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 You are in: Under Secretary for Arms Control and International Security > Bureau of International Security and Nonproliferation (ISN) > Releases > Fact Sheets > 2001
Fact Sheet
Bureau of Nonproliferation
Washington, DC
January 20, 2001

Australia Group Export Controls on Materials Used in the Manufacture of Chemical and Biological Weapons, Control List of Dual-Use Chemicals: Commercial and Military Application

Chemical

Commercial Use

Chemical Weapon

1. Thiodiglycol

plastics

Mustard Gas

2. Phosphorus Oxychloride

insecticides

NA**

3. Dimethyl Methylphosphonate

fire retardant

NA

4. Methyl Phosphonyl Difluoride

organic synthesis*

NA

5. Methyl Phosphonyl Dichloride

organic synthesis

NA

6. Dimethyl Phosphite

lubricant additive

NA

7. Phosphorus Trichloride

insecticides

NA

8. Trimethyl Phosphite

insecticides

NA

9. Thionyl Chloride

plastics/pesticide

Mustard Gas

10. 3-Hydroxy-1-methylpiperidine

pharmaceuticals

BZ***

11. N,N-Diisopropyl-(beta)-Aminoethyl Chloride

organic synthesis

NA

12. N,N-Diisopropyl-(beta)-Aminoethane Thiol

organic synthesis

NA

13. 3-Quinuclidinol

pharmaceuticals

BZ

14. Potassium Fluoride

cleaning agent

NA

15. 2-Chloroethanol

insecticides

Mustard Gas

16. Dimethylamine

detergents

NA

17. Diethyl Ethylphosphonate

gasoline additive

NA

18. Diethyl N,N-Dimethylosphoramidate

organic synthesis

NA

19. Diethyl Phosphite

paint solvent

NA

20. Dimethylamine Hydrochloride

pharmaceuticals

NA

21. Ethyl Phosphinyl Dichloride

organic synthesis

NA

22. Ethyl Phosphonyl Dichloride

organic synthesis

NA

23. Ethyl Phosphonyl Difluoride

organic synthesis

NA

24. Hydrogen Fluoride

fluorinating agent

NA

25. Methyl Benzilate

tranquilizers

BZ

26. Methyl Phosphinyl Dichloride

organic synthesis

NA

27. N,N-Diisopropyl-(beta)-Amino-Ethanol

organic synthesis

NA

28. Pinacolyl Alcohol

organic synthesis

NA

29. O-Ethyl 2-Diisopropylaminoethyl
Methylphosphonite

no identified use

NA

30. Triethyl Phosphite

plasticizers

NA

31. Arsenic Trichloride

ceramics

Lewisite

32. Benzilic Acid

organic synthesis

BZ

33. Diethyl Methylphosphonite

organic synthesis

NA

34. Dimethyl Ethylphosphonate

organic synthesis

NA

35. Ethyl Phosphinyl Difluoride

organic synthesis

NA

36. Methyl Phosphinyl Difluoride

organic synthesis

NA

37. 3-Quinuclidone

pharmaceuticals

BZ

38. Phosphorus Pentachloride

plastics

NA

39. Pinacolone

organic synthesis

NA

40. Potassium Cyanide

pesticide

NA

41. Potassium Bifluoride

ceramics

NA

42. Ammonium Bifluoride

fluorine production

NA

43. Sodium Bifluoride

disinfectant

NA

44. Sodium Fluoride

antiseptic

NA

45. Sodium Cyanide

dyes & pigments

NA

46. Tri-ethanolamine

cosmetics

Mustard Gas

47. Phosphorus Pentasulphide

pyrotechnics

NA

48. Di-isopropylamine

organic synthesis

NA

49. Diethylaminoethanol

textile softeners

NA

50. Sodium Sulphide

paper manufacturing

Mustard Gas

51. Sulphur Monochloride

pharmaceuticals

Mustard Gas

52. Sulphur Dichloride

insecticides

Mustard Gas

53. Triethanolamine Hydrochloride

toiletries

Mustard Gas

54. N,N-Diisopropyl-2-Aminoethyl Chloride
Hydrochloride

organic synthesis

VX

*Organic synthesis refers to the process of making other chemical compounds.
** NA - Nerve Agent
*** BZ - Incapacitating Agency

AUSTRALIA GROUP

CONTROL LIST
OF DUAL-USE CHEMICAL MANUFACTURING
FACILITIES AND EQUIPMENT, AND RELATED TECHNOLOGY

  1. MANUFACTURING FACILITIES AND EQUIPMENT

Note 1. The objective of these controls should not be defeated by the transfer of any non-controlled item containing one or more controlled components where the controlled component or components are the principal element of the item and can feasibly be removed or used for other purposes.

NB In judging whether the controlled component or components are to be considered the principal element, governments should weigh the factors of quantity, value, and technological know-how involved and other special circumstances which might establish the controlled component or components as the principal element of the item being procured.

Note 2. The objective of these controls should not be defeated by the transfer of a whole plant, on any scale, which has been designed to produce any CW agent or AG-controlled precursor chemical.

1. Reaction Vessels, Reactors or Agitators

Reaction vessels or reactors, with or without agitators, with total internal (geometric) volume greater than 0.1m3 (100 1) and less than 20m3 (20000 1), where all surfaces that come in direct contact with the chemical(s) being processed or contained are made from the following materials:

  1. nickel or alloys with more than 40% nickel by weight;
  2. alloys with more than 25% nickel and 20% chromium by weight;
  3. fluoropolymers;
  4. glass or glass-lined (including vitrified or enamelled coating);
  5. tantalum or tantalum alloys;
  6. titanium or titanium alloys; or 
  7. zirconium or zirconium alloys.

Agitators for use in the above-mentioned reaction vessels or reactors where all surfaces of the agitator that come in direct contact with the chemical(s) being processed or contained are made from the following materials:

  1. nickel or alloys with more than 40% nickel by weight;
  2. alloys with more than 25% nickel and 20% chromium by weight;
  3. fluoropolymers;
  4. glass or glass-lined (including vitrified or enamelled coating);
  5. tantalum or tantalum alloys;
  6. titanium or titanium alloys; or
  7. zirconium or zirconium alloys.

2. Storage Tanks, Containers or Receivers

Storage tanks, containers or receivers with a total internal (geometric) volume greater than 0.1m3(100 1) where all surfaces that come in direct contact with the chemical(s) being processed or contained are made from the following materials:

  1. nickel or alloys with more than 40% nickel by weight;
  2. alloys with more than 25% nickel and 20% chromium by weight;
  3. fluoropolymers;
  4. glass or glass-lined (including vitrified or enamelled coating);
  5. tantalum or tantalum alloys;
  6. titanium or titanium alloys; or
  7. zirconium or zirconium alloys.

3. Heat Exchangers or Condensers

Heat exchangers or condensers with a heat transfer surface area of less than 20m2, where all surfaces that come in direct contact with the chemical(s) being processed are made from the following materials:

  1. nickel or alloys with more than 40% nickel by weight;
  2. alloys with more than 25% nickel and 20% chromium by weight;
  3. fluoropolymers;
  4. glass or glass-lined (including vitrified or enamelled coating);
  5. graphite;
  6. tantalum or tantalum alloys;
  7. titanium or titanium alloys; or
  8. zirconium or zirconium alloys.

4. Distillation or Absorption Columns

Distillation or absorption columns or internal diameter greater than 0.1m; where all surfaces that come in direct contact with the chemical(s) being processed are made from the following materials:

  1. nickel or alloys with more than 40% nickel by weight;
  2. alloys with more than 25% nickel and 20% chromium by weight;
  3. fluoropolymers;
  4. glass or glass-lined (including vitrified or enamelled coating);
  5. graphite;
  6. tantalum or tantalum alloys;
  7. titanium or titanium alloys; or 
  8. zirconium or zirconium alloys.

5. Filling Equipment

Remotely operated filling equipment in which all surfaces that come in direct contact with the chemical(s) being processed are made from the following materials:

  1. nickel or alloys with more than 40% nickel by weight; or
  2. alloys with more than 25% nickel and 20% chromium by weight.

6. Valves

Multiple seal valves incorporating a leak detection port, bellows-seal valves, nonreturn (check) valves or diaphragm valves, in which all surfaces that come in direct contact with the chemical(s) being processed or contained are made from the following materials:

  1. nickel or alloys with more than 40% nickel by weight;
  2. alloys with more than 25% nickel and 20% chromium by weight;
  3. fluoropolymers;
  4. glass or glass-lined (including vitrified or enamelled coating);
  5. tantalum or tantalum alloys;
  6. titanium or titanium alloys; or
  7. zirconium or zirconium alloys.

7. Multi-Walled Piping

Multi-walled piping incorporating a leak detection port, in which all surfaces that come in direct contact with the chemical(s) being processed or contained are made from the following materials:

  1. nickel or alloys with more than 40% nickel by weight;
  2. alloys with more than 25% nickel and 20% chromium by weight;
  3. fluoropolymers;
  4. glass or glass-lined (including vitrified or enamelled coating);
  5. graphite;
  6. tantalum or tantalum alloys;
  7. titanium or titanium alloys; or
  8. zirconium or zirconium alloys.

8. Pumps

Multiple-seal, canned drive, magnetic drive, bellows or diaphragm pumps, with manufacturer's specified maximum flow-rate greater than 0.6m3/h, or vacuum pumps with the manufacturer's specified maximum flow-rate greater than 5m3/h (under standard temperature (0 oC) and pressure (101.30 kPa) conditions) in which all surfaces that come in direct contact with the chemical(s) being processed are made from the following materials:

  1. nickel or alloys with more than 40% nickel by weight;
  2. alloys with more than 25% nickel and 20% chromium by weight;
  3. fluoropolymers;
  4. glass or glass-lined (including vitrified or enamelled coating);
  5. graphite;
  6. tantalum or tantalum alloys;
  7. titanium or titanium alloys;
  8. zirconium or zirconium alloys;
  9. ceramics; or
  10. ferrosilicon.

9. Incinerators

Incinerators designed to destroy CW agents, AG-controlled precursors or chemical munitions, having specially designed waste supply systems, special handling facilities, and an average combustion chamber temperature greater than 1000 oC, in which all surfaces in the waste supply system that come into direct contact with the waste products are made from or lined with the following materials:

  1. nickel or alloys with more than 40% nickel by weight;
  2. alloys with more than 25% nickel and 20% chromium by weight; or
  3. ceramics.

Statement of Understanding

These controls do not apply to equipment which is specially designed for use in civil applications (for example food processing, pulp and paper processing, or water purification, etc.) and is, by the nature of its design, inappropriate for use in storing, processing, producing or conducting and controlling the flow of chemical warfare agents or any of the AG-controlled precursor chemicals.

II. TOXIC GAS MONITORING SYSTEMS AND DETECTORS

Toxic gas monitoring systems and dedicated detectors

  1. designed for continuous operation and usable for the detection of chemical warfare agents, AG-controlled precursors or organic compounds containing phosphorus, sulphur, fluorine or chlorine at concentrations of less than 0.3 mg/m3;
  2. designed for the detection of cholinesterase-inhibiting activity.

III. RELATED TECHNOLOGY

The transfer of 'technology', including licenses, directly associated with

  • CW agents;
  • AG-controlled precursors; or
  • AG-controlled dual-use equipment items,

to the extent permitted by national legislation.

Controls on 'technology' transfer do not apply to information 'in the public domain' or to 'basic scientific research'.

The approval for export of any AG-controlled item of dual-use equipment also authorizes the export to the same end-user of the minimum 'technology' required for the installation, operation, maintenance or repair of that item.

Definition of Terms

'Technology'

Specific information necessary for the 'development', 'production' or 'use' of a product. The information takes the form of 'technical data' or 'technical assistance'.

'Basic scientific research'

Experimental or theoretical work undertaken principally to acquire new knowledge of the fundamental principles of phenomena or observable facts, not primarily directed towards a specific practical aim or objective.

'Development'

'Development' is related to all phases before 'production' such as:

  • design
  • design research
  • design analysis
  • design concepts
  • assembly of prototypes
  • pilot production schemes
  • design data
  • process or transforming design data into a product
  • configuration design
  • integration design
  • layouts

'In the public domain'

'In the public domain', as it applies herein, means technology that has been made available without restrictions upon its further dissemination. (Copyright restrictions do not remove technology from being in the public domain).

'Production'

Production means all production phases such as:

  • construction
  • production engineering
  • manufacture
  • integration
  • assembly (mounting)
  • inspection
  • testing
  • quality assurance

'Technical Assistance'

May take forms such as: instruction, skills, training, working knowledge, consulting services.

N.B. 'Technical Assistance' may involve transfer of 'technical data'.

'Technical Data'

May take forms such as blueprints, plans, diagrams, models, formulae, tables, engineering designs and specifications, manuals and instructions written or recorded on other media or devices such as disk, tape, read-only memories.

'Use'

Operation, installation (including on-site installation), maintenance (checking), repair, overhaul or refurbishing.

AUSTRALIA GROUP

LIST OF DUAL-USE BIOLOGICAL EQUIPMENT
FOR EXPORT CONTROL

1. Complete containment facilities at P3, P4 containment level

Complete containment facilities that meet the criteria for P3 or P4 (BL3, BL4, L3, L4) containment as specified in the WHO Laboratory Biosafety manual (Geneva, 1983) are subject to export control.

2. Fermenters*

Fermenters capable of cultivation of pathogenic micro-organisms, viruses or for toxin production, without the propagation of aerosols, and having all the following characteristics:

  1. capacity equal to or greater than 100 litres;

*Sub-groups of fermenters include bioreactors, chemostats and continuous-flow systems.

3. Centrifugal Separators*

Centrifugal separators capable of the contiuous separation of pathogenic micro-organisms, without the propagation of aerosols, and having all the following characteristics:

  1. flow rate greater than 100 litres per hour;
  2. components of polished stainless steel or titanium;
  3. double or multiple sealing joints within the steam containment area;
  4. capable of in-situ steam sterilization in a closed state.

*Centrifugal separators include decanters.

4. Cross-flow Filtration Equipment

Cross-flow filtration equipment capable of continuous separation of pathogenic microorganisms, viruses, toxins and cell cultures without the propagation of aerosols, having all the following characteristics:

  1. equal to or greater than 5 square metres;
  2. capable of in-situ sterilization.

5. Freeze-drying Equipment

Steam sterilizable freeze-drying equipment with a condensor capacity greater than 50 kgs of ice in 24 hours and less than 1000 kgs of ice in 24 hours.

6. Equipment that incorporates or is contained in P3 or P4 (BL3, BL4, L3, L4) containment housing, as follows:

  1. Independently ventilated protective full or half suits;
  2. Class III biological safety cabinets or isolators with similar performance standards.

7. Aerosol inhalation chambers

Chambers designed for aerosol challenge testing with microorganisms, viruses or toxins and having a capacity of 1 cubic metre or greater.

The experts propose that the following item be included in awareness raising guidelines to industry:

1. Equipment for the micro-encapsulation of live micro-organisms and toxins in the range of 1-10 um particle size, specifically:

  1. Interfacial polycondensors;
  2. Phase separators.

2. Fermenters of less than 100 litre capacity with special emphasis on aggregate orders or designs for use in combined systems.

3. Conventional or turbulent air-flow clean-air rooms and self-contained fan-HEPA filter units that may be used for P3 or P4 (BL3, BL4, L3, L4) containment facilities.

AUSTRALIA GROUP

LIST OF BIOLOGICAL AGENTS FOR EXPORT
CONTROL CORE LIST1

Viruses

V1. Chikungunya virus
V2. Congo-Crimean haemorrhagic fever virus
V3. Dengue fever virus
V4. Eastern equine encephalitis virus
V5. Ebola virus
V6. Hantaan virus
V7. Junin virus
V8. Lassa fever virus
V9. Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus
V10. Machupo virus
V11. Marburg virus
V12. Monkey pox virus
V13. Rift Valley fever virus
V14. Tick-borne encephalitis virus (Russian Spring-Summer encephalitis virus)
V15. Variola virus
V16. Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus
V17. Western equine encephalitis virus
V18. White pox
V19. Yellow fever virus
V20. Japanese encephalitis virus

Rickettsiae

R1. Coxiella burnetii
R2. Bartonella Quintana (Rochalimea quintana, Rickettsia quintana)
R3. Rickettsia prowasecki
R4. Rickettsia rickettsii

Bacteria

B1. Bacillus anthracis
B2. Brucella abortus
B3. Brucella melitensis
B4. Brucella suis
B5. Chlamydia psittaci
B6. Clostridium Botulinum
B7. Francisella tularensis
B8. Burkholderia mallei (pseudomonas mallei)
B9. Burkholderia pseudomallei (pseudomonas pseudomallei)
B10. Salmonella typhi
B11. Shigella dysenteriae
B12. Vibrio cholerae
B13. Yersinia pestis

Genetically Modified Micro-organisms

G1. Genetically modified micro-organisms or genetic elements that contain nucleic acid sequences associated with pathogenicity and are derived from organisms in the core list.

G2. Genetically modified micro-organisms or genetic elements that contain nucleic acid sequences coding for any of the toxins in the core list, or their subunits.

Toxins as follow and subunits thereof:2

T1. Botulinum toxins
T2. Clostridium perfringens toxins
T3. Conotoxin
T4. Ricin
T5. Saxitoxin
T6. Shiga toxin
T7. Staphylococcus aureaus toxins
T8. Tetrodotoxin
T9. Verotoxin
T10. Microcystin (Cyanginosin)
T11. Alflatoxins

__________________

1. Except where the agent is in the form of a vaccine.
2. Excluding immunotoxins.

WARNING LIST1

Viruses

WV1. Kyasanur Forest virus
WV2. Louping ill virus
WV3. Murray Valley encephalitis virus
WV4. Omsk haemorrhagic fever virus
WV5. Oropouche virus
WV6. Powassan virus
WV7. Rocio virus
WV8. St. Louis encephalitis virus

Bacteria

WB1. Clostridium perfringens*
WB2. Clostridium tetani*
WB3. Enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli, serotype 0157 and other verotoxin producing serotypes
WB4. Legionella pneumophila
WB5. Yersinia pseudotuberculosis

Genetically Modified Micro-organisms

WG1. Genetically modified micro-organisms or genetic elements that contain nucleic acid sequences associated with pathogenicity and are derived from organisms in the warning list.

WG2. Genetically modified micro-organisms or genetic elements that contain nucleic acid sequences coding for any of the toxins in the warning list, or their subunits.

Toxins as follow and subunits thereof:2

WT1. Abrin
WT2. Cholera toxin
WT3. Tetanus toxin
WT4. Trichothecene mycotoxins
WT5. Modeccin
WT6. Volkensin
WT7. Viscum Album Lectin 1 (Viscumin)

__________________

*The Australia Group recognizes that these organisms are ubiquitous, but, as they have been acquired in the past as part of biological weapons programs, they are worthy of special caution.

1. Except where the agent is in the form of a vaccine.

2. Excluding immunotoxins.

AUSTRALIA GROUP

LIST OF ANIMAL PATHOGENS FOR EXPORT CONTROL1

Viruses

AV1. African swine fever virus
AV2. Avian influenza virus2
AV3. Bluetongue virus
AV4. Foot and mouth disease virus
AV5. Goat pox virus
AV6. Herpes virus (Aujeszky's disease)
AV7. Hog cholera virus (synonym: Swine fever virus)
AV8. Lyssa virus
AV9. Newcastle disease virus
AV10. Peste des petits ruminants virus
AV11. Porcine enterovirus type 9 (synonym: swine vesicular disease virus)
AV12. Rinderpest virus
AV13. Sheep pox virus
AV14. Teschen disease virus
AV15. Vesicular stomatitis virus

_____________________

1. Except where the agent is in the form of a vaccine.

2. This includes only those Avian influenza viruses of high pathogenicity as defined in EC Directive 92/401EC:

"Type A viruses with an IVPI (intravenous pathogenicity index) in 6 week old chickens of greater than 1.2, or

Type A viruses HS or H7 subtype for which nucleotide sequencing has demonstrated multiple basic amino acids at the cleavage site of haemegglutinin."

Bacteria

AB3. Mycoplasma mycoides

Genetically-modified Micro-organisms

AG1. Genetically modified micro-organisms or genetic elements that contain nucleic acid sequences associated with pathogenicity and are derived from organisms in the list.

 

AUSTRALIA GROUP

CONTROL LIST OF PLANT PATHOGENS FOR EXPORT CONTROL

CORE LIST

Bacteria

PB1. Xanthomonas albilineans
PB2. Xanthomonas campestris pv. citri

Fungi

PF1. Colletotrichum coffeanum var. virulans (Colletotrichum Kanawae)
PF2. Cochliobolus miyabeanus (Helminthosporium oryzae)
PF3. Microcyclus ulei (syn. Dothidella ulei)
PF4. Puccinia graminis (syn. Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici)
PF5. Puccinia striiformis (syn. Pucciniaglumarum)
PF6. Pyricularia grisea/Pyricularia oryzae

Genetically-modified Micro-organisms

PG1. Genetically-modified micro-organisms or genetic elements that contain nucleic acid sequences associated with pathogenicity derived from the plant pathogens identified on the export control list.

ITEMS FOR INCLUSION IN AWARENESS RAISING GUIDELINES

Bacteria

PWB1. Xanthomonas campestris pv. oryzae
PWB2. Xylella fastidiosa

Fungi

PWF1. Deuterophoma tracheiphila (syn. Phoma tracheiphila)
PWF2. Monilia rorei (syn. Moniliophthora rorei)

Viruses

PWV1 Banana bunchy top virus

Genetically-modified Micro-organisms

PWG1 Genetically-modified micro-organisms or genetic elements that contain nucleic acid sequences associated with pathogenicity derived from the plant pathogens identified on the awareness raising list.  



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