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United States Relations with Russia: After the Cold War


January 1990: U.S. and Soviet Military Cuts Proposed
In his January 1990 State of the Union Address, President Bush proposed cutting U.S. and Soviet troops in Central Europe to 195,000 on each side. The United States would be able to maintain an additional 30,000 in peripheral nations. The Soviet Foreign Ministry called the initiative "a step in the right direction."

February 1990: Secretary of State Baker Visit to Moscow
Secretary Baker met with President Gorbachev and Foreign Minister Shevardnadze in Moscow in February 1990. They discussed a range of arms control questions, making progress on conventional, nuclear, and chemical agreements. They also addressed Soviet emigration policy, German unification, and regional issues. On February 10, Secretary Baker testified before the Foreign Affairs Committee of the Supreme Soviet.

February 1990: Discussions on the Reunification of Germany
In February 1990, in Ottawa, the four major World War II Allies (the United States, United Kingdom, France, and the Soviet Union), as well as the two Germanys, agreed on a framework for negotiating the unification of Germany. The Soviet Union and other participants also accepted President Bush's January 31 proposal for troop reductions in Europe.

May 1990: Gorbachev and Bush Meet at Camp David and Washington
Presidents Bush and Gorbachev met in Washington and Camp David in May 1990. They signed a key elements agreement for a strategic arms treaty, a chemical weapons reduction accord, and a trade agreement reducing barriers to U.S.-Soviet commerce. They also concluded several other bilateral accords to increase cultural and scientific exchanges, and maritime and air links. In addition, the two leaders discussed the topics of Lithuania and German unification. Following the summit, President Gorbachev journeyed to Minneapolis to meet local business leaders. The next day, he met with former President Reagan in San Francisco before returning to Moscow.

July 1990: Call for Political and Economic Change in the Soviet Union
After the Economic Summit in Houston, July 9-11, 1990, the G-7 leaders issued a declaration welcoming political and economic change in the Soviet Union. They offered "technical assistance," and agreed to have the International Monetary Fund study the Soviet economy. They also suggested that economic aid was more likely if the Soviet Union would "shift resources . . . from the military sector and cut support to nations promoting regional conflict."

August 1990: Soviet Business Travel Welcomed
In August 1990, President Bush announced plans to lift restrictions on the number of Soviet businesspeople allowed into the United States.

September 1990: Economic Mission to Russia
A September 1990 economic mission led by Secretary of State James Baker and Secretary of Commerce Robert A. Mosbacher visited Moscow and Leningrad to discuss U.S.-Soviet cooperation in energy, housing, transportation, food processing, and distribution. On September 11, the Supreme Soviet of the Russian Federation adopted a program to privatize the economy in 500 days.

September 1990: Joint Condemnation of Iraqi Invasion of Kuwait
In September 1990, Secretary Baker flew to Moscow, where he and Foreign Minister Shevardnadze issued a joint statement condemning the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait that had taken place on August 2. They urged a cut-off of all arms shipments to Iraq.

September 1990: Helsinki Summit on Iraq
Presidents Bush and Gorbachev met in Helsinki in September 1990 for an urgently convened summit to discuss the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait. They issued a joint statement expressing their solidarity in opposition to the aggression and their intention to cooperate fully to end the Persian Gulf crisis. They also urged their negotiators to move forward more rapidly in finalizing both strategic and conventional arms control agreements, and discussed the progress of Soviet economic reforms.

September-October 1990: German Reunification
In the fall of 1990, Secretary Baker and Foreign Minister Shevardnadze joined the Foreign Ministers of France, Great Britain, and the two Germanys to sign the "Treaty on the Final Settlement with Respect to Germany." The event concluded this Two-Plus-Four process and provided for formal German reunification on October 3.

November 1990: Paris Summit
Presidents Bush and Gorbachev met in Paris during the November 19, 1990, summit of the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe. After signing a treaty on conventional forces in Europe and a non-aggression pact with other NATO and Warsaw Pact leaders, they held a private discussion on the crisis in the Persian Gulf, and Soviet support for a proposed UN resolution authorizing the use of force against Iraq.

November 1990: UN Resolution on Use of Force against Iraq
On November 29, 1990, the United States and the Soviet Union voted together in favor of a UN resolution authorizing the use of military force against Iraqi leader Saddam Hussein if he did not comply with previous UN resolutions concerning his invasion and occupation of Kuwait by January 15, 1991.

December 1990: Bush Extends Economic Assistance to Soviet Union
President Bush announced in December 1990 that he would waive the Jackson-Vanik Amendment with respect to the Soviet Union for 6 months. He also extended $1 billion in agricultural credits in response to food shortages. Bush also offered to seek observer status for the Soviet Union with the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund. In June 1991, President Bush extended the waiver of the Jackson-Vanik Amendment for a year.

December 1990: Gorbachev Won Nobel Peace Prize
The Nobel Committee awarded Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev the 1990 Nobel Peace Prize for agreeing to arms control measures, pulling troops out of Eastern Europe, and moving to end the Soviet intervention in Afghanistan.

January 1991: Washington Meeting with New Soviet Foreign Minister
On January 26-29, 1991, Secretary Baker and President Bush met with new Soviet Foreign Minister Aleksandr Bessmertnykh in Washington. They reaffirmed their commitment to the UN resolutions adopted in connection with Iraq's aggression against Kuwait, and discussed arms control, the recent Soviet crack-down on the Baltic independence movements, and other regional issues. They announced that, because of the war in the Persian Gulf and technical differences which remained on the START agreement, the Moscow summit scheduled for February would be postponed.

February 1991: Gorbachev's Efforts to End the Persian Gulf War
The Soviet Government announced in February 1991 that President Gorbachev and Iraqi Foreign Minister Tariq Aziz had agreed on a formula for the "full and unconditional withdrawal" of Iraqi troops from Kuwait. President Bush welcomed the Soviet attempt to end the Gulf War through diplomatic means, but pointed out that the Soviet proposal would not oblige Iraq to abide by the terms of all UN resolutions directed against its invasion of Iraq.

May 1991: Meetings in Washington on Soviet Economic Reform
First Deputy Prime Minister Vladimir Shcherbakov and economic advisers Grigory A. Yavlinsky and Yevgeny M. Primakov visited Washington in May 1991 to discuss prospects for Soviet economic reform and Western assistance.

July 1991: Gorbachev at the G-7
Presidents Bush and Gorbachev met over lunch on the final day of the economic summit of the Group of Seven industrialized nations in July 1991. They announced the conclusion of a START agreement and scheduled a summit in Moscow for July 30-31. They also discussed the economic situation in the Soviet Union and the liberalization of the Soviet economy.

July-August 1991: Moscow Summit
President Bush visited the Soviet Union in July and August 1991, and held a 2-day summit with Soviet President Gorbachev. They signed the START agreement, and agreed to co-sponsor a Middle East peace conference, to be held in October. President Bush announced that he would seek Congressional approval for a U.S.-Soviet trade agreement, together with most-favored-nation trade status for the Soviet Union. Secretary of State Baker signed five bilateral accords dealing with aviation security, disaster assistance, provision of medical supplies, housing construction and finance, and technical economic cooperation. While in Moscow, President Bush also met with Boris Yeltsin, President of the Russian Republic.

August 1991: August Putsch against Gorbachev
Hardline Communists-who had been appointed by Gorbachev as he attempted to build a base of power against the Russian Republic's new President, Boris Yeltsin-rose against Gorbachev in an attempt to slow the liberalization of the Soviet Union. The coup began on August 19, 1991, the day Gorbachev was due to sign a treaty to decentralize the Soviet Union. Gorbachev, with significant assistance from Yeltsin, regained power on August 22. President Bush continued his support of Gorbachev despite growing popular discontent within the Soviet Union.

October 1991: Middle East Talks at the Madrid Meeting
Presidents Gorbachev and Bush met in Madrid in October 1991 to inaugurate the Middle East peace conference. They declared their intention to continue the arms reduction process. The extent of future economic aid to the Soviet Union and its distribution among the increasingly independent Soviet Republics would be subject to further negotiations.

December 1991: Dissolution of Soviet Union
On December 8, 1991, the leaders of Russia, Belarus, and Ukraine declared that the Soviet Union had ceased to exist, and proclaimed a "Commonwealth of Independent States" (CIS). Eleven former Soviet Republics joined the CIS on December 21. The resignation of President Gorbachev on December 25 formally brought the Soviet Union to an end. The United States recognized the independence of all the former Soviet Republics, and established diplomatic relations with Russia, Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and Ukraine. The U.S. Embassy in Moscow became the U.S. Embassy to Russia.


January 1992: Conference on Assistance to the New Independent States
The United States hosted a Coordinating Conference on Assistance to the New Independent States on January 22 and 23, 1992. Representatives of 47 countries and 5 international financial institutions attended. President Bush proposed that Congress approve an additional $645 million in technical and humanitarian aid to the CIS. Secretary of State Baker announced that an emergency airlift of food and medicine to the former Soviet republics would begin on February 10.

January-February 1992: Yeltsin's Visit to the United States
President Yeltsin's first visit to the United States after the dissolution of the Soviet Union was to attend the first summit meeting of UN Security Council members, in January 1992. President Yeltsin then met with President Bush at Camp David. They agreed to continue strategic arms reductions and to cooperate on arms sales, nonproliferation, and ballistic missile defense. President Bush promised to support Russia's admission to the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank. The Presidents announced that an emergency program of humanitarian aid to the former Soviet Republics would begin on February 10. They issued a joint declaration proclaiming that "Russia and the United States do not regard each other as potential adversaries."

February 1992: "Operation Provide Hope"
Yeltsin stopped in Paris on February 6, 1992, on his way back from the United States and Canada. He appealed for more Western aid and warned that the failure of his economic program could produce a Russian dictatorship. Secretary of State Baker visited Frankfurt to inaugurate "Operation Provide Hope," an international emergency aid program to the former Soviet Republics.

February 1992: Proposed Establishment of International Science Center
Secretary of State Baker visited Moldova, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Tajikstan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, and Russia on February 11-18, 1992. He and the Foreign Ministers of Russia and Germany proposed the establishment of an international science and technology center in Russia to help re-direct former Soviet scientists and engineers to peaceful purposes. The United States, Japan, the European Community, and Russia signed an agreement establishing the International Science and Technology Center on November 27.

February-March 1992: Formal Diplomatic Relations with Republics
The United States established diplomatic relations with Moldova on February 18, 1992, and with Azerbaijan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan on February 19. On March 24, it extended diplomatic recognition to Georgia.

June 1992: Washington Summit
President Yeltsin made a state visit to Washington for the next summit meeting held on June 16-17, 1992. He and President Bush agreed to continue the START process, and set a goal of reducing their countries' strategic nuclear arsenals by 3,000-3,500 warheads by 2003. Other arms control agreements addressed limited ballistic missile defense, nuclear and chemical nonproliferation, conversion of defense industries, and U.S. assistance to Russia in transporting and destroying nuclear and chemical weapons. Both countries declared their support for UN peacekeeping and humanitarian efforts in Bosnia.

The United States pledged $4.5 billion as a share of a $24 billion international program to support economic reform in Russia, as well as additional credit guarantees and technical assistance. Economic cooperation would be enhanced by a U.S.-Russian Trade Agreement, bilateral investment and taxation treaties, and an Overseas Private Investment Corporation investment incentive agreement.

Other agreements marked the definitive end of the Cold War. Yeltsin and Bush agreed to lift restrictions on the numbers and movements of diplomatic, consular, and official personnel and to open Consulates General in Vladivostok and Seattle. They also agreed to send Peace Corps volunteers to Russia, and to open Russian airspace in eastern Siberia.

June 1992: Future Collaboration in Space
The United States and Russia signed an Agreement Concerning Cooperation in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space for Peaceful Purposes on June 17, 1992.

July 1992: G-7 Economic Summit
President Bush held a private meeting with President Yeltsin after the G-7 Economic Summit in Munich in July 1992. Yeltsin informed summit participants that the Russian economy was in a worse state than they could imagine, but assured them of Russia's dedication to market reforms. The G-7 leaders promised $1 billion in aid to Russia, but linked further aid to economic reform. Yeltsin said he would consider debt-for-equity deals with Western creditors, and announced that the withdrawal of former Soviet forces from the Baltic States would soon begin.

January 1993: Signing of START II Agreement
President Bush traveled to Moscow in January 1993, to sign the START II agreement, which codified the nuclear reductions outlined during President Yeltsin's visit to Washington the previous summer. Bush said that he believed the new Clinton administration would be committed to helping Russia. Yeltsin expressed interest in holding "a working meeting" with incoming President Clinton in a "neutral place."

April 1993: Vancouver Summit
President Clinton held his first summit meeting with President Yeltsin in Vancouver, Canada, in April 1993. The two Presidents issued the Vancouver Declaration reaffirming U.S.-Russian commitments to cooperate "to promote democracy, security, and peace." The United States pledged $1.6 billion in additional aid to Russia. Areas covered included humanitarian aid, private sector development, promotion of democracy, energy development, environmental protection, resettlement of former Soviet officers, promotion of trade and investment, and assistance in nuclear arms reduction. The leaders scheduled further discussion of international aid to Russia at the April 14-15 meeting of the G-7 Foreign and Finance Ministers in Tokyo.

April 1993: Formation of Commission on U.S.-Russian Technical Cooperation
Negotiations in Vancouver also resulted in the formation of a U.S.-Russian Commission on technical cooperation in energy and space, to be headed by Vice President Al Gore and Russian Prime Minister Viktor Chernomyrdin. The Commission held its first meeting in Washington, August 31-September 2, 1993.

July 1993: Additional Economic Assistance to Russia
At the Economic Summit Meeting in Tokyo on July 9-10, 1993, the leaders of the G-7 countries expressed their support for the reform process in Russia and Ukraine. The Summit's Economic Declaration called for a $3 billion Special Privatization and Restructuring Program, with a Support Implementation Group in Moscow. The United States announced a bilateral aid program of $1.8 billion for Russia and the former Soviet republics.

September-October 1993: Political Crisis in Moscow
On September 21, 1993, President Yeltsin suspended the Russian Parliament and called for elections to the lower house of a new Federal Assembly in December. He accused the Supreme Soviet of obstructing political and economic reforms, and of usurping executive and judicial functions. Vice President Alexander Rutskoi called Yeltsin's decree unconstitutional and Russia's Constitutional Court called for his impeachment. President Clinton described Yeltsin's call for new elections as "consistent with the democratic and reform course" and assured Yeltsin of his support.

On September 24, the Congress of People's Deputies voted to impeach Yeltsin and confirm Rutskoi as President. Yeltsin ordered the cordoning off of the Parliament building, and shut off its utilities. On October 4, after a day of rioting, Yeltsin moved to crush the rebellion with military force. Rutskoi and his followers surrendered after tanks shelled the Parliament.

December 1993: Russian Elections
Russia held legislative elections in December 1993. According to preliminary reports, the ultra-nationalist Liberal Democratic Party led with 24.3 percent of the vote, President Yeltsin's Russia's Choice Party received 14.4 percent, and the Communist Party received 11.2 percent. Russia's Central Electoral Commission announced the adoption of a new constitution on December 20. Secretary of State Warren Christopher announced that the United States was rethinking its aid programs to Russia in view of the strong showing of opponents of economic reform.


January 1994: Moscow Summit
During President Clinton's first official visit to Moscow, in January 1994, he and President Yeltsin reaffirmed previous declarations of U.S.-Russian cooperation, and took steps towards liquidating military aspects of the Cold War. They agreed to cooperate to prevent nuclear proliferation and the spread of weapons of mass destruction, particularly on the Korean peninsula and the Middle East. After May 30, the United States and Russia agreed that they would no longer target their nuclear missiles at each other. Russia agreed to convert 500 tons of highly enriched uranium from the former Soviet nuclear arsenal into low-enriched uranium suitable for use in nuclear power stations. The United States would in turn purchase $12 billion worth of low‑enriched uranium over a 20-year period. President Yeltsin announced that Russia would participate in NATO's Partnership for Peace program. President Clinton expressed hope that Russian troops would soon be withdrawn from Estonia and Latvia.

Both Presidents issued a joint statement reaffirming their countries' commitment to promoting human rights and democratic reforms. They agreed that the sovereignty and independence of the former Soviet republics should be respected, as should the rights of the Russian-speaking population in the Baltic states.

President Clinton announced that the Overseas Private Investment Corporation had signed three protocols supporting investment by U.S. companies in the Russian telecommunications and petroleum industries. The United States opened a Russian Small Enterprise Fund and a fund to promote large-scale private-sector development.

February 1994: First Joint U.S.-Russian Space Shuttle Mission
The first joint U.S.‑Russian space shuttle mission launched on February 3, 1994, with Russian Cosmonaut Sergei Krikalev onboard the U.S. Space Shuttle Discovery.

Spring 1994: Creation of Contact Group for Peace in Bosnia
In the spring of 1994, the United States, Russia, Britain, France, and Germany established a five-nation Contact Group, with the goal of brokering a settlement between the Bosnian Federation and Bosnian Serbs.

May 1994: Implementation of the Moscow Declaration
In accordance with the agreement Presidents Clinton and Yeltsin reached on January 14, 1994, in May, both nations moved to end the practice of aiming their strategic nuclear missiles at one another.

June 1994: U.S.-Russian Cooperation on Space Station
NASA and the Russian Space Agency signed an Interim Agreement in June 1994 that provided for Russian participation in International Space Station activities.

July 1994: G-7 Economic Summit
During the Economic Summit held in Naples on July 10, 1994, President Yeltsin joined the G-7 leaders in calling on all parties to the Bosnian conflict to accept the Contact Group's peace plan. Yeltsin and the G-7 also condemned Iranian sponsorship of international terrorism, and urged an end to the Arab boycott of Israel. Yeltsin urged the easing of restrictions on high-tech exports to Russia. The G-7 leaders agreed to help Russia join the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade.

After meeting with President Clinton, President Yeltsin said that Russia would not seek full membership in the G-7 until its economic system had matured. Clinton described the summit as the first in which President Yeltsin had participated as a full partner. He congratulated Yeltsin on the progress of his economic reform program, and invited him to make a state visit to Washington in September.

September 1994: Yeltsin's State Visit to Washington
After Presidents Clinton and Yeltsin attended a ceremony at the White House in September 1994 to honor American and Russian veterans of World War II, they agreed to continue nuclear arms reductions. Once the START I Treaty had taken effect and START II had been ratified, the two affirmed that warheads scheduled for scrapping would be removed immediately from their launchers. They also pledged to seek Ukraine's accession to the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty and agreed to cooperate to bring peace to Bosnia.

The two leaders issued a joint statement of principles and objectives for the development of trade, economic cooperation, and investment and signed three commercial agreements worth $1 billion. President Yeltsin expressed satisfaction at President Clinton's decision that Russia's compliance with the Jackson-Vanik requirements linking most-favored-nation trading status with freedom of emigration no longer required annual review. President Clinton signed into law a bill to finance the international space station. The United States also promised technical assistance to Russian law enforcement agencies and signed a Customs Mutual Assistance Agreement.

February 1995: Mir-Discovery Rendezvous
U.S. space shuttle Discovery made its first fly-around of the Russian space station Mir in February 1995, thereby paving the way for future plans for a space docking.

May 1995: Joint Commemoration of 50th Anniversary of World War II
President Clinton visited Moscow in May 1995 to commemorate the 50th anniversary of the end of World War II in Europe. He expressed support for Russian democracy, and urged an end to the conflict in Chechnya. President Yeltsin said that legislative elections would be held in December and a presidential election would take place in June 1996. Although no agreement was reached about enlarging NATO, Russia agreed to take part in the Partnership for Peace program, while Clinton agreed to promote "a special relationship between NATO and Russia." Russia also agreed not to supply nuclear technology to Iran, and to take part in a future international regime. Both Presidents agreed to seek early ratification of START II, followed by further nuclear arms reductions, and issued a joint statement that would permit the development of theater missile defenses within the limits set by the ABM Treaty. They issued a joint statement calling for the permanent extension of the Nonproliferation Treaty. Yeltsin agreed not to sell additional arms to Iran, although existing contracts would be honored. Both Presidents reaffirmed their cooperation in combating terrorism and organized crime. The Presidents issued a further joint statement on economic reform, trade, and investment. The United States agreed to support Russian accession to the World Trade Organization and other world economic organizations. President Yeltsin announced the issuance of a decree that would allow implementation of an Oil and Gas Framework Agreement.

June 1995: G-7 Summit and Chechnya Discussions
For the second time, President Yeltsin took part in political discussions at a G-7 economic summit, and met with President Clinton on June 17, 1995. The G-7 leaders expressed concern at Russia's efforts to achieve a military solution in Chechnya, while Yeltsin sought their support in what he called a struggle against terrorism. Clinton said that the United States agreed that Chechnya was part of the Russian Federation, but joined his colleagues in calling for a peaceful, political solution. Yeltsin invited the G-7 leaders to meet in Moscow in 1996 to discuss means of safeguarding nuclear weapons and technology. The G-7 communiqué expressed support for financial stabilization and economic reform in Russia.

June 1995: Atlantis-Mir Docking
U.S. space shuttle Atlantis successfully docked with Russian space station Mir in outer space on June 29, 1995. When linked, Atlantis and Mir formed the largest spacecraft ever in orbit, the crews were able to exchange greetings.

October 1995: Meeting at Hyde Park
President Yeltsin met with President Clinton at the home of Franklin D. Roosevelt at Hyde Park, New York, in October 1995, after both had attended the UN General Assembly in New York. They discussed Russia's role in peacekeeping operations in Bosnia, and agreed to have U.S. Secretary of Defense William Perry and Russian Defense Minister Pavel Grachev meet to determine how Russian troops could participate in the NATO implementation force. They reaffirmed their commitment to early ratification of START II, agreed to seek a comprehensive nuclear test ban treaty in 1996, and issued a joint statement pledging their continuing cooperation in the safeguarding of nuclear materials during the arms reduction process. They also discussed Russian concerns about limits on military equipment in the Conventional Forces in Europe Treaty's flank zones, including territory in the Black and Baltic Sea areas.

January 1996: Ratification of START II Treaty
The U.S. Senate ratified the START II Treaty on January 26, 1996.

March 1996: Sharm al-Sheikh
Presidents Clinton and Yeltsin were among the 27 heads of state and government who attended the "Summit of the Peacemakers" in Sharm al-Sheikh in March 1996, to condemn terrorist attacks in Israel and to declare their support for the Middle East peace process. The two leaders discussed U.S.-Russian commercial relations and other bilateral matters in a private meeting.

April 1996: Summit on Nuclear Safety and Security, and the Moscow Summit
President Clinton attended a Summit on Nuclear Safety and Security on April 20, 1996, in Moscow. The summit participants agreed to seek a comprehensive nuclear test ban treaty and to promote cooperation to prevent the smuggling of nuclear materials and technology. They also called for a conference of experts to discuss means of disposing of plutonium from surplus nuclear weapons.
Presidents Clinton and Yeltsin then met separately on April 21 and discussed strategic arms reductions, modifications to the Conventional Forces in Europe Treaty, and cooperation in promoting peace in Bosnia and in the Middle East. Yeltsin raised objections to the enlargement of NATO, while Clinton insisted that the door would remain open to all of Europe's emerging democracies. Clinton once more urged a diplomatic solution in Chechnya. The two Presidents also agreed on "transparency measures" that would convert uranium from nuclear warheads into reactor fuel.

March 1997: Helsinki Talks
During their meeting in Helsinki on March 21, 1997, Presidents Clinton and Yeltsin agreed to seek further reductions in strategic nuclear weapons, and agreed to begin negotiations on START III once START II was fully ratified. START III would reduce the United States and Russia to between 2,000 and 2,500 nuclear warheads by the end of 2007. Both leaders reaffirmed their commitment to the ABM Treaty, while continuing to permit research into theater missile defense within its limits, and to take the necessary steps toward ratification and implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention. The two Presidents disagreed about extending NATO membership to former members of the Warsaw Pact. Nevertheless, they agreed to continue promoting cooperation between NATO and Russia, and adapting the Conventional Forces in Europe Treaty to the post-Cold War world.

The United States reiterated its commitment to promote investment in Russia, both unilaterally and through international financial institutions. In return, Russia pledged to develop a tax structure that would supply necessary revenues while promoting legitimate business. The United States would support Russia's admission to international organizations such as the Paris Club, the World Trade Organization, and the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. As a sign of Russia's inclusion in the world economy, the next Economic Summit, to be held in Denver, Colorado, in June, would be called the "Summit of the Eight."

May 1997: NATO-Russia Founding Act
Presidents Clinton and Yeltsin met in May, 1997, at the Élysée Palace in Paris to sign the NATO-Russia Founding Act. In the Founding Act's preamble, NATO and Russia stated that they no longer considered each other as adversaries. The Founding Act committed NATO and Russia to build together a lasting and inclusive peace in the Euro-Atlantic area, based on principles of democracy and cooperative security. NATO and Russia also agreed to consult and to cooperate on a range of issues of mutual concern. To carry out the activities and aims of the Founding Act, and to develop common approaches to European security, they established a NATO-Russia Permanent Joint Council in Brussels.

June 1997: G-8 Summit
President Yeltsin met with President Clinton on June 20, 1997. Clinton announced that Russia would be admitted to the Paris Club. Clinton urged Yeltsin to seek ratification of the START II Treaty and the Chemical Weapons Convention. After a meeting on June 21, the Presidents of the United States, Russia, and France agreed to stricter sanctions against Iraq unless UN inspectors were able to demonstrate that it was cooperating to eliminate its weapons of mass destruction.

The "Summit of the Eight" was the first Economic Summit in which Russia participated as an equal. Russian representatives attended every meeting, except one on financial goals, and President Yeltsin joined the other leaders in signing the communiqué.

May 1998: International Meeting on Indonesia and India
President Yeltsin joined with his G-8 counterparts in Birmingham, England, on May 15, 1998, to discuss the economic crisis in Indonesia and India's nuclear tests. He met with President Clinton at Weston Park on May 17. Clinton once more urged Yeltsin to seek ratification of the START II Treaty and proposed a summit meeting in Moscow for discussing further strategic arms reductions. He also expressed his hope that this meeting would serve as a positive alternative for would-be nuclear powers such as India and Pakistan. Yeltsin also reaffirmed his commitment to ending transfers of Russian missile technology to Iran.

September 1998: Moscow Summit
President Clinton visited Moscow on September 1-2, 1998, for a Summit Meeting. Clinton and President Yeltsin agreed to exchange information on missile launchings, and to remove 50 metric tons of plutonium from their countries' nuclear weapons stocks. A joint statement reaffirmed their commitments to promote nonproliferation of weapons of mass destruction. Other joint statements addressed implementing the Convention on the Prohibition of Biological Weapons, promotion of commerce and investment, promotion of technological cooperation, and cooperation between non-governmental organizations. A memorandum of understanding was signed concerning civil aviation safety and accident investigation. Both leaders called for peace in Kosovo, and condemned terrorism. Russia offered to host a G-8 conference on transnational crime in 1999.

November 1998: Launch of International Space Station
The joint international project to establish a manned space station began with the launch of the Russian-built control module on November 20, 1998. In the following months, the American space shuttle Discovery transported additional components into space.

June 1999: G-8 Summit
During the G-8 Economic Summit meeting in Cologne, Germany, in June 1999, Presidents Clinton and Yeltsin reaffirmed their commitment to nuclear arms reductions and to the ABM Treaty. They agreed to plan further arms reductions once Russia ratified START II and anticipated beginning discussions of START III and the ABM Treaty in the fall. President Clinton reaffirmed his support for economic aid to Russia. Russia received full authorization to participate in the Kosovo peacekeeping force. The G-8 leaders endorsed a Balkan Stability Pact to promote democratic and economic reforms in Southeastern Europe.

September & November 1999: Putin's First Dealings with the United States as Prime Minister
On September 12, 1999, President Clinton and Prime Minister Vladimir Putin met on the margins of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Summit at Auckland, New Zealand. They discussed issues relating to crime and corruption, the Russian economy, prospects for Russian ratification of START II, the 1972 ABM Treaty, and the situation in the North Caucasus. On November 2, Clinton and Putin met in Oslo, Norway, where they discussed the conflict in Chechnya, the CFE Treaty, and the ABM Treaty.

November 1999: Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe Meeting
At the start of the November 1999 Organization for Security Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) Summit Meeting in Istanbul, Turkey, President Clinton met with President Yeltsin to discuss arms control, Chechnya, and events in Europe. In his opening address to the Summit, Clinton said that the international community did not dispute Russia's right to defend its territorial integrity and to fight terrorism, but warned that seeking a military solution in Chechnya would only worsen the situation. He called for an OSCE role in seeking a political solution in Chechnya, and compared Western concerns for human rights in Chechnya to Western support for Russian democracy during the attempted coup in 1991.


June 2000: Moscow Summit
President Clinton visited Moscow for his first Summit meeting with newly-elected Russian President Vladimir Putin on June 3-5, 2000. The two Presidents signed a joint statement of principles on strategic stability. The joint statement also acknowledged that changes in the strategic environment might necessitate changes to the 1972 ABM Treaty and reaffirmed the commitment of both sides to pursue further reduction in offensive arms in parallel with discussions on defense systems. Experts in the two countries would develop a series of cooperative measures responding to the ballistic missile threat, and would continue discussions on the START III and ABM Treaties.

President Clinton congratulated Russia on its new President and new government. Clinton and Putin discussed the new government's plans for economic growth and reform, religious freedom, and climate change. Clinton restated his opposition to Russian policy in Chechnya and, on the problem of corruption, stressed the need for rule of law as the underpinning of Russian reform. The two Presidents agreed to establish a joint data exchange center in Moscow to share early warning information on missile and space launches. It would be the first permanent U.S.-Russian military operation ever, with Russian and U.S. military officials working side by side 24 hours a day. The two Presidents also agreed that each country would destroy 34 tons of military grade plutonium. Clinton also highlighted the importance of respect for press freedom and visited an independent Russian radio station for a call-in interview program.

June 2000: President Clinton Addresses Russian Parliament
On June 5, 2000, President Clinton delivered an address in the Russian State Duma before an audience of Russian parliamentarians.

July 2000: Clinton and Putin Meet at G-8 Summit
President Clinton discussed a range of political and security issues with President Putin in a meeting just prior to the beginning of the G-8 Summit at Okinawa, Japan, in July 2000. These issues included the recent Middle East peace initiative, the Iranian nuclear program, Chechnya, Slobodan Milosevic's regime in Belgrade, and the need to establish rule of law in Russia. They also signed a Joint Statement on Cooperation on Strategic Stability that identified specific areas and projects where the United States and Russia could cooperate to control the spread of missiles, missile technology, and weapons of mass destruction.

September 2000: Clinton and Putin Meeting at UN
President Clinton and President Putin met during the United Nations Millennium Summit, held on September 6-8, 2000. The Presidents discussed some issues where the United States and Russia differed greatly, including Milosevic, the general situation in the Balkans (including Kosovo), and the Persian Gulf. They also considered the posture the United States and Russia might take together in the United Nations vis-à-vis Saddam Hussein's defiance of the weapons inspection regime. Clinton and Putin signed a new document, the Joint Statement on the Strategic Stability Cooperation Initiative, on U.S.-Russian cooperation and the reinforcement of strategic stability. Clinton indicated his hope that when his time in office ended in January 2001, he would leave to his successor the foundation of a stronger U.S.-Russian relationship.

November 2000: First Crew on Manned International Space Station
A Russian Soyuz Rocket delivered the first permanent resident crew to the International Space Station on November 2, 2000. One American astronaut, Bill Shepherd, and two Russian cosmonauts, Sergei Krikalev and Yuri Gidzenko, remained in space until March 21.

November 2000: Clinton and Putin Meeting at APEC
On November 15, 2000, during the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) Summit in Brunei, President Clinton and President Putin met to address a range of security and non-security issues. They continued their discussion of strategic stability and arms control, nonproliferation concerns with a focus on Iran, regional security issues including the Middle East and North Korea, and Russia's ongoing transition and integration with international institutions. In remarks to the press, President Putin said that "President Clinton, during the term of his presidency, has caused a breakthrough in U.S.-Russian relations. And we expect this torch to be given to whoever will be the successor."

June 2001: First Meeting of Bush and Putin
President George W. Bush met President Putin in Slovenia in June 2001. The two discussed increased bilateral cooperation on economic, commercial, regional, and security issues. The Presidents discussed a future trade mission led by Secretary of the Treasury Paul O'Neill and Secretary of Commerce Donald Evans to improve economic circumstances in Russia.

July 2001: G-8 Summit
Presidents Bush and Putin met in Genoa, Italy, after participating in the G-8 summit in July 2001. In their meeting, the two discussed American plans to develop a missile defense system and agreed to talks on reducing strategic weapons. President Bush announced that National Security Advisor Condoleezza Rice would travel to Moscow to set up future negotiations on these issues. In addition to security issues, the two leaders also announced a Russian-American Business Dialogue initiative steered by the U.S.-Russia Business Council, American Chamber of Commerce, Russian-American Business Council, and the Russian Union of Industrialists and Entrepreneurs on behalf of the business communities of both countries.

November 2001: Putin's Visit to the United States
The American and Russian Presidents held 3 days of talks during President Putin's visit to the United States, November 12-15, 2001. The United States and Russia announced their intention to cooperate in fighting terrorism, rebuilding Afghanistan, and achieving lasting peace in the Middle East. President Bush indicated that Russian and American experts would cooperate to address the threats of bioterrorism, nuclear terrorism, and chemical weapons. The two countries pledged also to work closely to control organized crime and drug trafficking, in an effort to disrupt the work of terrorist networks. Bush and Putin offered their support for reconstructing an Afghanistan that was free of Taliban control.

January 2002: Mutual Legal Assistance Treaty
On January 31, 2002, Secretary of State Colin Powell and Russian Ambassador to the United States Yuriy Ushakov signed a Protocol of Exchange of Instruments of Ratification to bring into force a Mutual Legal Assistance Treaty between the United States and Russia. Chairman of the Russian Government, Mikhail Kasyanov, presided over this advance in the joint effort to fight crime and terrorism.

October 2002: Bilateral Talks in Shanghai
Presidents Bush and Putin met for bilateral discussions in October 2002, while in Shanghai for a gathering of the Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation forum. The two discussed a range of issues, including the value of strengthening the independent media in Russia, nonproliferation, the conflicts in Chechnya and Georgia, the anti-terrorist campaign, disarmament, and the ABM Treaty. Although the two still did not agree on the future of the ABM Treaty, they decided to continue discussions at their upcoming meetings in Washington and Crawford, Texas.

May 2002: President Bush's Visit to Moscow
Presidents Bush and Putin signed the Treaty of Moscow, a strategic offensive reduction treaty that significantly lowered the levels of operationally deployed warheads to between 1,700 and 2,200, in May 2002. They offered a joint condemnation of all terrorist attacks, and pledged their dedication to achieving a negotiated settlement to the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. The two Presidents worked to develop new ways to cooperate economically, especially in the energy sector. They also discussed Russia's efforts to join the World Trade Organization, and attempts to end the Jackson-Vanik amendment's application to U.S.-Russian trade. The two also discussed nuclear proliferation, specifically with respect to Iran.

May 2002: Creation of the NATO-Russia Council
During the Rome NATO Summit in May 2002, President Bush, the other NATO heads of state, and President Putin agreed to create a NATO-Russia Council that would focus on specific, well-defined projects, where NATO and Russia shared a common interest. Initial projects included work on nonproliferation, assessing the terrorist threat, defense reform, military cooperation, and civil emergencies.

June 2002: Meeting at G-8
Presidents Bush and Putin met bilaterally on the final day of the G-8 summit in Canada in June 2002. There they made a pledge to act as a united front against terrorism. President Bush described President Putin as a "strong ally in the war against terror."

October 2002: First U.S.-Russia Commercial Energy Summit
The United States and Russia held their first formal talks on global energy issues, in October 2002, in Houston. Secretary of Commerce Donald Evans, Secretary of Energy Spencer Abraham, Russian Minister of Economic Development and Trade German Gref, and Russian Minister of Energy Igor Yusufov co-chaired this summit, and more than 450 U.S. and Russian senior industry leaders and government officials participated in the event. During these meetings, industry and government officials agreed to identify barriers to trade and investment in the energy sector, discuss policies to improve the commercial climate, and explore opportunities for business partnerships.

November 2002: St. Petersburg Meeting
President Bush flew to St. Petersburg at the conclusion of a NATO summit in Prague to meet with President Putin in November, 2002. There Bush personally thanked Putin for his support on a recent UN resolution on Iraq. The two also discussed efforts against terrorism, NATO expansion, NATO-Russia cooperation, energy, technology, and strategic stability. The two Presidents issued a joint statement on the development of a U.S.-Russian Energy Dialogue. Their statement offered support for closer governmental ties on energy issues and for closer commercial cooperation in this area.

April 2003: Roadmap for Middle East Peace
The Roadmap for Peace, developed by the United States in cooperation with Russia, the European Union, and the United Nations (the Quartet), was presented to Israel and the Palestinian Authority on April 30, 2003.

May 2003: Russian-American Business Dialogue Report
A May 2003 report by the Russian American Business Dialogue cited progress by the two governments in areas such as the simplification of Russian currency controls, U.S. trade-law recognition of Russia as a market economy, and those positive steps taken in Russian small business tax reform. The report also outlined areas of continued concern, such as Russia's accession to the World Trade Organization on standard terms, its graduation from the Jackson-Vanik amendment, improvements in its protection of intellectual property, reform of the financial and judicial systems, and the reduction of bureaucratic barriers to business.

September 2003: Second U.S.-Russia Commercial Energy Summit
At the Second U.S.-Russia Commercial Energy Summit, held in St. Petersburg on September 22-23, 2003, participants explored new areas of cooperation, such as electric power, natural gas development, and alternative energy sources.

September 2003: U.S.-Russian Cooperation in Housing and Urban Development
On September 22, 2003, U.S. Secretary for Housing and Urban Development Mel Martinez and the Russian Chairman of the State Committee on Construction (Gosstroy), Nicolay Koshman, signed a memorandum of cooperation. The memorandum established the framework for future joint activities in housing and urban development, particularly affordable housing for lower income families and urban reinvestment strategies.

June 2004: First Russian Observation of the Open Skies Treaty
During the second week of June, 2004, the Russian Federation and the Republic of Belarus conducted their first Open Skies Treaty observation mission over the territory of the United States, accompanied by a U.S. escort team from the Defense Threat Reduction Agency.

February 2005: Bratislava Summit
Presidents Bush and Putin met in Bratislava in February 2005, and issued joint statements on the three main areas of discussion. These included nuclear security, the commitment to bilateral and multilateral negotiations necessary for Russia's accession to the World Trade Organization, and a renewed dedication to the U.S.-Russia Commercial Energy Dialogue. The Presidents also instructed their governments to enhance cooperation on counterterrorism, space cooperation, people-to-people exchange, and HIV/AIDS initiatives.

February 2005: Agreement on Control of Man-Portable Air Defense Systems
Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice and Russian Defense Minister Sergey Ivanov signed the U.S.-Russia Arrangement on Cooperation in Enhancing Control of Man-Portable Air Defense Systems in February 2005. This Arrangement provided a bilateral framework for cooperation in the control of shoulder-fired anti-aircraft missiles that could threaten global aviation if obtained by criminals, terrorists, or other non-state actors.

May 2005: President Bush Visit to Russia
During a tour of Europe, President Bush made a 2-day visit to Russia in May 2005.

July 2006: Announcement of Global Initiative to Combat Nuclear Terrorism
In July 2006, Presidents Bush and Putin announced a joint initiative to improve the security of nuclear facilities, suppress illicit nuclear trafficking, coordinate response to nuclear terrorist incidents, cooperate on the technical means of combating nuclear terrorism, and strengthen the prosecution of nuclear terrorists.

February 2007: Meeting of the Quartet on Middle East Roadmap
Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice hosted meeting of the Quartet on February 2, 2007, at the U.S. Department of State. The meeting of Quartet principals-Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice, United Nations Secretary General Ban Ki-moon, Russian Foreign Minister Sergei Lavrov, German Foreign Minister Frank-Walter Steinmeier, High Representative for European Foreign and Security Policy Javier Solana, and European Commissioner for External Relations Benita Ferrero-Waldner-discussed developments in the Middle East since their last meeting on September 20, 2006. They focused, specifically, on ways to energize international engagement in support of Israeli-Palestinian dialogue and progress in accordance with the Roadmap.

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