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Interwar Diplomacy

Disillusionment with the war, international commitments that could lead to war, and economic uncertainty discouraged ambitious U.S. involvement in global affairs during the interwar period. The United States, however, did not retreat into complete isolation as the necessities of commercial growth dictated continued government support for overseas private investment that drove both American engagement with Latin America and the rebuilding of Europe in the 1920s. The United States also played an important role in international negotiations to set arms limitations and create pacts that aimed at securing a lasting peace. By the mid-1920s, however, a general feeling of economic uncertainty reinforced isolationist tendencies and encouraged new legislation that placed severe limits on immigration to the United States, particularly from Asia. During the 1930s, the rise of fascism as a threat to international peace sparked concern in the United States, but the severe economic depression curtailed American willingness to act. In this environment, keeping the nation out of the brewing tension in Europe and Asia became an important foreign policy goal.

Key Issues and Events

  • Mandate System and the United States, 1920s
  • The Washington Naval Conference, 1921-1922
  • The Immigration Act of 1924
  • The Dawes Plan, the Young Plan, German Reparations, and Inter-allied War Debts
  • The Geneva Conference, 1927
  • The Kellogg-Briand Pact, 1928
  • The 1928 Red Line Agreement
  • The Great Depression and U.S. Foreign Policy
  • Protectionism in the Interwar Period
  • The London Conference, 1930
  • The Mukden Incident of 1931 and the Stimson Doctrine (1932)
  • The Good Neighbor Policy, 1933
  • Recognition of the Soviet Union, 1933
  • The Neutrality Acts, 1930s
  • New Deal Foreign Policy and Trade: the Ex-Im Bank (1934) & Reciprocal Trade Agreement

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