Bureau of Nonproliferation
January 20, 2001
START I: Lisbon Protocol and The Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty
In signing the Lisbon Protocol in May 1992, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Russia, and Ukraine became parties to the 1991 Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START) as successors to the former USSR. Belarus, Kazakhstan, and Ukraine also committed themselves in that Protocol to adhere to the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) as non-nuclear-weapon states "in the shortest possible time."
The chronology below identifies the events leading to START entry into force on Dec. 5, 1994.
- The U.S. Senate gives its advice and consent to the ratification of START on Oct. 1, 1992.
- The Belarusian parliament approves the ratification of START on Feb. 4, 1993. Belarus formally accedes to the NPT as a non-nuclear-weapon state on July 22, 1993.
- The Kazakhstani parliament approves the ratification of START on July 2, 1992. Kazakhstan formally accedes to the NPT as a non-nuclear-weapon state on Feb. 14, 1994.
- The previous Russian Supreme Soviet approves the ratification of START on Nov. 4,1992, but with the condition that Russia will not exchange instruments of ratification until the other three Treaty Parties of the former USSR fulfill all of their Lisbon obligations, including accession to the NPT.
- The Ukrainian parliament's original resolution of START ratification on Nov. 18, 1993 contained unacceptable conditions that preclude START's entry into force. However, on Feb. 3, 1994, the Rada rescinds those conditions and authorizes the Government of Ukraine to exchange instruments of ratification.
- On Dec. 5, 1994, Ukraine accedes to the NPT as a non-nuclear weapon state, having received identical security assurances from the United States, Russia, and the United Kingdom.