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 You are in: Under Secretary for Arms Control and International Security > Bureau of International Security and Nonproliferation (ISN) > Treaties & Agreements > Current Treaties and Agreements

Open Skies Treaty

Bureau of Verification, Compliance, and Implementation
Washington, DC

Preamble

The States concluding this Treaty, hereinafter referred to collectively as the States Parties or individually as a State Party,

Recalling the commitments they have made in the Conference on Security and Co-operation in Europe to promoting greater openness and transparency in their military activities and to enhancing security by means of confidence- and security-building measures,

Welcoming the historic events in Europe which have transformed the security situation from Vancouver to Vladivostok,

Wishing to contribute to the further development and strengthening of peace, stability and co-operative security in that area by the creation of an Open Skies regime for aerial observation,

Recognizing the potential contribution which an aerial observation regime of this type could make to security and stability in other regions as well,

Noting the possibility of employing such a regime to improve openness and transparency, to facilitate the monitoring of compliance with existing or future arms control agreements and to strengthen the capacity for conflict prevention and crisis management in the framework of the Conference on Security and Co-operation in Europe and in other relevant international institutions,

Envisaging the possible extension of the Open Skies regime into additional fields, such as the protection of the environment,

Seeking to establish agreed procedures to provide for aerial observation of all the territories of States Parties, with the intent of observing a single State Party or groups of States Parties, on the basis of equity and effectiveness while maintaining flight safety,

Noting that the operation of such an Open Skies regime will be without prejudice to States not participating in it,

Have agreed as follows:

ARTICLES

I.

General Provisions

II.

Definitions

III.

Quotas

IV.

Sensors

V.

Aircraft Designation

VI.

Choice of Observation Aircraft, General Provisions for the Conduct of Observation Flights, and Requirements for Mission Planning

VII.

Transit Flights

VIII.

Prohibitions, Deviations from Flight Plans and Emergency Situations

IX.

Sensor Output from Observation Flights

X.

Open Skies Consultative Commission

XI.

Notifications and Reports

XII.

Liability

XIII.

Designation of Personnel and Privileges and Immunities

XIV.

Benelux

XV.

Duration and Withdrawal

XVI.

Amendments and Periodic Review

XVII.

Depositaries, Entry into Force and Accession

XVIII.

Provisional Application and Phasing of Implementation of the Treaty

XIX.

Authentic Texts


ANNEXES 
ANNEX A Quotas and Maximum Flight Distances
ANNEX B Information on Sensors
APPENDIX 1
TO ANNEX B
Annotation of Data Collected During and Observation Flight
ANNEX C Information on Observation Aircraft
ANNEX D Certification of Observation Aircraft Sensors
APPENDIX 1
TO ANNEX D
Methodologies for the Verification of the Performance of Sensors Installed on an Observation Aircraft
ANNEX E Procedures for Arrivals and Departures
APPENDIX 1 TO ANNEX E Designation of Sites
ANNEX F Pre-Flight Inspections and Demonstration Flights
ANNEX G Flight Monitors, Flight Representatives, and Representatives
ANNEX H Co-ordination of Planned Observation Flights 
ANNEX I Information on Airspace and Flights in Hazardous Airspace
ANNEX J Montreux Convention
ANNEX K Information on Film Processors, Duplicators and Photographic Films, and Procedures for Monitoring the Processing of Photographic Film 
ANNEX L Open Skies Consultative Commission


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