand had provided the United States in the war on terrorism, including direct assistance in Afghanistan.

March 27, 2002: Secretary of State Colin Powell added three Middle Eastern terrorist groups to the official "Foreign Terrorist Organizations" list, including the Palestinian militia group al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigades. Powell said that an appeal made at the Arab League summit meeting in Beirut by Saudi Crown Prince Abdullah for support of the Saudi proposal for Middle East peace was "quite helpful to our efforts."

President Bush strongly condemned the March 27 Passover suicide bombing in Netanya, Israel, that killed at least 15 people. Bush said, "I call upon Mr. Arafat and the Palestinian Authority to do everything in their power to stop the terrorist killing because there are people in the Middle East who would rather kill than have peace.

March 28, 2002: White House spokesman Gordon Johndroe praised the Arab League's endorsement of the Saudi peace plan.

March 30, 2002: Secretary of Defense Rumsfeld said that the explosive situation between Israelis and Palestinians had not yet had an impact on Arab support for the U.S.-sponsored war on terrorism.

April 2, 2002: The White House announced that Pakistani authorities, supported by U.S. officers, had captured Abu Zubaydah, a key terrorist recruiter, operational planner, and member of Osama bin Laden's inner circle.

During an interview on MSNBC, Secretary of Defense Rumsfeld said that although terrorists and terrorist organizations wanted to acquire nuclear weapons, he was primarily concerned about their obtaining and using biological weapons.

Rumsfeld met at the Pentagon with Norwegian Minister of Defense Kristin Krohn Devold. Rumsfeld praised Norway for the "wonderful cooperation and support" it had provided to Operation Enduring Freedom in Afghanistan. Devold revealed that Norway had offered F-16 fighter jets for Operation Enduring Freedom, and it "plans to be able to go together with Denmark and Netherlands with a deployment of F-16s if we are needed later on this year."

April 3, 2002: At a meeting of potential donors at the United Nations in Geneva, Afghan Foreign Minister Abdullah Abdullah presented the Interim Authority's plans for Afghanistan's security needs. U.S. Ambassador James Dobbins, coordinator for Afghanistan, said that the United States had agreed to take the lead on military training.

Department of State Spokesman Philip Reeker said that the United States would contribute an additional $22.5 million to international organizations for reconstruction efforts in Afghanistan.

Addressing news media speculation, Secretary of Defense Rumsfeld said that intelligence officers would question al-Qaida terrorist leader Abu Zubaydah, but at no time would he be tortured by anyone to extract information.

Treasury Secretary O'Neill joined British Ambassador Sir Christopher Meyer and British Virgin Islands Governor Frank Savage in signing a tax information exchange agreement with regard to the British Virgin Islands. O’Neill stated that the agreement was targeted at stopping funds associated with terrorism, money laundering, and tax evasion that often move almost effortlessly across national boundaries.

April 4, 2002: President Bush announced that he would send Secretary of State Colin Powell to the Middle East in an effort to end the escalating violence between Israelis and Palestinians and to lay a foundation for political talks.

Brigadier General John Rosa said at a Pentagon briefing that U.S. forces engaged in monitoring and surveillance efforts in eastern Afghanistan continued to see small pockets of Taliban or al-Qaida forces. Rosa said U.S. efforts were still focused in the Gardez-Khost area where Operation Anaconda took place.

Defense Department spokeswoman Victoria Clarke said that Yasser Esam Hamdi, one of the terrorist detainees being held at the U.S. Naval Base at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, was likely an American citizen.

April 6, 2002: President Bush and British Prime Minister Tony Blair met in Crawford, Texas, and pledged their countries to seeking a just and lasting peace settlement in the Middle East. Both leaders agreed that Iraq's development of weapons of mass destruction constituted a clear and present danger that the world community could not ignore. President Bush also paid tribute to Britain's leadership in the war against terrorism.

April 9, 2002: A U.S. grand jury indicted four people for supporting and providing resources for convicted blind terrorist Sheik Omar Abdel Rahman and the organization known as the Islamic Group Attorney General John Ashcroft announced at an April 9 news conference in New York. "The Islamic Group is a global terrorist organization that has forged alliances with other terrorist groups, including al Qaeda," Ashcroft said, noting that it has an active membership in the United States, concentrated in the New York City metropolitan area. The four indicted include New York City attorney Lynne Stewart, one of Rahman's lawyers

Speaking to reporters after their White House meeting President Bush and NATO Secretary General Lord Robertson stressed the critical role NATO was playing in the war on terrorism and the need for NATO to continue developing the capabilities to meet the threats of the 21st century. "The United States is deeply, deeply grateful for this support," Bush said, citing NATO's invocation of Article 5 after the September 11 terrorist attacks, its contribution of forces in Afghanistan, deployment of NATO AWACs aircraft to enhance U.S. homeland security, and the use of airspace of NATO members for anti-terror coalition air operations.

April 10, 2002: Secretary of State Powell met with EU, UN, and Russian officials in Madrid. The leaders issued the "Quartet Communiqué," which stated that "there is no military solution to the conflict" between the Israelis and Palestinians. It continued: "Believing that there has been too much suffering and too much bloodshed, we call on the leaders of Israel and the Palestinian Authority to act in the interests of their own people, the region, and the international community and to immediately halt this senseless confrontation."

Peter Rodman, Assistant Secretary of Defense for International Security Affairs, said in testimony before Congress that expanded U.S. support for the Colombian Government's efforts to battle terrorism would give Colombian authorities the "wherewithal and incentive" to combat terrorist organizations operating inside their country. He stated President Bush had asked Congress for expanded U.S. support for a unified campaign in Colombia against terrorism as well as narcotics trafficking. Such assistance, said Rodman, would help Colombia fight the terrorist groups more effectively, not only in traditional coca-growing regions such as Putumayo and Caqueta departments, but throughout Colombia.

April 11, 2002: Gen. Tommy Franks, commander in chief of the U.S. Central Command, stated that 6 months after combat operations began in Afghanistan, the security situation in the country remained difficult. Franks, tasked with prosecuting military operations in Afghanistan, told reporters at the Washington Foreign Press Center April 11 that "there will continue to be risks to international forces." He also pointed out that "there will continue to be risk to the Afghans themselves inside Afghanistan. . . . [But] it is a heck of a lot more stable in Afghanistan right now than it was on the 11th of September last year." Asked to provide a broad view of the Afghan situation, Franks characterized it as murky. U.S. and coalition forces were aware of the tribal and ethnic "potential points of friction" that have existed for 2,000 years there, Franks said, and added that he expected them to continue. U.S. and ISAF forces in Kabul have paid attention to these relationships, he said, and provide a sense of stability with their presence.

U.S. Ambassador to the OSCE Stephan Minikes told the Permanent Council in Vienna that the rules and procedures governing U.S. military commissions for suspected international terrorists would afford impartial, full, and fair trials with appropriate due process safeguards The procedures announced by the U.S. Department of Defense March 21, "are consistent with fundamental international standards governing criminal trials, specifically consistent with the procedural safeguards found in the Geneva Conventions," said Minikes, and they are also consistent with the procedural safeguards found in the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. He added: "Consistent with the OSCE Vienna, Copenhagen, and Moscow human dimension commitments, the procedures include the presumption of innocence, the right to choose one's council, and the right to be informed of the charges in one's native language."

April 12, 2002: Secretary of State Colin Powell expressed "deep regrets" over the terrorist attack at a Jerusalem market that killed six people. Speaking in Safed, Israel, Powell said the incident "illustrates the exceptionally dangerous situation that exists here and the need for all of us, everyone, the international community, to exert every effort we can to find a solution." Secretary of State Colin Powell, on a peace mission in the Middle East, canceled a planned April 13 meeting with Palestinian Authority Chairman Yasser Arafat following this new Palestinian terrorist bombing attack. Powell said through a spokesman that he condemns the attack and "expects Arafat to do so as well."

During his daily briefing Department Spokesman Richard Boucher said Powell might meet Arafat later, "as circumstances permit." Asked whether they might meet on April 14, Boucher said "We'll see."

Secretary Powell also said that he had a "sobering briefing" on the situation at the Israeli-Lebanese border. He urged Syria and other countries with influence over Hezbollah to restrain the organization before its activities produce "consequences that are devastating to consider for the whole region."

April 13, 2002: Secretary of State Colin Powell welcomed Palestinian Authority Chairman Arafat's condemnation earlier that day of terrorist acts and planned to meet with him on April 14 to discuss steps to end terror and resume the political process towards peace, State Department Spokesman Richard Boucher told reporters in Jerusalem.

April 15, 2002: More than 140 countries had reported to the United Nations on their approaches to countering terrorist activities on their territory, the chairman of the Security Council's Counter-Terrorism Committee (CTC) reported. British Ambassador Jeremy Greenstock said that "the overall determination of virtually all member states to do something about terrorism has definitely taken off since 11 September and since the passage of (Resolution) 1373." One of the most important developments, Greenstock told a public meeting of the Security Council, was that many nations now are passing legislation to counter terrorism, not just reviewing what legislation they have. "This amounts to more than intentions. It is actually happening now," he said.

U.S. Ambassador to Afghanistan Robert P. Finn, in his first press conference with the Afghan media, said he believed remnants of the al Qaeda and Taliban would continue to try to create instability in the cities as they had done in some parts of the countryside, but he did not believe they would be successful.

April 16, 2002: Brig. Gen. John Rosa, USAF, stated at a Pentagon briefing that British Royal Marine Commandos were joining other U.S.-led coalition forces in continuing offensive military operations in eastern Afghanistan against remaining Taliban militia and al-Qaida forces. Members of the 41 Commando unit were participating in Operation Mountain Lion, an ongoing U.S. operation in eastern Afghanistan. The unit specialized in high-mountain and extreme cold weather warfare.

During a joint press conference with Finnish President Tarja Halonen, at the State Department Deputy Secretary of State Richard Armitage said the United States was grateful for Finland's efforts in Afghanistan and for its humanitarian work in such areas as the Middle East and North Korea. Halonen said she and Armitage had a "very, very good" discussion about Afghanistan, the Middle East, and the Korean Peninsula during their meeting.

April 17, 2002: Treasury Secretary Paul O’Neill said in Washington that the United States valued its close and cooperative relationship with the Netherlands Antilles on law enforcement matters "particularly now as we work to ensure that no safe haven exists anywhere in the world for the funds associated with illicit activities, including terrorism, money laundering, and tax evasion." O'Neill spoke after signing a new agreement with the Kingdom of the Netherlands that would allow for the exchange of information on tax matters between the United States and the Netherlands Antilles. He was joined by Netherlands Antilles Prime Minister Miguel Pourier.

Marc Grossman, Under Secretary of State for Political Affairs, said in Lisbon that the United States supported the OSCE's involvement in the war on terrorism and looked forward to the June 12 meeting aimed at coordinating OSCE efforts with those of other international organizations. Grossman, who made his comments during a joint press conference with Portugal's director-general for foreign policy Santana Carlos, was in Lisbon as part of a nine-country visit to Europe to discuss terrorism, U.S. support for NATO, and the agenda of the November NATO summit in Prague. "We want to be in support of Portugal's efforts to make the OSCE [Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe] part of this global war on terrorism," Grossman said, noting that Portugal had chosen counterterrorism as a theme of its year-long OSCE presidency.

April 18, 2002: Deputy State Department Spokesman Philip Reeker said the United States welcomed the return of former Afghan King Mohammad Zaher Shah to Kabul and added: "We believe that there's a significant symbolic role for the former king in supporting the processes leading to a permanent broad- based government for Afghanistan."

April 15, 2002: Afghanistan began the process of choosing its next government as villages elected representatives to provincial assemblies. These in turn were to elect representatives to a 1,500-member consultative body known as the Loya Jirga (Grand Council).

April 19, 2002: The Treasury Department announced that it had blocked the assets of nine individuals and one organization that, it said, were linked to the terrorist activities of Osama bin Laden and the al Qaida network. The Department designated nine individuals and one organization, all linked to al Qaida and Osama bin Laden, under President Bush's Executive Order 13224 and took blocking action against them. This action would block all assets these entities had in the United States and prohibit any financial interaction between U.S. persons and these entities and individuals. Including this designation, the Department of Treasury had thus far blocked the assets of 202 entities and individuals. 161 countries had joined the United States in issuing blocking orders against these groups and individuals, and $104 million had been frozen worldwide. $34 million of that was blocked domestically in the United States with the remaining $70 million blocked by its international partners.

Expressing concern over "the dire humanitarian situation of the Palestinian civilian population," the UN Security Council voted unanimously to send a fact-finding team to the Palestinian refugee camp in Jenin.

April 20, 2002: Treasury Secretary Paul O'Neill hailed a decision by the Group of Seven (G-7) major industrialized countries to jointly designate groups and individuals as financiers of terrorism. The move marked "an important step in our international efforts to increase information sharing and coordinate our counter-terrorist financing efforts," O'Neill said in a statement following the April 19-20 meetings in Washington of G-7 Finance Ministers and central bank governors.

O'Neill said the United States was committed to providing technical assistance to advance the goal of cutting off all terrorist financing sources, as well as to ensure that non-governmental organizations (NGOs), charities and informal "hawala" banking systems not be misused by terrorists and their supporters.

April 22, 2002: Air Force Gen. Richard Myers said at a Pentagon briefing that approximately 300 U.S. Navy Seabees and Marine Corps engineers had begun arriving in the southern Philippine province of Basilan for construction projects to bolster counterterrorism efforts in the region. They would offer training, assistance and advice to Philippine military personnel on construction projects that were primarily military in nature, but also provide some benefit to the civilian population.

April 23, 2002: President Bush and Morocco's King Mohammed VI spoke briefly with reporters after discussions at the White House April 23. The King was making an official visit to Washington on April 21-24. Calling Morocco "a great friend" and steadfast supporter of the war on terrorism, Bush announced that his administration was seeking a Free Trade Agreement with Morocco.

April 24, 2002: Secretary of State Colin Powell said that Iraq "remains a significant threat" to stability in the Middle East, and that the Bush administration was working with the United Nations to strengthen international controls on Iraq. Testifying before the Senate Appropriations Committee's subcommittee on foreign operations, export financing and related programs in Washington April 24, Powell said Russia has endorsed the Goods Review List (GRL) for Iraq, which he expected the UN Security Council to implement in May. The GRL identifies materials which UN Security Council members must approve for export to Iraq and ensures continued supervision and control of dual use goods, Powell said. The Secretary said the Bush administration still strongly believed in regime change in Iraq. "[W]e look forward to the day when a democratic, representative government at peace with its neighbors leads Iraq to rejoin the family of nations," Powell said.

Authorities in Colombia had determined that at least seven Irish nationals were in the South American country at various times in the last year working with members of the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC), the terrorist group that has been leading an insurgent campaign against the government for 40 years. General Fernando Tapias, chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, the Armed Forces of Colombia, testified before the House International Relations Committee on April 24 that three of the Irish citizens are in the custody of authorities, two were detained and released by authorities, and two left Colombia before they were interviewed.

Tapias said the two taken into custody last August are well known in the upper levels of the Provisional Irish Republican Army (IRA), according to information Colombia received from European officials. But Tapias could not say that the suspects had been sent on an official IRA mission to train FARC members with IRA sanction.

Before being apprehended, the Irish nationals were training the FARC in military tactics, the use of explosives and the manufacture of arms, the general told the U.S. committee, speaking through a translator. In doing so, he said, they "buttressed" the terrorist activities of the FARC, which have increased markedly since mid 2001.

April 25, 2002: President Bush, following his talks with Saudi Crown Prince Abdallah, said the two had a "cordial meeting" and had established a "strong personal bond." Speaking to reporters at his ranch in Crawford, Texas April 25, Bush said the United States was interested in the prince's advice and counsel. "We share a vision," he said. Bush called the Crown Prince's recent proposal for a Middle East settlement "a breakthrough moment." "He's a man with enormous influence in the Middle East. I respect that a lot. And I'm confident we can work together to achieve a peace," Bush said. Bush said he told the Saudi leader in "plain and straightforward terms" that Israel must finish its withdrawal from Palestinian areas, and the Palestinian Authority must "clamp down" on terror.

April 26, 2002: The United States and Russia reaffirmed their commitment "to continue close cooperation in combating terrorist threats, one objective of which is the complete elimination of the terrorist infrastructure in Afghanistan," according to a joint statement issued April 26 after a meeting in Moscow of the U.S.-Russia Working Group on Afghanistan. The two sides said they continued to support the interim government of Afghanistan and would support the follow-on transitional government to be decided by the Loya Jirga assembly in June. They emphasized a key coordinating role played by the United Nations in both the political settlement and post-conflict restoration in Afghanistan.

April 27, 2002: During a joint press conference Kyrgyz President Askar Akayev and U.S. Defense Secretary Donald Rumsfeld expressed satisfaction over the extensive cooperation between the two countries in economic, political, and humanitarian areas-as well as in the war against terrorism. The press conference took place in Bishkek, Kyrgyz Republic, during Secretary Rumsfeld's five-day trip to Central Asia. President Akayev said, "Undoubtedly, Secretary Rumsfeld's visit will provide new impetus to our bilateral relations, and I am certain that this relationship will continue to develop successfully and fruitfully in the years to come." Secretary Rumsfeld noted the U.S. cooperation with Kyrgyzstan goes back to the NATO Partnership for Peace program, and expressed America's gratitude for the use of the Manas air base as well as other assistance to defeat terrorism and help rebuild Afghanistan.

The United States has "absolutely no intention" of establishing a military base in the Philippines, General Richard Myers, the chairman of the U.S. Joint Chiefs of Staff, said in an April 27 press briefing in Manila.

"Our presence here in training with and advising the Philippine armed forces and the other exercises we do with the Philippine armed forces," Myers told reporters, "are either in the context of the global war on terrorism or on our broader military-to-military relationship in the exercises that we've been doing for years."

Myers added, however, that "the United States government would be very receptive to requests from the Philippine government for future training assistance and advisory roles for the U.S. armed forces, if that's what the Philippine government wants." Myers noted that there has been a 10-fold increase in some of the military assistance the United States has been providing the Philippine armed forces since last year's meeting between President Bush and Philippine President Arroyo-Macapagal.

Myers said that the United States has no plans at this time to have its soldiers participate in combat operations against the Abu Sayyaf terrorist organization in the Philippines that is holding two American missionaries captive.

Speaking to troops at Bagram Air Base in Afghanistan on April 27, Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld said: "The world is determined to stop the tyranny of terrorism. And it isn't just one country that can do that; it's going to take the coalition of a great many countries working together as each of you are."

Secretary Rumsfeld also met with Chairman Hamid Karzai and other Afghan leaders during his visit, part of a five-day trip to Central Asia.

"This coalition stands on the front line between freedom and fear," Rumsfeld said to the assembled U.S. and coalition troops. "You stand against an evil that cannot be appeased, it must not be ignored, and it certainly must be defeated."

April 28, 2002: President Nazarbayev of Kazakhstan and Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld pledged continued cooperation in the war against terrorism in a wide-ranging discussion that covered broad issues of security in the Caspian region. In addition, they addressed questions of humanitarian assistance to Afghanistan, emergency use of airports in Kazakhstan, and the assignment of several liaison officers to the U.S. Central Command headquarters in Florida.

Minister of Defense Mukhtar Altynbayev and Secretary Rumsfeld spoke at a joint press conference in Astana, Kazakhstan, on April 28, following the meeting with President Nazarbayev. Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld thanked the president and people of Turkmenistan for their humanitarian assistance to Afghanistan. Rumsfeld spoke at a brief press conference at the Turkmenbashi Airport following a meeting with President Saparmurat Niyazov and other government leaders. "Their humanitarian efforts in Afghanistan will undoubtedly save lives of the Afghan people and have been a significant contribution," Rumsfeld said. He also noted that granting overflight rights was an important contribution in the global war against terrorism. In response to a question about the role of Iran in Afghanistan, Secretary Rumsfeld said: "Iran has its own interest and it has not been notably helpful with respect to Afghanistan. Sometimes I understate for emphasis."

President Bush commended Israel's decision to allow Palestinian Authority Chairman Yasser Arafat to travel freely, calling it a "helpful decision" toward resolving the situation in the West Bank.

A statement by the White House Press Secretary Ari Fleischer at the President's ranch in Crawford, Texas, also noted that Israel had also agreed "to accept international monitors with respect to six named prisoners now Chairman Arafat's custody, and to withdraw Israeli forces from Ramallah."

April 29, 2002: The Department of Defense announced that it had begun a "train and equip" program to enhance Georgia's counter-terrorism capabilities and address the situation in the Pankisi Gorge. The program included organizational and accounting training for defense ministry command staff, border guards, and security officials; tactical training in radio operator procedures, land navigation, and human rights education at the platoon level; and the transfer of fuel, uniform items, small arms and ammunition, medical and communications equipment, and construction materiel. An April 29 DOD press release said the effort "will complement other counter-terrorism efforts around the globe and will increase stability in the Caucasus."

Department of State Spokesman Richard Boucher indicated U.S. appreciation of Turkey's decision to assume command of the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) in Afghanistan for a period of 6 months. He indicated that the decision demonstrated Turkey's steadfast commitment and willingness to assume a leadership role in the war against terrorism and, in particular, to bring about peace and stability in Afghanistan. The United States was strongly committed to supporting Turkey's lead role in the ISAF, Boucher said, and was working closely with the Turkish Government, the Afghan Interim Authority and others to ensure a successful mission under Turkey's leadership

April 30, 2002: The Permanent Mission to the United Nations of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK) informed the State Department that the DPRK was prepared to begin talks with the United States. The United States will work to determine the timing and other details in the coming days. In June 2001, the President proposed talks without preconditions to address a broad range of U.S. concerns with regard to North Korea’s missile program and exports, implementation of the Agreed Framework, and conventional military posture, and other areas.

A Colombian rebel group and six of its members have been indicted by a U.S. federal grand jury in Washington on charges of killing three U.S. citizens in 1999, Attorney General John Ashcroft announced at a news conference.

The head of an international charitable organization in the Chicago area was arrested on charges of perjury "for allegedly lying in Federal Court documents about links to international terrorism," according to a statement from the office of the U.S. Attorney of the Northern District of Illinois April 30. Syrian-born naturalized U.S. citizen, Enaam M. Arnaout, the executive director of Benevolence International Foundation (BIF), an international charity organization based in Palos Hills, Illinois, was arrested on April 30 in his home in south suburban Justice, said the statement. U.S. Attorney Patrick Fitzgerald charged that Arnaout had ties with Osama bin Laden, and that BIF had provided logistical support to al Qaeda.

May 1, 2002: British forces in Afghanistan began a 2-week operation known as "Operation Snipe" in the Chumara Valley. Brig. Roger Lane reported that although there had been no contact with hostile forces, large quantities of weapons had been destroyed and further large-scale operations were unlikely. Later reports said that the weapons cache had been previously identified.

May 3, 2002: The EU froze the assets of 11 organizations and 7 persons designated as terrorists. The groups included Turkey’s Kurdistan Workers’ Party (PKK), Peru’s Shining Path, Japan’s Aum Shinrikyo, and the United Self Defense Forces of Colombia (AUC). The individuals were associated with the Basque ETA.

May 7, 2002: The Turkish Government notified the United Nations that it was willing to assume command of the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) in Afghanistan as of June 20.

May 8, 2002: A car bomb exploded next to a Pakistani Navy shuttle bus at the Sheraton Hotel in Karachi, killing 12 persons and wounding 19. Eleven of the dead and 11 of the wounded were French nationals employed in building submarines for Pakistan’s Navy. Al-Qaeda was suspected of the attack, although Pakistani authorities also suspected Jaish-e-Mohammed.

May 9, 2002: A remotely-controlled bomb exploded near a Victory Day parade in Kaspiisk,Dagestan, killing 42 persons and wounding 150. Fourteen of the dead and 50 of the wounded were Russian military personnel. Islamists linked to al-Qaeda were suspected. In Moscow, President Putin compared the war against terrorism to the war with Nazi Germany.

May 12, 2002: U.S. Special Forces raided a compound at Deh Rawud, north of Kandahar. Five suspected al-Qaeda members were killed and 322 others were detained. There were no U.S. casualties in the biggest U.S. military operation in Afghanistan since "Operation Anaconda" in March.

President Musharraf announced that the Pakistani Government would establish a new federal anti-terrorism task force.

May 14, 2002: The UN Security Council adopted Resolution 1409, which allowed Iraq to sell oil and to import all humanitarian items not specifically listed as having military uses. Syria’s reluctant acceptance of the resolution made the vote unanimous. Iraqi Permanent Representative Mohammed al-Douri called for the complete listing of UN economic sanctions.

Malaysian Prime Minister Mahathir met with President Bush in Washington. They agreed to cooperate against terrorism in Southeast Asia.

May 19, 2002: Thirty-eight U.S. military advisers arrived in Tblisi, Georgia, to train Georgian troops to fight terrorists.

May 21, 2002: In its annual report on global terrorism, the State Department called Iran "the most active state sponsor of terrorism" in view of its support for Lebanese and Palestinian groups that attacked Israel. However, it also noted that Iran had cooperated with U.S. policy in Afghanistan and had reduced support for terrorist groups in Africa and Central Asia.

ASEAN Security Affairs Ministers concluded a 2-day meeting in Kuala Lumpur. They issued a communiqué agreeing to security cooperation. They also agreed that terrorism "must not be identified with any religion, race, culture, or nationality."

May 23, 2002: The UN Security Council adopted Resolution 1413, extending the mandate of ISAF in Afghanistan for six months, effective June 20. The resolution reaffirmed that responsibility for internal security outside Kabul belonged to the Afghan Interim Government.

While visiting Berlin, President Bush compared the war on terrorism to earlier struggles against Nazism and Communism. He said that he had "no invasion plans [against Iraq] on my desk," but warned that "we’ve got to use all means at our disposal to deal with Saddam Hussein."

May 24, 2002: President Bush visited Moscow for a summit meeting with Russian President Putin. Among the agreements that they signed was one that reaffirmed cooperation against terrorism and establishing a joint working group on counter-terrorism in Afghanistan.

At the Pentagon, Secretary of Defense Rumsfeld told reporters that he had no plans to invade Iraq and declined to speculate about future military operations.

May 26-27, 2002: President Bush met with French President Chirac in Paris. They agreed on the importance of the transatlantic alliance and cooperation in the war on terrorism, but had disagreements about trade policy, globalization, and environmental issues. President Bush also visited a U.S. military cemetery in Normandy and said, "today’s struggle against terrorism will require the sacrifice of our forefathers."

May 29, 2002: FBI Director Robert Mueller announced that agency personnel assigned to counter-terrorism would be tripled. He admitted that the September 11 attacks might have been prevented if warnings from field offices in Arizona and Minnesota about Middle Eastern men taking pilot training courses had been taken more seriously. The next day, Attorney General Ashcroft announced that the FBI would analyze all intelligence information at its Washington headquarters, and that field offices could inaugurate investigations independently.

In Manila, U.S. Ambassador Frank Ricciardone told reporters that the United States was offering a $5 million reward for information leading to the capture of five leaders of Abu Sayyaf.

June 1, 2002: In an address to the graduating class of the U.S. Military Academy at West Point, President Bush said that containment and mutually assured destruction were no longer adequate to deter "shadowy terrorist networks with no nation or citizens to defend." Pre-emptive attacks against such groups or against "unbalanced dictators" who might provide them with weapons of mass destruction might be necessary.

June 2-4, 2002: Secretary of State Powell attended the OAS General Assembly Meeting in Bridgetown, Barbados. Thirty member states signed an Inter-American Convention Against Terrorism.

June 6, 2002: President Bush called on Congress to establish a Cabinet-level Department of Homeland Security, which would incorporate 22 existing federal agencies, and would have a budget of $37.5 million and a staff of 170,000.

At a meeting of NATO Defense Ministers in Brussels, Secretary of Defense Rumsfeld said that collective self-defense should be broadened to include pre-emptive attacks on terrorist networks or states with weapons of mass destruction. However, NATO Secretary-General Lord Robertson replied, "We do not go out looking for problems to solve."

The OECD issued a report, Economic Consequences of Terrorism that warned that tighter security would hamper international trade and economic growth.

June 7, 2002: Philippine Army soldiers attacked Abu Sayyaf guerrillas on Mindanao Island in an attempt to rescue U.S. missionary Martin Burnham and his wife Gracia, who had been kidnapped more than a year ago. Burnham was killed, but his wife, though wounded, was freed. Filipino hostage Ediborah Yap was killed, as were four of the guerrillas. Seven soldiers were wounded.

June 13, 2002: Afghanistan’s Loya Jirga elected Hamid Karzai as President of an Interim Government.

June 14, 2002: A car bomb exploded near the U.S. Consulate and the Marriott Hotel in Karachi, Pakistan. Eleven persons were killed and 51 were wounded, including one U.S. and one Japanese citizen. Al Qaeda and al-Qanin were suspected.

The U.S. Senate voted (83 to 1) to approve legislation implementing the International Conventions for the Suppression of Terrorist Bombings and for the Suppression of the Financing of Terrorism.

June 16, 2002: The Washington Post reported that President Bush had issued an intelligence order authorizing the CIA to use "all available tools" against Saddam Hussein.

June 17, 2002: U.S. Marines who were training Philippine soldiers on Basilan Island came under fire from Abu Sayyaf guerrillas. One Philippine soldier was killed, but there were no U.S. casualties.

June 18, 2002: Saudi Arabia reported the arrest of 7 suspected al-Qaeda members.

The Moroccan Government announced the arrest of 7 al-Qaeda members who were plotting to attack U.S. and British warships in the Strait of Gibraltar.

June 20, 2002: Turkish General Akin Zorlu assumed command of the ISAF in Afghanistan. British Defense Minister Hoon announced that his country’s troops would be withdrawn in July.

Secretary of Defense Rumsfeld authorized U.S. troops in the Philippines to go on patrol with the troops that they were training.

June 27, 2002: At the G-8 Economic Summit Meeting in Kananaskis, Canada, participants agreed that airliners from their countries should have armored cockpit doors by April 2003. They also agreed on improved security for shipping containers and sharing information on passenger lists and lost passports.

President Bush appointed former General John Gordon as Deputy National Security Advisor for Combating Terrorism after the resignation of former General Wayne Downing.

June 30, 2002: The Washington Post claimed that, according to U.S. and European intelligence sources, Hezbollah had been "increasingly teaming up" with al-Qaeda for logistics and training. Hezbollah denied the charge the next day, and Sheikh Fadlallah later said that cooperation was unlikely since al-Qaeda did not consider Shi’ites to be real Muslims.

July 4, 2002: An Egyptian immigrant shot and killed two people at the El Al ticket counter at Los Angeles International Airport before being killed by an El Al security guard.

The Justice Department reported that all but 74 of 1,200 Middle Eastern and South Asian men who had been detained on immigration charges after September 11 had been either deported or released.

July 5, 2002: The New York Times published a purported U.S. war plan involving a three-pronged invasion of Iraq that would involve up to 250,000 ground troops.

July 6, 2002: Gunmen assassinated Afghan Vice President Haji Abdul Qadeer in his office in Kabul. Qadeer, who also held the title of Minister of National Reconstruction, was one of three Vice Presidents appointed at the end of the Loya Jirga meeting and represented Afghanistan’s Pashtun community. ISAF later published a report stating that protection for senior Afghan officials was inadequate, security forces lacked the capability to investigate the crime, and that the perpetrators were unlikely to be found.

July 9, 2002: The paramilitary Pakistan Rangers announced the capture of two members of Harakat-ul-Mujaheddin al-Alami who admitted to having organized the June 14 truck bombing in Karachi. The detainees also said that the truck had been used earlier in an unsuccessful attempt to assassinate President Musharraf.

July 10, 2002: The United States and Kazakhstan signed a memorandum of understanding that allowed U.S. military aircraft to refuel or make emergency landings at Almaty. The agreement did not establish a U.S. military base.

July 18, 2002: A Pakistani court in Hyderabad convicted 4 suspects in the kidnap-murder of Wall Street Journal reporter Daniel Pearl. Ahmad Omar Saeed Sheikh was sentenced to death; his three co-defendants to life imprisonment.

July 18, 2002: President Bush appointed Admiral James Loy, Commandant of the Coast Guard, to succeed John Magaw as head of the Transportation Security Agency.

July 23, 2002: U.S. authorities in Afghanistan announced that U.S. Special Forces would provide security for Interim President Karzai.

The U.S. military advisory mission in the Philippines was reduced from 500 to about 100 in view of the apparent defeat of the Abu Sayyaf Group.

July 31, 2002: A bomb hidden in a bag in the Frank Sinatra International Student Center of Jerusalem’s Hebrew University killed 9 persons and wounded 87. The dead included 5 U.S. citizens and 4 Israelis. The wounded included 4 U.S. citizens, 2 Japanese, and 3 South Koreans. The Islamic Resistance Movement (HAMAS) claimed responsibility.

August 1, 2002: Iraqi Foreign Minister Naji al-Hadithi wrote to Hans Blix and invited UNMOVIC to visit Iraq to discuss the resumption of weapons inspections.

August 2, 2002: President Bush signed a bill authorizing U.S. financial and military aid to Colombian counterinsurgency forces.

August 5, 2002: Gunmen attacked a Christian school in Murree, Pakistan that was attended by children of missionaries from around the world. Six persons (two security guards, a cook, a carpenter, a receptionist, and a private citizen) were killed and a Philippine citizen was wounded. A group called al-Intigami al-Pakistani claimed responsibility.

After conferring with the UN Security Council, Secretary-General Annan said that Iraq must accept the Security Council’s terms for the return of weapons inspectors.

In Iraq, Speaker of the National Assembly Saadoun Hammadi invited members of Congress and chosen experts to visit Iraq and search for weapons of mass destruction. U.S. officials dismissed Hammadi’s offer as a stalling tactic.

August 6, 2002: The Washington Post reported that, on July 10, the Rand Corporation’s Laurent Murawiec briefed the Defense Policy Board and claimed that Saudi Arabia was involved in every level of al-Qaeda terrorism, and suggested that the United States demand that Saudi Arabia stop funding Islamic fundamentalism, anti-U.S. and anti-Israel propaganda; and prosecute persons responsible for aiding terrorism. If it failed to do so, the United States should "target" Saudi oil fields and overseas financial assets. Secretary of State Powell called Foreign Minister Prince Saud and assured him that U.S. relations were still firm. Defense Department Spokesman Victoria Clark denied that the briefing was official policy, and even the Rand Corporation said that Murawiec spoke only for himself.

August 7, 2002: Saudi Foreign Minister Prince Saud said that relations with the United States were still strong, but U.S. forces could not use Saudi bases for military operations against Iraq.

August 11, 2002: The Saudi Arabian Foreign Ministry announced that Iran had surrendered 16 suspected al-Qaeda members. Foreign Minister Prince Saud al-Faisal called Iranian cooperation "very important and very significant in fighting the terrorists."

August 12, 2002: Philippine President Macapagal-Arroyo said that she did not plan to allow U.S. forces to take part in operations against the Communist New People’s Army, even though the group was on the U.S. list of international terrorist groups.

August 13, 2002: Defense Secretary Rumsfeld said that Iran was still allowing al-Qaeda members to operate in its territory.

August 16, 2002: Terrorist leader Abu Nidal (Sabri al-Banna) reportedly committed suicide in Baghdad when threatened with arrest for having entered the country illegally.

August 25, 2002: During a visit to Afghanistan, Gen. Tommy Franks said that he hoped that good relations with neighboring countries would facilitate conduct of the war on terrorism. He said that there was no deadline for withdrawing U.S. forces, and that operations would continue until terrorist cells had been eliminated from the region.

August 26, 2002: Vice President Cheney told a veterans’ group in Nashville that "time is not on our side" in preventing Iraq from developing weapons of mass destruction.

August 28, 2002: German authorities charged Mounir Motassadeq with having been a member of the "Hamburg cell" of al-Qaeda members who had planned the September 11 attacks.

September 1, 2002: German Justice Minister Herta Gaubler-Gmelin said that her government would not provide evidence against suspected hijacker Zacarias Moussaoui to the United States if he was likely to be executed if convicted.

September 2, 2002: Dutch authorities announced the arrest of 7 suspected al-Qaeda members.

September 3, 2002: Iraqi Deputy Prime Minister Tariq Aziz met with UN Secretary-General Annan during the World Summit on Sustainable Development in Johannesburg, South Africa. Aziz was willing to consider admitting UN weapons inspectors as part of a comprehensive arrangement to end UN sanctions.

September 4, 2002: President Bush met with Congressional leaders and said that he would seek Congressional approval and diplomatic support before taking military action against Iraq. He intended to "remind the UN that for 11 long years, Saddam Hussein has side-stepped, crawfished, wheedled out of any agreement he had made not to develop weapons of mass destruction."

September 5, 2002: Afghan Interim President Karzai escaped an assassination attempt in Kandahar. Karzai’s bodyguards killed three attackers; six suspects were arrested later.

Arab League Foreign Ministers met in Cairo and issued a communiqué rejecting threats against Iraq, but also calling on Iraq to allow UN weapons inspectors to do their work as part of an "overall settlement" between Iraq and the UN.

September 6, 2002: President Bush telephoned the Presidents of Russia and France to seek their support against Iraq. President Putin had "serious doubts" about the legal basis and warned about political consequences in the Middle East. President Chirac insisted on a central role for the United Nations.

September 7, 2002: British Prime Minister Tony Blair met with President Bush and senior U.S. officials at Camp David and discussed cooperation against Iraq. French President Chirac and German Chancellor Schroeder met in Hanover, Germany. They opposed unilateral action against Iraq and called for the return of UN inspectors to Iraq without preconditions. Schroeder rejected any German military role, but Chirac sought to preserve French options.

September 8, 2002: Vice President Cheney warned that Iraq was "actively and aggressively seeking to acquire nuclear weapons." He claimed that evidence showed that Iraq had sought to acquire equipment for enriching uranium.

September 11, 2002: Pakistani authorities reported the arrest of Ramzi bin al-Shibh, an al-Qaeda leader from Yemen who was said to be familiar with the September 11 attacks. Eleven other suspects were arrested and two were killed. Al-Shibh and four other suspects were transferred to U.S. custody on September 16.

Gunmen killed Kashmir’s Law Minister Mushtaq Ahmed Lone and six security guards in Tikipora. Lashkar e-Tayyiba, Jamiat ul-Mujahedin, and Hizb ul-Mujahedin all claimed responsibility. No group claimed responsibility for a grenade attack on the residence of Kashmir’s Minister of Tourism that wounded 4 persons.

September 12, 2002: During his address to the UN General Assembly, President Bush said that he would seek authorization from the Security Council before taking military action against Iraq. If Iraq wanted peace, it must give up all weapons of mass destruction, stop supporting terrorism, stop suppressing its people, free Gulf War prisoners, and allow the UN to resume the "oil for food" program. Secretary-General Annan insisted that only the UN could legitimize military operations against Iraq. Iraqi Permanent Representative Mohammed Aldouri called Bush’s speech "the longest series of fabrications."

September 15, 2003: The United States began working for a new UN Security Council resolution regarding Iraq.

September 16, 2003: Secretary of State Powell said that he would urge UN member states not to vote for a resolution against Iraq unless the resolution included enforcement by military action. Secretary-General Annan announced that Iraq had agreed to the unconditional return of UNMOVIC’s inspectors. Iraqi Foreign Minister Sabri also said that he hoped that compliance would lead to the lifting of UN sanctions.

The German Government declined to supply the United States with evidence against Ramzi bin al-Shib in the event that he faced the death penalty. German authorities also applied for al-Shib’s extradition, since he was thought to have shared an apartment in Hamburg with lead hijacker Mohammed Atta.

September 18, 2002: President Bush met with Congressional leaders in the Oval Office. They agreed to pass a resolution before Congress adjourned for its mid-term elections that would authorize any appropriate means, including military action, to enforce UN resolutions concerning Iraq and its weapons of mass destruction.

September 19, 2002: President Bush requested Congress to authorize the possible use of force against Iraq and warned that he would take action even without UN support. He also urged the UN to pass a resolution specifying what Iraq had to do to comply with earlier resolutions.

President Saddam Hussein sent a letter to the UN denying that Iraq had any weapons of mass destruction and accusing President Bush of "the utmost distortions."

German Justice Minister Daubler-Gmelin told a reporter that she thought that President Bush sought war with Iraq to distract attention from his domestic problems in a manner similar to Hitler. Senior U.S. officials said that this remark "poisoned" U.S.-German relations. Daubler-Gmelin was not reappointed after Chancellor Gerhard Schroeder’s Social Democratic Party won national elections on September 22.

September 23, 2002: In a speech to the Commonwealth Club in San Francisco, former Vice President Al Gore said that attacking Iraq would "severely damage" the coalition against terrorism and was a distraction from the war on terrorism.

September 24, 2002: The British Government published Iraq’s Weapons of Mass Destruction: The Assessment of the British Government. It estimated that Iraq could deploy chemical and biological weapons at 45 minutes’ notice and could develop nuclear weapons within 2 years if it could secure the necessary components. Iraqi presidential adviser Gen. Amir Hammoudi al-Saadi dismissed the British report as "a hodgepodge of half-truths and lies" and invited Prime Minister Blair to submit it to UNMOVIC or the IAEA.

September 25, 2002: Secretary of Defense Rumsfeld attended an informal meeting of NATO Defense Ministers in Warsaw. He said that NATO must become an organization capable of fighting terrorists and "rogue states." If it failed to modernize and adapt, it "would not have much to offer the world." He stated that there are documented links between al-Qaeda and Iraq.

September 26, 2002: Secretary of Defense Rumsfeld said that the United States had found "increasing contacts" between Iraq and al-Qaeda and that Iraq was training al-Qaeda members to use chemical and biological weapons.

October 1, 2002: Iraqi officials met with representatives of UNMOVIC in Vienna. Iraq agreed to end restrictions on dozens of sites, but would not grant access to eight presidential compounds. Meanwhile representatives of the permanent members of the Security Council began discussion of a new resolution to define the inspection regime.

White House Press Secretary Ari Fleischer said that although the Bush administration had no plans to lift a long-standing ban on authorizing assassinations, "a one-way ticket" or a "single bullet" would be means of achieving "regime change" in Iraq.

October 2, 2002: A bomb explosion outside a bar in Zamboanga on Mindanao Island killed 4 persons, including a U.S. soldier, and wounded 20. No group claimed responsibility, although the U.S. soldier was 1 of about 250 who were advising the Philippine Army in its campaign against Abu Sayyaf.

October 3, 2002: UNMOVIC chief Hans Blix announced that he would not send inspectors to Iraq until the UN Security Council had adopted a new resolution defining the new inspection regime.

October 4, 2002: Attorney General Ashcroft announced the arrest of six persons in Portland, Oregon, who were suspected of contributing services to al-Qaeda.

John Walker Lindh, the "American Taliban," was sentenced to 20 years’ imprisonment after having pleaded guilty to having fought with an enemy of the United States. Lindh had agreed to cooperate with U.S. authorities on intelligence matters. In Boston, "shoe bomber" Richard Reid pleaded guilty to 8 counts involving his attempt to explode a bomb aboard an airliner bound for Miami.

October 6, 2002: An explosive-laden boat rammed the French oil tanker Limburg, which was anchored about 5 miles off al-Dhabbah, Yemen. One person was killed and four were wounded. Al-Qaeda was suspected.

October 7, 2002: In a speech in Cincinnati, President Bush said that military action against Iraq was not "imminent or unavoidable." However, he said that the United States could not "wait for the final proof-the smoking gun-that could come in the form of a mushroom cloud." He cited the British dossier on the Iraqi weapons program and hinted that Iraq might give weapons of mass destruction to terrorist groups.

October 8, 2002: Two Kuwaiti gunmen fired on U.S. Marines taking part in maneuvers on Kuwait’s Falaika Island. One Marine was killed and another was wounded before their comrades shot both gunmen. The gunmen were said to have been trained in al-Qaeda camps in Afghanistan.

Al-Jazeera broadcast an audiotape from al-Qaeda’s Ayman al-Zawahiri in which he appeared to claim responsibility not only for the synagogue bombing on Djerba Island in April, but also the suicide car bombing in May 11 in Karachi.

October 10, 2002: The U.S. House of Representatives approved a resolution authorizing President Bush to take military action to deprive Iraq of weapons of mass destruction if diplomatic efforts failed. The vote was 296 to 133. The resolution called on the President to notify Congress within 48 hours of starting military action, encouraged cooperation with the UN’s inspection actions, but authorized unilateral action.

The Malaysian Government deported Ahmed Ibrahim Bilal to the United States after the U.S. Government had revoked his U.S. passport. Bilal was suspected of belonging to an al-Qaeda cell in Portland, Oregon.

October 11, 2002:The U.S. Senate approved the resolution authorizing military action against Iraq by a vote of 77 to 23.

After a visit by British Prime Minister Blair to Russia, President Putin agreed that a new Security Council resolution was needed to ensure that UN weapons inspectors would be allowed back into Iraq.

At the United Nations, Secretary-General Annan said that he believed that most member states favored a two-stage approach toward Iraq. If the first Security Council resolution authorizing the return of UN inspectors to Iraq failed, only then should a second resolution authorizing military action be sought.

October 12, 2002: A car bomb exploded outside the Sari Club Discotheque in Denpasar, Bali, Indonesia, killing 202 persons and wounding 300 more. Seven of the dead were U.S. citizens and 88 were Australians. Al-Qaeda claimed responsibility, but Indonesian authorities suspected the Islamist group Jemaah Islamiah which has links to al-Qaeda.

October 16, 2002: President Bush challenged Iraq to make "an accurate and full and complete accounting" of its weapons of mass destruction before UN inspectors returned. Non-compliance would be treated as "bad faith and aggressive intent." He also challenged European and Middle Eastern countries to prepare to protect themselves against a future Iraqi threat.

The UN Security Council began debating the Iraq situation. Secretary-General Annan opened the debate by calling for a new resolution concerning inspections and warning Saddam Hussein that it was his "last chance" to comply or else the Security Council "would have to face its responsibilities."

October 17, 2002: The United States proposed a draft resolution to the UN Security Council that would call for further consultations before taking military action against Iraq.

The U.S. Council on Foreign Relations published a report claiming that "individuals and charities based in Saudi Arabia have been the most important source of funds on al-Qaeda."

October 18, 2002: The New York Times reported that U.S. officials had said that Pakistan had supplied North Korea with equipment for producing weapons-grade enriched uranium in return for ballistic missile technology. Cooperation in missile development was thought to have begun in 1993. President Musharraf denied the claim.

October 20, 2002: Secretary of State Powell told NBC News that although he believed that the Iraqi people "would be a lot better off with a different leader," the UN resolution dealt primarily with weapons of mass destruction.

Czech President Vaclav Havel informed President Bush that he could not confirm a domestic intelligence report that lead hijacker Mohammed Atta had met with an Iraqi intelligence officer in Prague in April 2001.

October 21, 2002: The United States presented its newest draft resolution concerning Iraqi weapons of mass destruction to the other permanent members of the UN Security Council.

October 23, 2002: Fifty Chechen rebels led by Movsar Barayev seized the Palace of Culture Theater in Moscow, Russia, to demand an end to the war in Chechnya. They seized more than 800 hostages from 13 countries and threatened to blow up the theater. During a three-day siege, they killed a Russian policeman and five Russian hostages. On October 26, Russian Special Forces pumped an anesthetic gas through the ventilation system and then stormed the theater. All of the rebels were killed, but 94 hostages (including one American) also died, many from the effects of the gas. A group led by Chechen warlord Shamil Basayev claimed responsibility.

The United States announced that it was designating the Southeast Asia-based Jemaah Islamiyah network as a foreign terrorist organization. It would seek to freeze the group’s U.S. assets and seek UN sanctions against it.

The United States presented its draft resolution on Iraq to the UN Security Council.

October 25, 2002: Chinese President Jiang Zemin met with President Bush at his ranch in Crawford, Texas. During a joint press conference, they announced that they would cooperate against terrorism and the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. This included working to persuade North Korea to end its nuclear weapons program.

October 28, 2002: Gunmen in Amman assassinated Laurence Foley, Executive Officer of the U.S. Agency for International Development Mission in Amman. The "Honest People of Jordan" claimed responsibility.

November 3, 2002: A CIA Predator drone fired a missile at a car carrying six al-Qaeda members in Yemen. All were killed, including Salim Sinan al-Harithi, a senior member of al-Qaeda who was suspected in the attack on the U.S.S. Cole.

November 5, 2002: Indonesian police arrested Amrozi, who later confessed to having organized the October 12 bombing in Bali.

November 7, 2002: Al-Qaeda released a message claiming responsibility for the October 12 bombing in Bali.

November 8, 2002: The UN Security Council unanimously approved Resolution 1441, which gave Iraq a last chance to comply with UNMOVIC weapons inspectors or face "serious consequences." Iraq had seven days in which to confirm that it would "comply fully" and cooperate with UNMOVIC. It had 30 days in which to declare its weapons of mass destruction programs and related materials. UN inspectors were to resume work within 45 days, and would report to the Security Council on Iraqi compliance in 60 days. The inspectors would also have unrestricted access to anyplace in Iraq and could interview Iraqi scientists and officials "at their discretion."

President Bush praised the UN for taking "a principled stand." He threatened Iraq with "the severest consequences" if it failed to comply.

Gen. Richard Myers, Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, conceded that Taliban fighters in Afghanistan had successfully adapted to U.S. tactics. He said that plans were being made that would allow U.S. forces to shift their efforts from pursuing Taliban and al-Qaeda remnants to reconstruction.

German Defense Minister Peter Struck met with Secretary of Defense Rumsfeld in Washington, and Rumsfeld said that relations with Germany were now "unpoisoned." Chancellor Schroeder telephoned President Bush during the visit. After the visit, Struck told reporters that Germany still opposed U.S. military action against Iraq and that a increased defense budget would not be practical.

November 12, 2002: Iraq’s National Assembly voted to reject Resolution 1441, despite a letter from President Hussein’s son Uday that recommended acceptance. The vote was non-binding.

Al-Jazeera broadcast an audiotape attributed to Osama bin-Laden.

Philippines police arrested Abdulmukim Edris of the Abu Sayyaf Group, near Manila. He was suspected of plotting a series of truck bomb attacks on various targets, including the U.S. Embassy.

November 13, 2002: The House of Representatives approved a bill to establish a Cabinet-level Department of Homeland Security by a vote of 299 to 121.

The United States granted permission for four citizens (three had survived the destruction of the World Trade Center) to attend the trial in Hamburg of Mounir Motassadeq, a Moroccan national who was charged as an accessory to the September 11 attacks.

Iraq’s Revolutionary Command Council accepted Resolution 1441. Foreign Minister al-Hadithi continued to deny that Iraq had any hidden weapons of mass destruction or long-range missile programs.

November 15, 2002: The United States executed Pakistani citizen Mir Aimal Kasi for having killed two CIA employees outside the agency headquarters in Langley, Virginia in 1993. While there were widespread protests, violence against U.S. interests failed to occur.

The Justice Department informed the German Government that Zacarias Moussaoui and Ramzi bin al-Shib were "unavailable" to give evidence at the Hamburg trial of Mounir Motassadeq. Testimony could be taken from Ahmed Ressam, who had been convicted of terrorism in April 2001. Moussaoui allegedly supplied funds that allowed the al-Qaeda hijackers to attend U.S. flying schools, while defense lawyers believed that al-Shib could testify that Motassadeq was not aware of the planned September 11 attacks.

The German Parliament voted, 573 to 11, to authorize the continued deployment of German armed forces abroad, including in Afghanistan, for an additional year.

November 17, 2002: The Kuwaiti Government announced the arrest of a suspected al-Qaeda member who had financed the attack on the Limburg and had been planning an attack on a hotel housing U.S. military personnel in Yemen.

November 18, 2002: Hans Blix and Muhammad al-Baradei arrived in Baghdad to reopen UNMOVIC’s offices and to discuss arrangements for the inspection program. Blix told reporters that the talks had been constructive and that Iraq was ready to comply with Resolution 1441.

British police arrested three suspected al-Qaeda members in London. Security officials denied press reports that the three had planned a poison gas attack on the London Underground.

November 19, 2002: The Senate approved a bill to establish the Department of Homeland Security by a vote of 90 to 1.

November 20, 2002: The Saudi Arabian Government announced that it had detained at least 100 suspected al-Qaeda members.

November 21, 2002: President Bush met with German Chancellor Schroeder at the NATO Summit Meeting in Prague. After the summit, Schroeder said that in the event of war with Iraq, Germany would not restrict the use of U.S. bases or German airspace.

At the end of the NATO Summit meeting, member states said that they were committed to taking "effective action" to ensure Iraqi compliance with Resolution 1441.

The United States and the Philippines signed a Mutual Logistics Support Agreement that allowed the United States to base communications equipment and other non-lethal supplies in the Philippines as part of the "war on terrorism."

A Kuwaiti policeman shot and wounded two U.S. soldiers near the Camp Doha military base. Kuwaiti officials first said that the policeman was mentally unbalanced; later press reports said that he hated Americans and Jews.

An unknown party shot and killed American nurse Bonnie Weatherall in Sidon, Lebanon. She worked at an evangelical Protestant church school and clinic.

November 24-26, 2002: French police arrested 19 suspected al-Qaeda members in the Paris area.

November 25, 2002: President Bush signed into a law a bill establishing the Department of Homeland Security and announced that Tom Ridge would be nominated as its Secretary.

The UN Security Council approved Resolution 1443, extending a revised version of the UN’s "oil for food" program until December 4. The extension was for less than the usual 6 months since Russia and other Council members had opposed U.S. efforts to add GPS devices and antidotes to chemical or biological weapons to the list of prohibited imports.

A team of 17 UNMOVIC inspectors arrived in Baghdad.

In response to press reports that the wife of the Saudi Ambassador to the United States had provided money to friends of the September 11 hijackers, State Department Spokesman Boucher insisted that the Saudi Government had cooperated very closely with the United States in the war on terrorism.

November 26, 2002: White House Spokesman Ari Fleischer said that the Bush Administration was increasing pressure on Saudi Arabia to crack down on funding international terrorism. The next day, Saudi newspapers accused Fleischer of seeking to harm Saudi-U.S. relations.

November 27, 2002: The UNMOVIC inspectors made their first inspections in Iraq, visiting a factory site north of Baghdad and a graphite factory in Amariya. The next day, they investigated three "dual-use" sites.

The UN Security Council approved Resolution 1444, extending the mandate of the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) in Afghanistan for 1 year, effective December 20.

UNMOVIC inspectors arrived in Iraq to begin their search for weapons of mass destruction.

The French and German Governments agreed to provide the United States with evidence about Zacarias Moussaoui on condition that it would not be used "toward the imposition of the death penalty." The Justice Department said that any evidence would be used to determine Moussaoui’s innocence or guilt, but would not determine his punishment. French and German human rights groups expressed reservations.

November 28, 2002: A three-person suicide car bomb attack on the Paradise Hotel in Mombasa, Kenya, killed 15 persons and wounded 40. Three of the dead and 18 of the wounded were Israeli tourists; the others were Kenyans. Near Mombasa’s airport, two SA-7 shoulder-fired missiles were fired at an Arkia Airlines Boeing 757 that was carrying 261 passengers back to Israel. Both missiles missed. Al-Qaeda, the Government of Universal Palestine in Exile, and the Army of Palestine claimed responsibility for both attacks. Al-Ittihad al-Islami was also suspected of involvement.

December 1, 2002: Australian Prime Minister Howard said during a television interview that he would authorize military action in other countries if there was an imminent threat of terrorist attacks and if "there was no alternative." His statement was criticized in Malaysia, Indonesia, and the Philippines.

December 2, 2002: The British Foreign and Commonwealth Office released a dossier about torture, mass executions, and other human rights violations under Saddam Hussein’s "regime of unique horror." Amnesty International called the release "opportunistic" since Iraq had 6 more days to report its compliance with Resolution 1441.

British police arrested Hassan Butt, a member of the al-Muhajiroun group who had urged British Muslims to join in a jihad against the West. Butt was said to be the first member of the group to be arrested under British anti-terrorism laws.

December 3, 2002: UNMOVIC inspectors put Iraqi compliance to the test when they made an unannounced visit to the al-Sojoud presidential palace compound. The next day, Iraq’s Foreign Ministry accused the inspectors of spying for the United States and Israel and of trying to provoke a crisis.

December 4, 2002: UN Security Council Resolution 1447 extended the UN’s "oil for food" program in Iraq for an additional 180 days. Adjustments to the list of restricted goods would be considered in 30 days. The vote was 13 to 0, with Russia and Syria abstaining.

December 5, 2002: Iraqi President Hussein said that he would give UNMOVIC a chance to prove his country’s innocence, although what mattered most was to keep his people safe from "American tyranny."

December 8, 2002: In response to UN Security Resolution 1441, Iraq submitted a 12,000-page declaration to the UN in which it claimed to no longer have weapons of mass destruction. Initially, only the permanent members of the UN Security Council got to review the document.

December 9, 2002: The U.S. Central Command began a week of communications exercises at Qatar’s al-Udeid airfield.

December 10, 2002: Two Spanish warships stopped a North Korean freighter in the Indian Ocean and found 15 Scud-type missiles aboard. The ship was allowed to proceed after the missiles were found to have been legitimately ordered by the government of Yemen.

December 11, 2002: Secretary of Defense Rumsfeld visited Qatar and signed an agreement to upgrade military bases for possible use in a war with Iraq.

December 14, 2002: Pakistani police arrested three suspected Harakat-e-Jihad members in Karachi and seized large quantities of explosives intended for a suicide bomb attack on U.S. diplomats.

Jordanian authorities announced the arrest of two al-Qaeda suspects in the assassination of Laurence Foley.

December 16, 2002: French police arrested three Algerians and a Moroccan in Paris. Other arrests of North Africans followed on December 21 and 24. The suspects were thought to be linked to al-Qaeda and to Chechen separatists and to having been plotting attacks on Russian targets in Paris.

The trial of 4 suspected Kuwaiti al-Qaeda members began in Kuwait City. All pleaded innocent and claimed that they had been tortured into confessing.

December 18, 2002: A Dutch court acquitted four Muslims suspected of planning attacks on U.S. facilities in Belgium and France. Three of the suspects had been arrested on September 13, 2001. Evidence was insufficient to prove that the suspects were members of al-Qaeda.

December 19, 2002: After reviewing Iraq’s declaration, Secretary of State Powell said that it "totally fails" to meet the UN’s demand for a complete account of its weapons programs. Much of the report was a rehash of material that had been submitted to the UN years before and that the UN had already concluded was incomplete. The report did not account for stocks of anthrax and other biological weapons or the development of mobile chemical weapons production units. Earlier in the day, Hans Blix and IAEA Director Muhammad al-Baradei had summarized the declaration before the UN Security Council. Blix said the report said little about weapons, which suggested that Iraq might still have them.

December 20, 2002: The United States and the EU signed an agreement in Copenhagen that provided for the sharing of information in cases involving suspected terrorists. The EU reserved the right not to share information or to refuse extradition if capital punishment were a possible outcome.

December 23, 2002: UN officials said that inspectors had begun interviewing Iraqi scientists in Iraq.

United Arab Emirates officials reported the arrest in November of Abdul Rahim Nashiri, a reputed regional chief of al-Qaeda operations who was said to have helped plan the attack on the U.S.S. Cole and the 1998 bombing of the U.S. Embassy in Nairobi.

December 27, 2002: A suicide bomb attack involving two explosives-laden trucks destroyed the offices of the pro-Russian Chechen government in Grozny. The attack killed over 80 people and wounded 210. According to a Chechen website run by the Kavkaz Center, Chechen warlord Shamil Basayev claimed responsibility.

December 29, 2002: Senior U.S. military officers told The New York Times that the Saudi Government would allow U.S. aircraft to fly support missions from Saudi bases in the event of war with Iraq. U.S. forces would also be able to use the operations center at the Prince Sultan air base.

December 30, 2002: A member of Yemen’s Islamic Jihad (not to be confused with the Palestine Islamic Jihad) entered a Baptist hospital in Jibla, Yemen, where he shot and killed 3 U.S. missionaries and wounded a fourth. The gunman claimed that he wanted to "cleanse his religion and get closer to God" by killing Christian missionaries.

2001   2002   2003

This document, based entirely on public sources, was prepared or
background information and reference purposes. It is intended neither as a complete or comprehensive account of the Global Coalition
Against Terrorism, nor as an official expression of U.S. policy.
Please email questions or comments to
History@state.gov <mailto:History@state.gov>.

Office of the Historian
Bureau of Public Affairs
U.S. Department of State
June 2004



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